Using “Radhi Allah Anhu” for a Non-Companion

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari

Question: Is it ok to write “radiallah anhu” with the name of the tabe’in and people other than sahaba? As I thought it’s not right to do so, but when I saw radiallah anhu written along with the name of Imam Abu Hanifa, on your website, I am confused, please advise!

Answer: In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

The phrase Radhi Allah Anhu has two meanings: One in the mode of giving news (khabariyya) and the other in the form of supplication (dua’iyya). The translation of using this phrase in the first form would be: “Allah is pleased with him/her” and in the second: “may Allah be pleased with him/her”.

When this phrase or term is used for the blessed Companions (Allah be well pleased with them all), it can be used in both forms. As such, one may say regarding a Companion: “Allah is pleased with him/her” or “may Allah be pleased with him/her”.

Allah Most High Himself attested that He has become pleased with all the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace), and they (companions) are pleased with Allah.

Allah Most High says:

“Assuredly well-pleased was Allah with the believers when they swore fealty to you under the tree: He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity to them; and He rewarded them with a speedy victory.” (Surah al-Fath, V. 18)

Similarly, Allah Most High says:

“The vanguard (of Islam)- the first of those who emigrated (muhajirun) and of those who gave them aid (ansar), and (also) those who followed them in good deeds,- well-pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them has He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity.” (Surah al-Tawbah, V. 100)

So, Allah Almighty has declared His pleasure for the Companions (sahaba), hence one may say: “Allah is well-pleased with the Companions”. Also, it would be a grave sin to disrespect or slander a Companion whilst Allah Most High Himself has declared His pleasure for them.

As far as the students of the Companions (tabi’un), their followers (atba al-tabi’in), saints and the pious, Mujtahid Imams and all Muslims in general are concerned, it is perfectly acceptable to use this term for them in the form of supplication (dua).

Allah Most High Himself uses this phrase in the Qur’an for all pious Muslims. He Most High says:

“Those who have faith and do righteous deeds, they are the best of creatures. Their reward is with their Lord. Gardens of eternity, beneath which rivers flow; they will dwell therein for ever; Allah will be well-pleased with them, and they with Him. That is for such who fears his Lord.” (Surah al-Bayyinah, V. 7-8)

In the above and other such verses, Allah Most High promises His pleasure (rida) for the faithful and righteous Muslims, as He has promised many other things, such as entering paradise, immunity from punishment in Hell, salvation, etc. So, as it is permitted to make Dua for a believer that he/she enters heaven, has salvation in the hereafter, etc, it will be permitted to make Dua for him/her to obtain the pleasure of Allah Most High.

Thus, there is nothing wrong in saying “Radhi Allah Anhu” (may Allah be pleased with him/her) for a non-Sahabi. One may use this term for the Tabi’un, Mujtahid Imams, saints and all Muslims in general. One may even use this term for a living person and say to him “Radhi Allah Anka” (may Allah be pleased with you”. Many times, I heard the Arabs say to one another: “may Allah be pleased with you” in a sense that one is supplicating to Allah and seeking His pleasure for a fellow Muslim brother or sister. It would be similar to any other Dua one makes for a fellow Muslim.

Therefore, the great scholar of Hadith and Shafi’i jurist (faqih), Imam al-Nawawi (may Allah be pleased with him) states:

“It is recommended (mustahab) to seek Allah’s pleasure (taraddi) and mercy (tarahhum) for the Companions (sahaba), their followers (tabi’un) and those after them such as the scholars, worshippers and all good people. Hence, one should say: ‘may Allah be pleased with him’ or ‘may Allah have mercy on him’, and other similar phrases.

As far as what some scholars have said that the phrase ‘Radhi Allah Anhu’ is exclusive to the Companions (sahaba), and for other than them one should only say ‘Rahimahu Allah’ (Allah have mercy on him), it is not as they have stated and it cannot be agreed with. Rather, the correct view is what the majority of the scholars hold (jamhur) in that it is recommended to say ‘Radhi Allah Anhu’ for all good Muslims, and its proofs are more than can be counted.” (Kitab al-Adhkar, P. 100)

The great Maliki scholar, Qadhi Iyadh (may Allah be pleased with him) says in his renowned al-Shifa’:

“Those other than the Prophets should be mentioned with Allah’s forgiveness (gufran) and pleasure (ridha)…” (al-Shifa’, P. 581)

Thus in conclusion, there is nothing wrong in using the term “Radhi Allah Anhu” for other than a Companion (sahabi), for it is a form of supplication seeking Allah’s pleasure and happiness. One may use this term for the Tabi’un, their followers, Mujtahid Imams, Muhaddithun, Fuqaha, scholars, pious servants of Allah and any good Muslim, deceased or alive.

