A Commentary on the Hadīth of Women’s Intelligence

A Commentary on the Hadīth of Women’s Intelligence

By Iman Badawi

 

The Messenger of God (peace and blessing be upon him) was no ordinary man.  His words were no ordinary words.  Even as the Quran is inimitable in both Word and Meaning, the Prophetic Speech carries miraculous elements of it’s own.  A miracle is an occurrence that is a break from observable convention, sent as a Divine Sign, to substantiate the truthfulness of the one for whom God wills to send it.

 

As there is, in the Word of God, a Divinely Transcendent element, so there is, in the words of the Perfect Man, a humanly transcendent element.

 

Abu Sa`id al-Khudri relates [1] (may Allah be pleased with him):

Allah’s Messenger went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) of ‘Eid . Then he passed by the women and said, “O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the you are the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire.”

They asked, “Why is it so, O Messenger of Allah?” He replied, “You curse frequently and deny the reminiscent good.”

He said, “I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you.”

The women asked, “O Allah’s Messenger, what is deficient in our intelligence and religion?”

He said, “Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?” They replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her intelligence.”

He said, “Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.”

 

 

In Relation to the General Principles of Islam

 

There is no evidence in any of the Sources of the Sacred Law to substantiate a disparaging view of women. It is highly suspect to interpret this report in any way that contravenes the definitively established principle of the honoring of women in Islam. Rather, the sound methodology of interpreting revelatory texts is to understand those that are unclear, implicit, indirect, or singular in accordance to those that are clear, explicit, direct, and repeatedly confirmed.

 

The Quranic Guidance on the rightful authority within the home and State is, in no way, a contradiction of this principle.  The assigning of authority is not to be conflated with the essential quality of a thing and its due importance.

 

 

In the Context of Textual Interpretation

 

Every scholar must know their audience and objective.

 

The refuting of deviant interpretations, from those within and without, albeit an important task, is not a prerequisite of Faith for the Muslim laity and never should it be.

 

The proper approach of the layman to the revelatory texts is what I have coined as the “Siddiq principle” [2]   that is, an unconditional belief in whatever the Prophet said and taught, upon the establishment of correct attribution.  It was with this attitude that the Companions gave ear to the Prophetic Guidance and with this mind that they posed inquiries.

 

Here, then, comes the role of the scholar – as an inheritor of the Prophet – to input the correct interpretation, with mind to a receptive audience, not a belligerent interlocutor (peace and blessings be upon him).

 

Ibn Hajar alone can be said to have derived over 18 points of benefit from this Hadīth.  How many articles are found on the internet translating and expounding these points? — zero. How many articles can be found giving a cursory look into the Hadith from a mainly defensive angle? — many.

 

The substantive writings of the previous generations of Islamic Scholarship, in justification of their stances, bear little resemblance to the apologetics of today. They built upon an encompassing and solidified Knowledge of the Traditional Sciences, such that even through their engagement with the prevalent epistemological innovations of their time, they produced new contributions to the field. How could the attempts by modern Muslims Intellectuals, better trained in the disciplines they seek to refute, be of any comparison.

 

Those confused souls in whose heart the Messenger of God is accused are not the reference point for understanding the Revelation, let alone those who falsely accuse God, Himself. Likewise, a woman – just because she is so – is not automatically more versed in the Sunnah than the Classical Hadith Commentators. Political or social leanings must not detract from the authority and respect due to Traditional Islamic Scholarship.

 

If the scholars of today continue to employ defensive rhetoric in explaining revelatory texts to the laity, they will only reinforce the latent accusations insidiously planted in their minds. It is critically important to proactively model and teach the correct attitude, first.

 

Yes, Muslim Scholarship has, and should, respond to its detractors. That, versus reducing Scholarly Teaching to the juvenile dictates of social media or the pompous discourse of Academia or the sophistry of the Atheists, is a different matter altogether.

 

 

Womens’s Intellect

 

This Hadith is often misunderstood to represent a comparative contrast between the intellect of women and men.  In fact, the intended comparison is internal to the nature of women, themselves. All human beings are formed of different components and capacities. The meaning would thus be that the rational component in women is comparatively less than their emotional component. This interpretation is in line with the established principles of Islam as well as what is known about the natural disposition of women.

 

 

In the Context of Female Perfection 

 

The perfection of all things lies in their reaching the potential of their Divinely-inspired primordial nature (fitra). A bee that spins silk or a worm that produces honey is not an optimum — it is an aberration.  Thus, the preponderance of the female emotional capacity over her rational capacity is an aspect of her human nature, not a deficiency in the least.  This superior emotional capacity is an integral part of her femininity, the loss of which would be the deficiency.  It is this element that, in fact, distinguishes her from men, in her soul.  It is a characteristic that is beautiful and valuable in the sight of those of sound intellect and refined taste.