Yes, if this term was used in an area exclusively for the Companions (sahaba), and the assumption was that by using it for other than the Companions, people would confuse a non-Companion with a Companion; then it would be better to avoid using it, unless one explains to the people that it can also be used for non-Companions.

In parts of the Indian subcontinent, it is a common understanding that the term “Radhi Allah Anhu” can only be used for the Companions; hence if one was to use it for other than a Companion, one would be rebuked. This is incorrect, hence people should be made aware that there is nothing wrong (rather recommended) to use this term for all Muslims.

And Allah knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam
Darul Iftaa
Leicester , UK

“If You Can Achieve Peace, Do So”: Is This Narration Authentic?

Answered by Sidi Salman Younas

Question: I have a question about a narration in Ibn Kathir’s commentary of verse 8:61, on the authority of Imam Ahmad, that the Prophet said, “There will be differences after me, so if you have a way to achieve peace, then do so.” Is this hadith authentic?

Answer: assalamu `alaykum

This was narrated by `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal with his chain to `Ali ibn Abi Talib (Allah be well pleased with him) in the Musnad of Ahmad. al-Haytami in his Majma` al-Zawa’id states that all the narrators are trustworthy, though Shaykh Shu`ayb Arnaut in his grading of the Musnad states that the narration is weak.

I could not find it with this specific wording in any other book, though there are similar, variant narrations. It is narrated by Khalid ibn `Urfutah (Allah be well pleased with him) that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “After me there will be unprecedented things, corruption, and differences, and so if you can be the slayed slave of Allah, not the slayer, then do so.” [Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad; Hakim, al-Mustadrak; Tabarani, al-Kabir] The chain of this narration goes through `Ali ibn Zayd, who is weak, but there are other supporting narratives that raise the grading of the narration to “authentic” (hasan), as mentioned by Shaykh Shu`ayb Arnaut and discussed by Ibn Hajar `Asqalani in his Talkhis al-Habir.

Wasalam
Salman

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Returning Stolen Property

Answered by Sidi `Abd al-Rahim Reasat

Question: If a person takes something they are not allowed to from the company they work for and then after leaving the organization realizes the sin that they committed. What should one do after they have repented to Allah to make their repentance successful? Are they allowed to give items of their own away which will cover some of the total to charity and pray that the money in some way goes back to the company?

Answer: Wa ‘alaikum as-salam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well. Alhamdulillah, your desire to make tawba and set things right is in itself a blessing from Allah, and should be taken as a good sign.

The products that were taken must be returned to the company seeing as it owns them. If that is no longer possible then their equivalent value should be given. You do not have to personally return the items, getting them to a manager or the like with an anonymous letter should suffice insha’Allah.

Your possessions that were given away will be considered as charity (sadaqa), and will go a long way, insha’Allah, in compensating for what was done, as mentioned by Imam al-Ghazali (may Allah Most High be well pleased with him) in the Ihya. He also mentioned that a repentance (tawba), when accompanied by all its conditions (remorse, leaving the sin, resolving never to return to it, and returning the rights of others), will always be accepted by Allah Most High.

“And when those who believe in Our signs come to thee, say, ‘Peace be upon you. Your Lord has prescribed for Himself mercy. Whosoever of you does evil in ignorance, and thereafter repents and makes amends, He is All-forgiving, All-compassionate.'” (6.54)

[Maydani, al-Lubab; Ghazali, Ihya `Ulum al-Din)

And Allah knows best.

Wassalam
‘Abd al-Rahim Reasat

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Marriage Decision: Following One’s Heart

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: I’m having trouble deciding on whether to marry a particular individual–and I’ve had this trouble before. He is good in his religious practice, seems compatible (I quite like him), and is financially stable. But…

Answer: Walaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and spirits.

This would appear to be a case where you should follow the words of the Beloved Messenger of Allah (peace & blessings be upon him & his folk), “Seek an answer from your heart, even if people give you answer after answer.” [Ahmad, and others]

Asking your heart entails asking yourself what decision honestly appears to be most likely to be most pleasing to Allah in the immediate and long term. This is also at the essence of what we seek in the prayer of seeking guidance (salat al-istikhara), if you reflect on its words.

The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) advised us to seek someone of religious concern (deen) and good character.

The sign of religious concern is that they appear to strive to seek the pleasure of Allah in their worship, conduct, and life dealings.

The sign of good character is that they’re gentle, easy-going, and can control themselves in anger and negative situations. Marrying such a person will facilitate for you the good of this life and the next.

May Allah facilitate for you the right choices, and place blessing and good in them for you, your family, and humanity.

And Allah alone gives success.
Faraz Rabbani

Giving & Receiving Gifts

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: What does our tradition say about gifts?

Answer: Walaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and spirits.

It is sunna to give gifts. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Exchange gifts (frequently), and you’ll grow to love one another.” [Bukhari]

It is also sunna to accept gifts. The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) did not accept charity, but he did accept gifts and wouldn’t refuse them. [Bukhari]

Gifts are given as expressions of love, appreciation, maintenance of ties, and in reciprocation, and are accepted for the first three of the above meanings.

One wouldn’t reject gifts unless there is a negative meaning greater than the good of gift exchange–such as when the gift is a means to harm; or it is excessive; or imposes an undue burden on the giver or recipient.

The gift belongs to the one who receives it. It is their right to give it away. However, discretion, tact, and the feelings of the giver should be considered carefully (both with regards to whether and how the gift is given away).

And Allah alone gives success.
Faraz Rabbani

Muslim Standard Time: Punctuality & Being Late

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: Muslims have a habit of being late to everything. What are the rules governing punctuality and being late?

Answer: Wa Alaykum Assalam wa Rahmatullah wa Barakatuhu,

In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful & Compassionate

Agreeing to be somewhere at a given time is akin to a promise and the fiqh of promises therefore applies to it. It is improper to make a promise without firm resolve and reasonable surety of fulfilling it. However, it is not sinful if it is due to secondary issues that may arise and prevent one from fulfilling it.

However, contractual matters such as jobs, classes, and appointments are different. Allah says: “Oh you who believe, fulfill your contracts”. The scholars have explained that “contracts” here refers to every type of commitment. It is obligatory (fard) to be on time if this is the expectation. Even being a little late is at least improper, and is unbecoming of a Muslim. Undue delay is otherwise sinful. Slight delays that are customarily overlooked are not.

The believers should uphold themselves to the most excellent of character. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said “The closest of you to me on the Day of Judgment are those best of character.”

Shaykh Muhammad Qaylish mentions that when the Shariah is distant from society, such as in our times, we are ambassadors of Islam and must act in order to uphold a favorable impression of Islam. This entails:

1. upholding commitments with excellence

2. being easy-going without being lax.

And Allah Most High knows best.

Wassalam,
Faraz Rabbani

Calling People of Other Beliefs to Islam

Answered by Sidi Abdullah Anik Misra

Question: I was recently speaking to a Christian neighbor of mine about the Deen and he cited something from the Bible which says, “But even if we, or an angel from the heaven, preach any other gospel to you other than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed.” (Galatians 1:10, New Testament) This is the first time I have come across this from a Christian (I am surrounded by them, being that me and my family are the only Muslims in the area). He basically cited this to discredit the revelation of the Qur’an by Jibr’il (as) to Sayyiduna Muhammad (saaws). I did not know how to properly reply to this statement. Can you guide me to how to properly reply to this, because I am constantly being bombarded by Ahl ul Kitab trying to convert me to their beliefs?

Answer: Wa alaikum salaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Thank you very much for your question.  Firstly, I want to commend you for your concern to speak the Truth in a way that it will be received best.  Secondly, I want to commend your entire family for upholding the Deen although you are the only Muslims in your area- may Allah Ta’ala make you all a light and an example for your neighbors.

Your question touches on a few different points, so it is important to treat the answer in parts.   The general answer to all of this is that if you are surrounded by practicing Christian neighbors, it is not productive to engage in tit-for-tat debate on every little religious point.  It wastes your time from more beneficial pursuits, creates an atmosphere of competition, and spoils relations between neighbors.