 

It is only when humans are reduced to their animalistic component that the nature of men and women becomes defined by anatomy alone. It is no wonder, then, how easily the magic of hedonism can produce the illusion of changing the human soul by changing the outer form. What God created as a female soul will remain so. What God created as a male soul will remain so.  Yet we wonder, still, why so much of our world is suffering from mental illness?  The human soul – despite compounded layers of deceit – will forever sense a breach of its sanctity. [3]

 

 

In the Context of Male Perfection

 

Among the signs of Divine Oneness (Tawhid) is the creation of all things in pairs [4]. This dual facet in Creation serves as a reminder of the Transcendent Distinctness of the Creator, Who is One, Without Partner.

 

The innate nature of men is the mirror image of that of women.   In direct contradistinction, the male rational  component outweighs his emotional component. This symmetry of created pairs indicates to their interdependence and thriving on complementary roles.  Further, it points to the danger of pitting the male and female components against each other — both internally and externally.  Such is a tug-of-war that can only lead to the rope’s snapping.

 

At its peak, this reality also displays – in Beatific Majesty – the Uniqueness of Divine Unity and Self-Sustenance.

 

 

In the Holistic Human Context

 

The question may arise as to why — in the Islamic Tradition and others — that the characteristics of strength, determination and courage are often associated with men, while characteristics of mercy, gentleness, and self-sacrifice are associated with women.  This Hadith offers great insight into the answer.

 

The rational capacity of the human being is the component that represents outer strength, a power that manifests to others and by which people exercise sound thinking, agency, and strong will.

 

The emotional capacity of the human being, on the other hand, is the component that represents inner strength, a power that is hidden.  It cannot be said that it’s concealed nature makes it weaker, any more than we could dare to say that Allah’s Magnificent Attributes of being adh-Dhahir (the Outwardly Manifest) and al-Batin (the Inwardly Manifest) are of such comparison.

 

From this, we understand that the association of certain qualities to a particular gender rests in their preponderance in the nature of men and women and in no way precludes their existence in both.

 

Rather, it is because they are human strengths – not specific to one gender – that their duality reinforces the holistic understanding of what it means to be human. Neither one, in absence of the other, is praiseworthy.

 

Also to note, is that these are general realities within which there is observable variation. The exact composite of strengths and capacities within every man and woman is a distinct aspect of their creation.

 

 

Bringing Balance to the Force 

 

The male-female human counterbalance is like a glue that binds creation.

 

Men appreciate in women their emotional capacity, in that it gives life to their own, thereby bringing about balance.  Women appreciate in men their rational capacity as it supports their own, thereby causing their counter-capacities to achieve balance.

 

This reality also speaks to the centrality of the social drive in human beings.  The need for connection, whether it be to the Divine or to loving human relationships, is merely an extension of the desire to become whole. Optimally, this process of drawing upon the counterbalance to achieve wholeness occurs in all nurturing relationships —parent and child, husband and wife, teacher and student, friend and friend.

 

The symmetric preponderance of male and female components also leads to an understanding of the different struggles men and women face in becoming spiritually polished.

 

Men, when consumed entirely by the rational, can become very harsh, cold, and materialistically-focused. Thus, the process of male perfection lies in fostering their emotional side.  The spirituality of a man has much to do with harnessing the emotional against his rational. This brings balance. Practically, the extent to which he shows love, care, and decency with the women in his life — of his kin and otherwise — is an indicator of his spiritual polishing.  The female characteristics of humility, mercy, gentleness, and self-sacrifice that the ignorant consider to be inferior to their male counterparts, are the very means by which men became true men.

 

Women, when consumed entirely by the emotional, can be rash, verbally abusive, impractical, and blinded from seeing the good done to them by others. Thus, the process of female perfection lies in modulating her emotional flow through the rational.  The spirituality of a woman has much to do with employing the male power — of strong will — in achieving mastery over her emotional self. A true women, not dominated by her “weakness”, is a master equestrian, in full control of the reigns.

 

Thus, the true element in human perfection lies not in being male or female, but in achieving balance between our innate human capacities and harnessing them in their proper outlet.  Neither an androcentric nor a gynocentric view of the world will yield the optimum.  Rather, a God-centric view of ourselves and the world around us is what will lead to the triumph of the human soul.

 

This balance, when achieved without pretense, and Guided by Divine Light, in spite of its incomplete nature, is the signature of human perfection.

 

 

In the Context of Comparing Men and Women

 

It is critical to note that highlighting the preponderance of the female emotional component does not, in any way, detract from her rational capacity in comparison to men.  It may be that a woman – even with her preponderant emotive power – exceeds the intellect of millions of men – even as their rational side preponderates.

 

The most cogent example of this is our Lady Aisha (Allah be well pleased with her), whose intellect undisputedly rivals that of the majority of creation – male and female. In reverse, her brilliant mind did not detract from her emotional capacity.  She became jealous.  She was sometimes reactionary.  She would indicate to her husband – our beloved Prophet – her displeasure by calling upon the “Lord of Ibrahim”. He loved her for this, not in spite of it.

 

Likewise, the pharaonic fallout of a male soul gone awry will be met with the discipline and humiliation of a Queen, Our Lady Asiya (Allah be well pleased with her). He could not break her.  Allah broke Him.

 

Balance is not a mathematical nor materialistic proposition.  It is the rectitude resultant from being deeply in touch with one’s self and one’s Lord, through sincere and persistent devotion.  Only then, will the soul come to know Him and embark on the journey of elevation.

 

 

Gender, Community and Divine Unity

 

The Highest Foundation of Islam is Divine Oneness, Tawhid.  This creedal cornerstone permeates through every aspect of Islam’s inward and outward dimensions.

 

The optimum state of all things is in their mirroring of the Divine Imperative.  Thus, unity is a central aspect of human perfection.

 

The achieving of balance between the human capacities represents the inner unity of the individual. So does this unity outwardly manifest in the group. 

 

The importance of the collective is highly prevalent in Islamic cultures, in specific, and most Eastern cultures, in general.  This collective, then, inspires unified diversification. Islam draws for us a holistic conception, based on both individual and collective rights.

 

The latter are sometimes referred to as the “Rights of God”, due to their returning to a meaning which is shared by all. It follows, that the breach of such collective rights, due to the pervasiveness of their reach, is of even greater consequence.

 

The individual struggle of every human being, in doing their part to achieve internal balance, does have direct bearing on others. A conception of “freedom” that denies the interconnectedness of our collective moral course as a species is a destructive one. The Sacred Law is elevated above this conception, for it is — not a limited human view of individual rights — but, rather, a holistic Divine prescription for the triumph of all humanity, at all times.

 

Thus, it is imperative to recognize that the honoring of women and according them due status is a human reality, not a human-ism, and thus cannot be properly claimed by anyone except its Creator.  Truth is to be realized, not weaponized. So, beware, O believers, of the one-eyed.

 

 

The Magnificence of the Messenger of God

 

God granted His Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) succinctly comprehensive eloquence [5]. This is a Divine Secret in the Prophetic Speech for which eternity would not suffice to unravel. The report at hand weaves together the themes of  Tawhid, Unity, Balance and Faith with uncanny coherence.

 

 

    1. Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri relates : Allah’s Messenger went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) of Eid [6] Then he passed by the women and said,

 

 

The occurrence of this report converged upon two important events — the Day of Eid and the Farewell Sermon.  Each of these time contexts signifies Tawhid.  The Day of Eīd is a day of recognizing God’s Favor.  The Day of the Farewell Pilgrimage – a sign of the impending death of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) — signifies the continuation of his Mission by the Ummah, for the sake of the One Who never dies.  Additionally, both the Ka’bah and the Hajj are associated with Ibrahim, the Hanif, meaning the one who leans away from all association of partners with God, the upholder of Pure Monotheism, the father of the Prophets.

 

In the context of the Farewell Pilgrimage, we may also draw upon an important contextual clue. In this monumental Prophetic Address, on the Holiest day of the year, the Day of ‘Arafah, the Prophet directly addressed men, exhorting them to uphold good conduct with their women, saying : [7]

 

“Be conscious of God in your dealings with women, for you have taken them by the Divine Trust…I have left with you a thing, if you adhere to it, never will you go astray — the Book of Allah.”

 

“You will be asked about me, so what will be your reply?” They said, “We testify that you have conveyed, and fulfilled, and given true counsel.”

 

Then he said, while raising his finger to the heavens and pointing it to the people, “O God, I call upon you to bear witness. O God, I call upon you to bear witness.”

 

It was not until the next day that the Prophet addressed the women. This yields further supportive evidence that the admonition in these reports, on matters related to male-female relationships, was intended for the rectification of the community as a whole.

 

2. O women! Give alms, as I have seen that you are the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire.”

 

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) gathered the womenfolk to solicit donations for an upcoming military campaign. In this way, the women would participate in the communal obligation of Jihad. This indicates to the Prophet’s keenness to encourage women to contribute to the Mission in their own way. The Early Muslim Community was immensely cohesive.  One Mission. One Leader. One Sunnah. Unity.

 

It has also been reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had intended to set aside times solely for the instruction of women. Commentators say that this was one such occurrence. [8] Thus, this report shows the Prophet’s keenness for women to receive religious education and to be afforded opportunities for deeper inquiry. If women were of  “deficient intellect”, why bother?

 

Our Lady Aisha, who instructed droves of male Companions, is reported to have persistently inquired about any matter of religion that she did not understand [9].  This was among the ways that she achieved erudition in religious scholarship.

 

 

  • …as I have seen that you are the majority of the dwellers of the Hell-Fire. They asked, “Why is it so, O Messenger of Allah? He replied, “You curse frequently and deny the reminiscent good”

 

Commentators state [10] that the “denial of the reminiscent good” is a reference to a woman’s rejection of her husband’s consistent favors provoked by emotional rashness upon seeing one disliked thing. This impulse, he duly noted, also often leads to women cursing their husbands.

 

The Prophet admonished women for this behavior because he wanted our families to be unified.

 

The use of hyperbole in admonition [11] in stating that “women make up the majority of the inhabitants of Hell” should not detract from the main objective.  Again, belief is our reference point. If we were to reject all that we know about the Prophet’s truthful conveyance from God and his exemplary character based on a mere idea, suggested by the ignorant, would we not fall under the very category of those who “deny the reminiscent good” that he, himself, warned us against?

 

Further, it can be easily argued that the Hadith bears no indication of ingratitude being inherently associated with women. Any decent human being recognizes that the denial of favors is a deplorable act, in any context.  However, in a context with such far-reaching ramifications as family, there is apt cause for the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to exert extra emphasis as a deterrent.

 

Additionally, the Prophet’s religious instruction (peace and blessings be upon him) to the women was not always in the form of admonition.  Rather, he also gave them glad-tidings. [12]

 

To the doubters we say : These words are ambiguous.  The “majority” in relation to whom? The men of all time or people of all time? The people of that time or all times? In another report, the Prophet informs that of the Signs of the Hour is that the ratio of men to women would be 1 to 50 [13]. Now, we forget statistical analysis?

 

Likewise, what is your underlying premise? Are you claiming that God must judge humanity in such a way that derives a 50-50 distribution of the inhabitants of Hell? — a ridiculous assertion beyond warranting refutation.  Or do you claim that God is unjust to his servants? Well, then. 

 

There is a universe of difference between the superimposing of human failures on the Divine versus beholding Divine Perfection in humanity.  One worships God. The other plays God.

 

 

3. “I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you. The women asked, “O Allah’s Messenger, what is deficient in our intelligence and religion?” He said, “Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?” They replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.”

 

 

This was said by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) with a light tone as an indirect reference to the femininity of women. In his insight, humility and beautiful character, the Prophet balanced addressing the female rational capacity – in its receptiveness to the Prophetic admonition – with addressing the female emotional capacity through playful jest.

 

Proof that his words were not intended seriously? The matter of “decreased” religious responsibility has absolutely nothing to do with women, nor their base nature.  A man, for example, while traveling or sick or unconscious or under duress, is of “reduced” legal responsibility. This is a relative matter which has no essential bearing on either men or women. [14]

 

Nor do the rulings related to court testimony have any such bearing, as there are cases in which only the testimony of women suffices. Thus, the Prophet’s intent (peace and blessings be upon him) was clearly not literal, but entailed much more.

 

Subsequently, a “woman of excellent character” [15] asked a question.  The ensuing conversation between her and the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is pregnant with meaning.

 

First,  the inquiry of the Female Companions unveils a profound reality within them (may Allah be please with them all). They were so entirely engrossed in their quest to please God, evident by their desire to understand what must be avoided to deflect the Divine Wrath, that they were completely distracted from the allusion to their feminine beauty.

 

Had they responded with raw emotion (as many do today), their attention would be drawn away from the objective. Instead, their faith intelligence led them to direct their emotional strength accordingly. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was speaking to them about their inner beauty and they reflected it right back to him through their undying devotion.

 

His consequent statement, “I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you” — if we have gained any understanding thus far — was actually meant in praise and admiration.

 

Second, the Prophet’s response brilliantly teaches us the practical application of his words. [16] (peace and blessings be upon him)

 

He did not tell her that she didn’t understand.  He dealt with her in a gentle, respectful manner.

 

“Be gentle with the crystals”, he said in another narration [17], a metaphor further clarifying the nature of women and how they should be dealt with.  The emotive component of a woman makes her transparent.  Like glass, her inner shines through.  As for the indication to delicate beauty and fragility, it is more than obvious.

 

Further, the theme of beautiful transparency is highlighted in another report [18]. In describing the Women of Paradise, their skin is described as being sheer. Another report completes the imagery, “if one of them were to look upon the world, her beauty would enlighten what is between the heavens and the earth, and fill them with the smell of musk. Her head veil is of greater value than the entire world and all that it contains” [19]

 

Would you, O men, wish to treat women so harshly that they grow a “thick skin”? Abhorrent character in men rears reptiles, not women.

 

What the Prophet did do, was exhibit inexplicable modesty (haya’) (peace and blessings be upon him). His answer was meant as a diversion from the underlying meaning in his allusion and as a practical directive.

 

The correlation between the hidden nature of feminine strength and the command to veil herself, set by the Sacred Law, is of no coincidence. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) answered her in such a way that was in keeping with her modesty. This meaning is alluded to in other reports. [20]

 

So, when he was compelled to veil the inner reality of his words, he did so with the “veil” of the Sacred Law. Have we begun to gain some semblance of the Prophetic Genius?

 

Within the Messenger of God converged the meanings of potent power and strength with those of iron integrity and rectitude.  A true man, in every sense of the word.  Such is the secret of the Prophetic Heart. Allah’s infinite peace and blessings be upon him and his folk.

 

He was their Sun, and they – the Companions – his rainbow; a refraction of his complete light into all its dazzling colors. May Allah be ever pleased with them and reward them all on our behalf.

 

Islam guides to the most refined way of thinking and being.  So it is that a staple feature of the revelatory address is to exhibit modesty in matters related to women through the use of figurative or indirect language. This sublime sophistication of subtlety in the revelatory texts is almost extinct in the literary style of today.

 

Lastly, the Prophet’s words contain a gentle, implicit hint to women, that they can be only one of two :

Either an agent for good in the community and a balancing element in the lives of men, or an agent for evil and a volatile element for all. He was just so decent that he could not say it directly (peace and blessings be upon him).

 

Do reflect on the fact that one cannot truly be a devout Muslim without being a decent human being.

 

The task of the Classical Commentators is to expound on both the direct and indirect indications within the reports through linguistic and cross-textual examination. However, when the objective is to derive a comprehensive understanding of the Character of the Messenger of God (peace and blessings be upon him), it is indeed a matter so great, that even with deep study, perhaps only the imagination might reach [21]. What a massive amount did the predecessors leave for the later generations to unearth. We have much to learn about how to live Islam in our times.

 

 

Timeless Faith

 

In conclusion, dear Brethren in Faith, note that belief is also based on the harnessing of the dual human capacities of heart and mind.

 

Their parable, in relation to faith, is that of a true love between a man and a woman.

 

When he loves her, it will abound in such a way that will restrict his rational capacity. Is this not the way we love and submit to our Lord?

 

When she loves him, she looks to him to create a fortress of provision, protection, and care around her. Is this not what we desire from our Lord?

 

The Sunnah is that love story.

 

Reading the Sunnah with a critical, skeptical mind — wrought with the weeds of modern doubt — will not bring about a happy ending.

 

Read the Sunnah with your heart.  Defend it with your mind.

 

About the Author

 

Iman Badawi is an American-Muslim female scholar of Egyptian decent. During her undergraduate years, she founded and became the first president of her university’s Muslim Student Association. Upon making the decision to pursue Sacred Knowledge and starting a family, she left her medical career to focus on studying, teaching, and rearing her children.

 

She has studied in the US, Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. She holds an ijazah (license) in the recitation of the Quran. She has studied Arabic, Poetry, Tajwid, Aqidah, Quranic & Hadith Studies, Tasawwuf, Shafi’i Fiqh and Usul. She specializes in Hanafi Fiqh & Usul, but also has deep interest in Hadith Studies and Quranic Exegesis. She continues to pursue more advanced studies.

 

She has experience teaching adults, youth, and children for over 15 years.  She is the founder of Halaqat-un-Nur (the Circle of Light), a study circle and community service initiative for women.

 

She has spoken internationally at several Islamic conferences and college campuses. She has also been an advisor to textbook publishers on the sections related to Islam and Muslims.

 

She currently resides in Chicago with her three children.

 

 

Notes

 

 

[ 1 ]

رواه البخاري في  كِتَابٌ : الْحَيْضُ – بَابُ تَرْكِ الْحَائِضِ الصَّوْمَ. من  حديث أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ، قَالَ : خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي أَضْحًى أَوْ فِطْرٍ إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى، فَمَرَّ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ، فَقَالَ : ” يَا مَعْشَرَ النِّسَاءِ، تَصَدَّقْنَ ؛ فَإِنِّي أُرِيتُكُنَّ أَكْثَرَ أَهْلِ النَّارِ “. فَقُلْنَ : وَبِمَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ؟ قَالَ : ” تُكْثِرْنَ اللَّعْنَ، وَتَكْفُرْنَ الْعَشِيرَ ، مَا رَأَيْتُ مِنْ نَاقِصَاتِ عَقْلٍ وَدِينٍ أَذْهَبَ لِلُبِّ الرَّجُلِ الْحَازِمِ مِنْ إِحْدَاكُنَّ “. قُلْنَ : وَمَا نُقْصَانُ دِينِنَا وَعَقْلِنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ؟ قَالَ : ” أَلَيْسَ شَهَادَةُ الْمَرْأَةِ مِثْلَ نِصْفِ شَهَادَةِ الرَّجُلِ ؟ “. قُلْنَ : بَلَى. قَالَ : ” فَذَلِكِ مِنْ نُقْصَانِ عَقْلِهَا، أَلَيْسَ إِذَا حَاضَتْ لَمْ تُصَلِّ، وَلَمْ تَصُمْ ؟ ” قُلْنَ : بَلَى. قَالَ : ” فَذَلِكِ مِنْ نُقْصَانِ دِينِهَا “

اختصره المؤلف هنا، وقد ساقه في كتاب الزكاة تاما. وقد تقدم في كتاب العلم من وجه آخر عن أبي سعيد أنه كان وعد النساء بأن يفردهن بالموعظة فأنجزه ذلك اليوم، وفيه أنه وعظهن وبشرهن.

[ 2 ]

On the occasion of the Night Journey and Ascension, when the Quraysh thought it preposterous that the Prophet could have travelled from Mecca to Jerusalem in one night – let alone to the highest heavens – they approached Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) with the news hoping to dissuade him from faith.  In response to their incredulity he said, “By Allah, if he did say it, then he is truthful….Indeed, I believe in what is greater than that. I believe him regarding the revelation…”

فعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: لما أسري بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى المسجد الأقصى؛ أصبح يتحدث الناس بذلك؛ فارتدَّ ناس ممن كان آمنوا به وصدقوه، وسعى رجال من المشركين إلى أبي بكر رضي الله عنه، فقالوا: هل لك إلى صاحبك يزعم أنه أُسري به الليلة إلى بيت المقدس؟ قال: أو قال ذلك؟ قالوا: نعم قال: لئن قال ذلك لقد صدق، قالوا: أو تصدقه أنَّه ذهب الليلة إلى بيت المقدس، وجاء قبل أن يصبح؟ فقال: نعم، إني لأصدقه ما هو أبعد من ذلك، أصدقه في خبر السماء في غدوة أو روحة. فلذلك سُمِّي أبا بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه. رواه الحاكم وعبد الرزاق في (المصنف)

[ 3 ]

فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا ۚ فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا ۚ لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

So direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth. [Adhere to] the fitrah of Allah upon which He has created [all] people. No change should there be in the creation of Allah. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know. (Quran 30:30)

[ 4 ]

وَخَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا    And We created you in pairs (Quran 78:8)

[ 5]

صحيح البخاري – كِتَابُ التَّعْبِيرِ – بَابُ الْمَفَاتِيحِ فِي الْيَدِ – حديث أبي هريرة قَالَ : سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ : ” بُعِثْتُ بِجَوَامِعِ الْكَلِمِ، وَنُصِرْتُ بِالرُّعْبِ، وَبَيْنَا أَنَا نَائِمٌ أُتِيتُ بِمَفَاتِيحِ خَزَائِنِ الْأَرْضِ، فَوُضِعَتْ فِي يَدِي “. قَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ : وَبَلَغَنِي أَنَّ جَوَامِعَ الْكَلِمِ، أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَجْمَعُ الْأُمُورَ الْكَثِيرَةَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تُكْتَبُ فِي الْكُتُبِ قَبْلَهُ فِي الْأَمْرِ الْوَاحِدِ وَالْأَمْرَيْنِ أَوْ نَحْوَ ذَلِكَ.

[ 6 ]

قوله: ( في أضحى أو فطر ) شك من الراوي. [فتح الباري]

[ 7 ]

صحيح مسلم في كِتَابٌ : الْحَجُّ. – بَابٌ : حَجَّةُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ.

(…فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ فِي النِّسَاءِ، فَإِنَّكُمْ أَخَذْتُمُوهُنَّ بِأَمَانِ اللَّهِ، وَاسْتَحْلَلْتُمْ فُرُوجَهُنَّ بِكَلِمَةِ اللَّهِ، وَلَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ أَنْ لَا يُوطِئْنَ فُرُشَكُمْ أَحَدًا تَكْرَهُونَهُ، فَإِنْ فَعَلْنَ ذَلِكَ فَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ضَرْبًا غَيْرَ مُبَرِّحٍ ، وَلَهُنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ، وَقَدْ تَرَكْتُ فِيكُمْ مَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا بَعْدَهُ إِنِ اعْتَصَمْتُمْ بِهِ ؛ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ وَأَنْتُمْ تُسْأَلُونَ عَنِّي، فَمَا أَنْتُمْ قَائِلُونَ ؟ ” قَالُوا : نَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ قَدْ بَلَّغْتَ وَأَدَّيْتَ، وَنَصَحْتَ، فَقَالَ بِإِصْبَعِهِ السَّبَّابَةِ يَرْفَعُهَا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ، وَيَنْكُتُهَا إِلَى النَّاسِ : ” اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدِ، اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ “. ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ…)

[ 8 ]

فتح الباري بشرح صحيح البخاري

قوله: ( باب عظة الإمام النساء ) نبه بهذه الترجمة على أن ما سبق من الندب إلى تعليم الأهل ليس مختصا بأهلهن، بل ذلك مندوب للإمام الأعظم ومن ينوب عنه. واستفيد الوعظ بالتصريح من قوله في الحديث: ” فوعظهن ” وكانت الموعظة بقوله: ” إني رأيتكن أكثر أهل النار لأنكن تكثرن اللعن، وتكفرن العشير “. واستفيد التعليم من قوله: ” وأمرهن بالصدقة “. كأنه أعلمهن أن في الصدقة تكفيرا لخطاياهن.

[ 9 ]

صحيح البخاري – كِتَابٌ : الْعِلْمُ – بَابُ مَنْ سَمِعَ شَيْئًا فَرَاجَعَ فِيهِ حَتَّى يَعْرِفَهُ.

حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ ، قَالَ : أَخْبَرَنَا نَافِعُ بْنُ عُمَرَ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَتْ لَا تَسْمَعُ شَيْئًا لَا تَعْرِفُهُ، إِلَّا رَاجَعَتْ فِيهِ حَتَّى تَعْرِفَهُ، وَأَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : ” مَنْ حُوسِبَ عُذِّبَ “. قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ : فَقُلْتُ : أَوَلَيْسَ يَقُولُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى : {فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا } قَالَتْ : فَقَالَ : ” إِنَّمَا ذَلِكِ الْعَرْضُ، وَلَكِنْ مَنْ نُوقِشَ الْحِسَابَ يَهْلِكْ “.

[ 10 ]

عمدة القاري شرح صحيح البخاري  :  (باب كفران العشير وكفر دون كفر)

[ 11 ]

وفيه إطلاق الكفرعلى الذنوب التي لا تخرج عن الملة تغليظا على فاعلها؛وقوله في بعض طرقه: ” بكفرهن ” كما تقدم في الإيمان، وهو كإطلاق نفي الإيمان، وفيه الإغلاظ في النصح بما يكون سببا لإزالة الصفة التي تعاب [فتح الباري]

[ 12 ]

كِتَابٌ : الْعِلْمُ – بَابٌ : هَلْ يُجْعَلُ لِلنِّسَاءِ يَوْمٌ عَلَى حِدَةٍ فِي الْعِلْمِ ؟

حَدَّثَنَا آدَمُ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ ، قَالَ : حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ الْأَصْبَهَانِيِّ ، قَالَ : سَمِعْتُ أَبَا صَالِحٍ ذَكْوَانَ يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ قَالَتِ النِّسَاءُ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : غَلَبَنَا عَلَيْكَ الرِّجَالُ، فَاجْعَلْ لَنَا يَوْمًا مِنْ نَفْسِكَ، فَوَعَدَهُنَّ يَوْمًا لَقِيَهُنَّ فِيهِ فَوَعَظَهُنَّ، وَأَمَرَهُنَّ فَكَانَ فِيمَا قَالَ لَهُنَّ : ” مَا مِنْكُنَّ امْرَأَةٌ تُقَدِّمُ ثَلَاثَةً مِنْ وَلَدِهَا، إِلَّا كَانَ لَهَا حِجَابًا مِنَ النَّارِ “. فَقَالَتِ امْرَأَةٌ: وَاثْنَتَيْنِ ؟ فَقَالَ : ” وَاثْنَتَيْنِ ”     رواه الشيخان، والترمذي، وابن ماجة.

[ 13 ]

رواه مسلم  في كِتَابٌ : الْعِلْمُ – بَابٌ : رَفْعُ الْعِلْمِ – من حديث أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ ، قَالَ : أَلَا أُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، لَا يُحَدِّثُكُمْ أَحَدٌ بَعْدِي سَمِعَهُ مِنْهُ : ” إِنَّ مِنْ أَشْرَاطِ السَّاعَةِ أَنْ يُرْفَعَ الْعِلْمُ، وَيَظْهَرَ الْجَهْلُ، وَيَفْشُوَ الزِّنَى، وَيُشْرَبَ الْخَمْرُ، وَيَذْهَبَ الرِّجَالُ، وَتَبْقَى النِّسَاءُ، حَتَّى يَكُونَ لِخَمْسِينَ امْرَأَةً قَيِّمٌ وَاحِدٌ “

[ 14 ]

وليس المقصود بذكر النقص في النساء لومهن على ذلك؛ لأنه من أصل الخلقة، لكن التنبيه على ذلك تحذير من الافتتان بهن، ولهذا رتب العذاب على ما ذكر من الكفران وغيره لا على النقص، وليس نقص الدين منحصرا فيما يحصل به الإثم بل في أعم من ذلك. قاله النووي؛ لأنه أمر نسبي، فالكامل مثلا ناقص عن الأكمل، ومن ذلك الحائض لا تأثم بترك الصلاة زمن الحيض لكنها ناقصة عن المصلي. [فتح الباري]

[ 15 ]

)امرأة جزلة) أي: تامة الخلق، أو: ذات كلام جزل؛ أي قوي شديد. زيادة وردت في رواية : مسلم  في كِتَابٌ : الْإِيمَانُ – بَابٌ : نُقْصَانُ الْإِيمَانِ بِنَقْصِ الطَّاعَاتِ وابن ماجه في كِتَابُ الْفِتَنِ – بابٌ : فِتْنَةُ النِّسَاءِ

[ 16 ]

وما ألطف ما أجابهن به – صلى الله عليه وسلم – من غير تعنيف ولا لوم، بل خاطبهن على قدر عقولهن، [فتح الباري]

[ 17 ]

رواه البخاري في كِتَابٌ : الْأَدَبُ – بَابُ مَا يَجُوزُ مِنَ الشِّعْرِ وَالرَّجَزِ وَالْحُدَاءِ وَمَا يُكْرَهُ – و بَابٌ : الْمَعَارِيضُ مَنْدُوحَةٌ عَنِ الْكَذِبِ من حديث انس رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ

رواه مسلم في كتاب : الْفَضَائِلُ – بَابٌ : رَحْمَةُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِلنِّسَاءِ، وَأَمْرُ السَّوَّاقِ مَطَايَاهُنَّ بِالرِّفْقِ بِهِنَّ من حديث أنس بن مالك

رواه  أحمد في  مُسْنَدُ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ

نقل ابن حجر: عن الرَّامَهُرْمُزِيُّ:كَنَّى عَنِ النِّسَاءِ بِالْقَوَارِيرِ لِرِقَّتِهِنَّ وَضَعْفِهِنَّ عَنِ الْحَرَكَةِ وَالنِّسَاءُ يُشَبَّهْنَ بِالْقَوَارِيرِ فِي الرِّقَّةِ وَاللَّطَافَةِ وَضَعْفِ الْبِنْيَةِ [فتح الباري]

قال ابن بَطَّالٍ : وَهَذَا مِنَ الِاسْتِعَارَةِ الْبَدِيعَةِ، لِأَنَّ الْقَوَارِيرَ أَسْرَعُ شَيْءٍ تَكْسِيراً، فَأَفَادَتِ الْكِنَايَةُ مِنَ الْحَضِّ عَلَى الرِّفْقِ بِالنِّسَاءِ فِي السَّيْرِ مَا لَمْ تُفِدْهُ الْحَقِيقَةُ لَوْ قَالَ: ارْفُقْ بِالنِّسَاءِ [فتح الباري]

[ 18 ]

رواه الترمذي في السنن- أَبْوَابُ صِفَةِ الْجَنَّةِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ. – بَابٌ : فِي صِفَةِ نِسَاءِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ من حديث عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : ” إِنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ مِنْ نِسَاءِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ لَيُرَى بَيَاضُ سَاقِهَا مِنْ وَرَاءِ سَبْعِينَ حُلَّةً، حَتَّى يُرَى مُخُّهَا؛ وَذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَقُولُ : {كَأَنَّهُنَّ الْيَاقُوتُ وَالْمَرْجَانُ } ، فَأَمَّا الْيَاقُوتُ، فَإِنَّهُ حَجَرٌ لَوْ أَدْخَلْتَ فِيهِ سِلْكًا، ثُمَّ اسْتَصْفَيْتَهُ ؛ لَأُرِيتَهُ مِنْ وَرَائِهِ “. وفيه ضعف

[ 19 ]

رواه البخاري  في كِتَابٌ : الرِّقَاقُ – بَابُ صِفَةِ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ – من حديث  أَنَسٍ ” غَدْوَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَوْ رَوْحَةٌ ، خَيْرٌ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا، وَلَقَابُ قَوْسِ أَحَدِكُمْ أَوْ مَوْضِعُ قَدَمٍ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ، خَيْرٌ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا، وَلَوْ أَنَّ امْرَأَةً مِنْ نِسَاءِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ اطَّلَعَتْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ، لَأَضَاءَتْ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا، وَلَمَلَأَتْ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا رِيحًا، وَلَنَصِيفُهَا – يَعْنِي الْخِمَارَ – خَيْرٌ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا “

ووقع في حديث ابن عباس عند ابن أبي الدنيا: ” ولو أخرجت نصيفها لكانت الشمس عند حسنها مثل الفتيلة من الشمس لا ضوء لها، ولو أطلعت وجهها لأضاء حسنها ما بين السماء والأرض، ولو أخرجت كفها لافتتن الخلائق بحسنها ”  [فتح الباري]

[ 20 ]

حديث (رُوَيْدًا سَوْقَكَ بِالْقَوَارِيرِ ) رواه مسلم : كِتَابٌ : الْفَضَائِلُ – بَابٌ : رَحْمَةُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِلنِّسَاءِ، وَأَمْرُ السَّوَّاقِ مَطَايَاهُنَّ بِالرِّفْقِ بِهِنَّ. اه. وفي هذه الأحاديث جواز الحداء ، وهو بضم الحاء ممدود ، وجواز السفر بالنساء ، واستعمال المجاز ، وفيه مباعدة النساء من الرجال ، ومن سماع كلامهم ، إلا الوعظ ونحوه [المنهاج شرح صحيح مسلم بن الحجاج]

[ 21 ]

وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍAnd you are surely on an excellent standard of character. (Quran 68:4)