Know Your Own Beliefs Well

A non-expert Muslim cannot be expected to respond to every single verse thrown at them – our piety does not lie in argumentation at any rate – so it is best to study our own ‘aqeedah very well, and understand the Islamic narrative of Jesus and Mary (peace be upon them) and the concern and respect that the Qur’an has for Christians.  Know that the true message of each prophet of God was the same.  After becoming well-grounded in that, teach it to your family as well.

Get to the Heart of the Matter: Allah and His Oneness

Almost all of Muslim-Christian debate these days is stuck in secondary issues of scriptural critique, verse-slinging, history and controversial issues that will never end, when the heart of the matter, namely God and His exalted nature, is all that really needs to be discussed.  The rest would solve itself once it becomes clear whose view of the Divine is the necessarily correct one.

Traditional Muslim scholarship explained long ago that it is impossible, not just inappropriate, for God to violate His Divine Perfection by taking a son or incarnating Himself as a created being.  Although the later scholars wrote complex treatises rooted in the Qur’an and hadeeth to address theological challenges in their day, Divine Oneness was the real essential point of da’wah that the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself made to those who claimed to follow Christ (peace be upon him).  To learn about this, I highly recommend the ‘Aqeedah course at Seekers Guidance being offered this semester – I am still benefitting from this.

Beautify Your Character

The other important aspect is to actively work to purify yourself from bad inner traits and adorn your character with beautiful qualities, for Allah’s sake.  By pursuing Islamic spirituality, you improve your inner condition, and the fruit of that is manifest in beautiful behavior and actions which reflect the pristine sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him).  As one of our beloved shaykhs said, one reason why good character is so heavy on the scales with Allah is because it is the best da’wah – it attracts people to the Truth sometimes without a single word.

Don’t Feel the Need to Argue or Debate

If you want to respond with something though, unless you plan on devoting years to the field of apologetics, respond by giving your neighbor well-written articles or books on the subject of Christian-Muslim debate that are not pushy or offensive. Do not feel obligated to continue the argument if you can’t respond yourself, or you feel that the listener doesn’t truly want to benefit – we cannot open people’s minds or change their hearts unless they are sincere, and unless Allah Ta’ala wants to guide them.

You mentioned being overwhelmed by proselytization- you should only live in communities where you feel secure in your faith without undue pressure, otherwise, if you feel that you or your family’s faith or well-being is at risk from constant proselytizing, if possible, relocate to another neighborhood where you feel more comfortable and where you can live well alongside your neighbors.  That won’t be running away; it would be a hijrah for Allah’s sake to preserve your faith.

However, if you have established your practice as Muslims, can actually serve Allah fully, are happy with your neighbors, and your remaining there is as a beacon of truth, make your intention to contribute to your community for Allah’s sake, and make your home one of solace and peace for all, a dar-al-islam.

Live the Message

Learn about how Muslims are supposed to treat their neighbors, read about how accommodating the Prophet (peace be upon him) was with people of Christian faith, and fill yourself with a loving concern for your neighbors’ well-being, both in this life and the next.

Study and know the Truth well for your own self first, and learn and do what is right and good, because the tongue of one’s inner state is more eloquent than the tongue of speech, and more convincing than any rebuttal we can make.

Wasalam,
Abdullah Anik Misra

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Home Financing

Answered by Shaykh Taha Abdul-Basser

Question: What are the principles to be used when getting a home loan that is in accordance to the Shariah from the various Islamic Banks?

Answer: Al-hamdu li-llah wa-s salatu wa-s salamu `ala sayyidina muhammad wa-`ala alihi wa sahbihi wa-man ihtada bi-hadyihi ila yawm d-din

There are several principles that one should be aware of and attempt to apply when going about obtaining property financing from a Shari`a-compliant financing institution:

1. Intention

1.1 As is the case for all acts of obedience (ta`at), one should make the effort to obtain financing from a Shari`a-compliant financing entity for Allah’s sake, wanting to please Him by sticking to the permissible (halal) and avoiding the impermissible (haram).

2. Choosing a Financing entity

2.2 One should restrict oneself to a financial institutions that have each engaged a Shari`ah review board (/hay`at al-riqaba shar`iyya/). A Shari`ah review board is a independent body, composed of 3 or more /fuqaha’/  who specialize in and are known for their expertise in the application of /fiqh/ to contemporary financial issues.  The Shari`ah review board advises, examines, audits and monitors the products and services that the financial institution offers for compliance with the precepts (/mabadi’/), established principles (/qawa`id/) and ethico-legal values (/ahkam/) of the Shari`ah.

1.3 One should look for and prefer to do business with financial institutions that openly commit themselves to adherence to the AAOIFI (Auditing and Accounting Organization of Islamic Financial Institutions) Shari`a Standards. The AAOIFI Shari`a Standards are painstakingly drafted by a council of leading /fuqaha’/. They document the preponderant (/rajih/) and adopted (/muqarrar/) /fiqh/ positions that are 1) the basis for actual practice and 2) form the content of the ethico-legal /responsa/ of our leading specialist-fuqaha’ in the area of the application of /fiqh/ to contemporary financial issues.

1.4 One should restrict oneself to financial institutions that publish (e.g. on their website) their Shari`ah review boards’ certificate of compliance (CoC), i.e. the /fatwa/ that states that a set of products or services as Shari`ah compliant, i.e. halal (permissible).

[Ref: AAOIFI Shari`a Standards, AAOIFI, Manama, Bahrain, n.d.]

And Allah knows best.

Wa s-salam.
The Needy Slave of Allah
Taha Abdul-Basser
Framingham, Massachusetts
6 Muharram 1431

Notes

1. Since the banks and financing companies that offer Shari`ah compliant property financing do not *lend* money, per se, but typically finance the acquisition of property through various sales-based transactions, “home loan” is not technically correct. Rather “home financing” or a similar term is more accurate.

Is Obeying the Prophet in Every Matter Obligatory (fardh)?

Answered by Sidi Waseem Hussain

Question: [1] Is obeying the Prophet in every matter fardh or wajib? When is it fardh, when wajib?Example, Hanafi scholars say the beard is wajib but the Prophet ordered us to wear it. [2] I suffer from horrible obsessive compulsive disorder and am always obsessed with kufr and shrik, always worrying if I fall in them. What can I do to help myself?

Answer: Assalamu Alaykum Warahmatullah,

1. We are supposed to do our utmost in following the Prophet (may Allahs peace and blessings be upon Him) in every single aspect. However, in some cases it is incumbent, while in others it is something we should strive as much as possible to do.

The categorisations of whether something is fard or wajib is subtle and relates to difference in the strength of the proofs and their possibility of interpretation. The differentiation between these is something that the scholars outline for us. This is for instance why we study fiqh, such that we can get clarity of how to properly follow in the footsteps of the Prophet (may Allahs peace and blessings be upon Him) and his companions.

2. One of the best ways to cure doubts about kufr and shirk is to recite surah al-Ikhlas, since it entails the core of the divine oneness that we as muslims believe in. If you understand that Allah is eternal and one, that he has no partners, son or simlitude then your aqeeda is sound and safe, and you need not worry that you are commiting kufr or shirk.

You should consider trying to find sound reliable scholars that teach aqeeda and benefit form their teachings.

And Allah knows best,

Waseem Hussain

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Menstruation, Prayers And Make-Ups

Answered by Ustadha Sulma Badrudduja

Question: If I delay Isha by two hours, and after that time my period occurs, do I have to make qada of that salaah, when I return to my normal state of praying? Secondly, whilst my intention is to recite the entire Quran and then it is brought to my attention that a group of Muslims are doing khatam of the Quran such that everyone is required to complete a certain portion (juz) would it be good adaab to continue reciting my Quran as well as joining the group of Muslims? Would it be disrespectful?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

I pray this reaches you in the best of states.

1. In the Hanafi madhhab, a women who has not performed the current prayer that is due upon her when her menstruation begins is not responsible for that prayer. For example, if Isha time enters at 7 PM and her period begins at 8 PM and she has not prayed Isha yet, then she does not have to make up this prayer later. This is because what is considered is her state at the end of the prayer time. At the end of Isha time, she was not responsible for praying Isha because she was menstruating. [Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

2. There is nothing wrong with reciting the Qur’an with multiple intentions. One can recite with the intention of one’s personal khatm as well as for a khatm that is being done by a group. This is a situation in which there is much leeway. Upon finishing one’s recitation, one can, for example, ask Allah to grant the reward of what one has recited to a specific person, or for those struggling in the way of Allah, etc., and this will in no way diminish from one’s own reward.

And Allah knows best.

Wassalam,
Sulma

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani