Ghusl and Make Up Prayers

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum

Alhamdulillah after many years I finished my make ups. I didn’t know that scholars mention to put your finger in your bellybutton when making ghusl. It seems even without this though in modern showers plenty of water gets into my bellybutton. Is it pretty safe (ghalabat dhann) to assume that water got in and I can consider all my prayers done?

Answer:

Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

Given the amount of water used in prevalent, powerful showers, it would seem to be safe to assume that water reached the area, even if you didn’t specifically wash the navel.

The basis is that you have to ensure that water reaches your entire outer body, yet including mouth and nose as they are legally both from the inner and outer body. Allah Most High says, “If you are in a state of full impurity, then take a full bath.” (Sura al-Ma’ida 5:6) And it is reported that the Blessed Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to rinse his mouth and nose in his ritual bath (ghusl) without fail. (Bukhari)

Keep in mind that there is a difference between bathing or showering to lift major ritual impurity (janaba), and merely doing so for cleanliness or to attain a sunna. In the latter case, rinsing your mouth and nose, and getting water to your navel would be from completion, and a sunna, but not an obligatory duty.

Now that you’ve finished making up your missed prayers, you should strive to ensure you have no other religious debts due, such as missed fasts, zakat or end of Ramadan charity (sadaqat al-fitr) and the like. Thereafter, work on lifting your monetary debts, if any, and learning about the unlawful (haram) and removing it from your life. Continue to ask Allah Most High to grant your facilitation and sincerity in seeking His pleasure.

(Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah, with Tahtawi’s Gloss (1.152/156); al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya)

And Allah Most High knows best.

Wassalam,

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

Performing Eid Prayers at Home

Answered by Shaykh Salman Younas

Question: Assalam aleykum

Given the current situation with COVID-19 and the closures/restrictions on mosques and public gatherings, is it permitted to perform the ʿĪd prayer at home individually or in congregation?

Answer: assalamu alaykum

There is a difference of opinion between the various schools on this issue. Given the current situation, people are permitted and encouraged to perform the ʿĪd prayer at home.

The Ḥanafī School

According to the Ḥanafī school, the ʿĪd prayer is not performed at home by individuals. Rather, it is a communal event similar to the Friday prayer that needs to fulfil the same conditions as the latter including being performed in congregation, with the community and its designated imam(s), and in a publicly accessible area. (al-Kāsānī, Badāʿi al-ṣanā’iʿ, 1:275; Ṣadr al-Sharīʿa, Sharḥ al-wiqāya, 1:183; Ibn al-Humām, Fatḥ al-qadīr, 2:29)

Three further questions arise following this relevant to the current situation:

(a) If one is unable to perform the ʿĪd prayer, or misses its performance with the community, should he perform another prayer? All major texts of the school state that it is recommended in this case to perform a normal supererogatory prayer instead at home, which may be two or four cycles and can count as ṣalāt al-ḍuḥā.

(b) Can this prayer be performed in congregation? The general rule in the Ḥanafī school is that it is neither recommended nor a sunna to perform supererogatory prayers in congregation and it may actually be disliked. However, some jurists mention that it would be permitted without dislikedness to perform supererogatory prayers in congregation if it is (i) done only on the rare occasion and (ii) in small congregations not involving openly inviting large numbers of people to the prayer. (Ibn ʿĀbidīn, Radd al-muḥtār, 2:500-01; Ḥanafīs usually define the second condition as a congregation of less than four individuals, but the applicability of this to a very limited and restrictive household setting performing a one-off prayer is arguable).

(c) Is there any difference of opinion in the Ḥanafī school on the ruling of performing ʿĪd at home? Yes, there are scholars in the school who interpret the conditions for the ʿĪd prayer in a manner that would permit the performance of this prayer at home with a minimum congregation of four people. This is not my preferred reading of the school.

Other Schools

The Shafiʿī school permits ʿĪd prayer at home – whether individually or as part of a congregation – because they deem the ʿĪd prayer as similar to any other supererogatory prayer. It is performed as two cycles with twelve extra takbīrāt – seven in the first cycle immediately after the opening supplication (istiftāḥ) and five upon rising for the second cycle before the taʿawwudh. (al-Nawawī, Rawdat al-ṭālibīn, 1:578).

The Mālikī and Ḥanbalī schools also have mainstream and relied-upon views permitting ʿĪd at home. For details, one should consult scholars from these schools.

COVID-19, ʿĪd Prayer, & Festivities

In light of the difference of opinion on the issue, the unprecedented situation Muslim are facing, and the need for many to maintain the performance of ʿĪd and make it a day of joyous celebration, gratitude to Allah, and worship for one’s family, individuals are permitted and in fact encouraged to perform ʿĪd prayers at home – whether individually or in congregation with their families.

If someone chooses to follow the stronger Ḥanafī view that ʿĪd is not permitted in the home, they may perform a normal supererogatory prayer with their family, i.e. even as a congregation, but they should not add any extra takbīrāt. This would be permitted as it is a rare and one-off occurrence with the limited members of one’s household.

It is also recommended for people to continue honouring this day by taking a bath, wearing one’s best clothing, applying fragrances, maintaining familial ties, and, importantly, making efforts to make the day memorable for children by partaking in things that elicit happiness and jubilation. As the Prophet (blessings upon him) said, “Every nation has its day of celebration, and this is our day of celebration.” (al-Bukhārī) The reality of this day as one of celebration where we express thankfulness to Allah remains even if we are unable to proceed with ʿĪd in the manner normally done in the past.

And Allah alone knows best

[Shaykh] Salman Younas

May 11th, 2020
17th Ramadan, 1441

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Salman Younas  graduated from Stony Brook University with a degree in Political Science and Religious Studies. After studying the Islamic sciences online and with local scholars in New York, Ustadh Salman moved to Amman where he spent five years studying Islamic law, legal methodology, belief, hadith methodology, logic, Arabic, and tafsir. He is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Oxford and continues his traditional studies with scholars in the United Kingdom.

Zakat and Loans

Answered by Shaykh Salman Younas

Question: Assalam aleykum

One of my friends is a University student and he has to take a loan to complete University. So, last year he took a loan and finished his first year but he did not use all of the loan money. The loan money he had on January 3, 2019 on his bank account was more than the Nisab and he kept the loan money for a year unused. He is currently on second year and he is planning on paying all the loan all together once he finishes University which is in 2 more years. Does my friend has to pay Zakat because he kept the loan money for a year without using it and it was above the Nisab amount for a year?

Answer: assalamu alaykum

When calculating one’s nisab, one includes any cash/money that they possess as part of their zakatable assets. This also applies to loan money that has been dispersed to a person’s bank account.

Even though one is meant to deduct debts owed when calculating the nisab, this will not apply in this case as the individual in question is not required to pay back anything at the moment but only after finishing university. At that point, one can deduct any immediate payments he owes.

[Shaykh] Salman Younas

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Salman Younas  graduated from Stony Brook University with a degree in Political Science and Religious Studies. After studying the Islamic sciences online and with local scholars in New York, Ustadh Salman moved to Amman where he spent five years studying Islamic law, legal methodology, belief, hadith methodology, logic, Arabic, and tafsir. He is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Oxford and continues his traditional studies with scholars in the United Kingdom.

Rain and Prayer

Answered by Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat

Question: Assalamu alaykum

When it has been raining and the ground is wet, sometimes the back of my trousers get wet whilst walking from the rain water on the ground, sometimes there may be dirt on my trousers, and other times there is no dirt but just wet from the water. The dirt is never faeces, but sometimes it may be slight mud or bits of material from the road. I wanted to know whether the rain water or the dirt particles make my clothes unclean?

Answer: Wa ‘alaykum assalam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

Yes, it’s perfectly fine to pray in those clothes. You can assume that they are pure because the default ruling on most things is that they are pure. Rain water and mud do not affect the purity of garments. (Ibn ‘Abidin; Radd al Muhtar).

May Allah bless you with the best of both worlds.

Wassalam,
[Shaykh] Abdul-Rahim Reasat

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat began his studies in Arabic Grammar and Morphology in 2005. After graduating with a degree in English and History he moved to Damascus in 2007 to study and sit at the feet of some of the most erudite scholars of our time.

Over the following eighteen months he studied a traditional curriculum, studying with scholars such as Shaykh Adnan Darwish, Shaykh Abdurrahman Arjan, Shaykh Hussain Darwish and Shaykh Muhammad Darwish.

In late 2008 he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continued his studies for the next six years, in Fiqh, Usul al-Fiqh, Theology, Hadith Methodology and Commentary, Shama’il, and Logic with teachers such as Dr Ashraf Muneeb, Dr Salah Abu’l-Hajj, Dr Hamza al-Bakri, Shaykh Ahmad Hasanat, Dr Mansur Abu Zina amongst others. He was also given two licences of mastery in the science of Qur’anic recital by Shakh Samir Jabr and Shaykh Yahya Qandil.

His true passion, however, arose in the presence of Shaykh Ali Hani, considered by many to be one of the foremost tafsir scholars of our time who provided him with the keys to the vast knowledge of the Quran. With Shaykh Ali, he was able to study an extensive curriculum of Qur’anic Sciences, Tafsir, Arabic Grammar, and Rhetoric.

When he finally left Jordan for the UK in 2014, Shaykh Ali gave him his distinct blessing and still recommends students in the UK to seek out Shaykh Abdul-Rahim for Quranic studies. Since his return he has trained as a therapist and has helped a number of people overcome emotional and psychosomatic issues. He is a keen promoter of emotional and mental health.

Can I Pray Tarawih at Home?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

In this answer, Shaykh Faraz Rabbani clarifies that the tarawih prayers are an emphasized sunna for both men and women, consisting of twenty units (rak’a). While congregation is recommended for men, it is by no means a requirement. Similarly, completing or reciting long portions of the Qur‘an, while meritorious, is not necessary for the tarawih prayer.

[Shaykh] Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Faraz Rabbani is a scholar and researcher of Islamic law and Executive Director of SeekersHub Global After ten years overseas, Shaykh Faraz returned to Canada in the Summer of 2007. In May 2008 he founded SeekersHub Global to deal with the urgent need to spread Islamic knowledge—both online and on the ground—in a reliable, relevant, inspiring, and accessible manner. He has been repeatedly listed as one of the world’s 500 most influential Muslims (The Muslim500).

As a Hanafi, Can I Read from a Copy of the Qur’an in Tarawih?

Shaykh Faraz Rabbani asked Shaykh Hassan al-Hindi of Damascus, about holding or reciting from a copy of the Qur‘an during tarawih prayers. Can Hanafi take the opinion of the Shafi’i school on this, and how? Based on the answer, Shaykh Faraz sheds light on this pertinent issue…

Shaykh Faraz Rabbani is a scholar and researcher of Islamic law and Executive Director of SeekersHub Global After ten years overseas, Shaykh Faraz returned to Canada in the Summer of 2007. In May 2008 he founded SeekersHub Global to deal with the urgent need to spread Islamic knowledge—both online and on the ground—in a reliable, relevant, inspiring, and accessible manner. He has been repeatedly listed as one of the world’s 500 most influential Muslims (The Muslim500).

Is It Permissible to Pray Tarawih Over Video Conferencing?

Answered by Shaykh Salman Younas

Question: Assalam aleykum

I hope you are well inshallah. With Ramadan fast approaching and mosques closed due to the current situation, would it be permissible to pray Taraweeh over video conferencing?

Answer: assalamu alaykum

It is not valid to perform congregational prayer over the internet and through video conferencing.

Legal Reasoning

The reason for this is that the imam and follower being in the same physical locality (ittihad al-makan) is a condition for the validity of a congregation. The act of following entails being dependent upon and subordinate in prayer, i.e. to the prayer of the imam. When an imam performs a prayer, a physical location is a necessary concomitant of it. Thus, in order to be validly deemed a ‘follower’ of someone in prayer, one must ‘follow’ the imam in terms of the physical area in which he prays. It is only then that the meaning of following is fully realised. (al-Kasani, al-Bada’i al-Sana’i)

If it were valid to perform prayers in the way you describe without it contravening the conditions of a congregational prayer, it should actually be irrelevant whether an excuse exists or not. Rather, it should be deemed valid even in contexts where no pressing excuse exists. This is something no one states though because everyone recognises that a virtual congregation does not fulfil the basic meaning of being a ‘follower’ in a traditional congregational setting (jama’a), and nor does this type of prayer fulfil the function a congregation is meant to serve.

There are some who have argued that jurists have discarded other conditions identified with certain congregational prayers (such as Jumu’a) and this should allow for flexibility on the issue. Without getting into the details, it should simply be noted that none of the scenarios permitted by Hanafi jurists as apparent exceptions to the normal conditions actually involve overturning or undermining conditions linked to the basic form and fundamental meaning of a ‘congregation’, which centres on people coming together in a shared physical space. Permitting Jumu’a in work spaces, for example, still maintains this basic form and meaning of congregation.

In light of this, one should either perform tarawih in congregation with the members of one’s household or pray by oneself.

Rewards are by Intentions

Undoubtedly, the inability to perform tarawih in congregation at the mosque will greatly affect many people. But it should be noted that Allah rewards people for their intentions. If one intended to perform tarawih in the mosque but is unable to do so now because of COVID-19, he or she will have the reward of congregation written down for him/her, inshallah.

Testing our Resolve and Sincerity

This is also a test for us: is our prayer purely for Allah? Will we continue bowing our heads to Him in the absence of others and the good feeling of belonging that we gain when performing prayer in congregation in Ramadan when spirituality is everywhere in the air? We should ask Allah to grant us sincerity and the ability to worship Him no matter the circumstances we find ourselves in.

[Shaykh] Salman Younas

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Salman Younas  graduated from Stony Brook University with a degree in Political Science and Religious Studies. After studying the Islamic sciences online and with local scholars in New York, Ustadh Salman moved to Amman where he spent five years studying Islamic law, legal methodology, belief, hadith methodology, logic, Arabic, and tafsir. He is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Oxford and continues his traditional studies with scholars in the United Kingdom.

A Ramadan Reader: A Comprehensive Answers Guide to Getting the Most Out of Ramadan

Preparing for Ramadan

The Complete Guide to Fasting

Imam Tahir’s 5 Simple Steps to Prepare for Ramadan

Preparing For Ramadan Advice from Habib Umar bin Hafiz

Ramadan Detox‬‏ for a Healthy Ramadan

40 Hadiths on Ramadan

Tarawih

Can I Pray 8 Rakats for Tarawih?

Should We Stop Praying Tarawih Once the Qur’an is Completed?

Is it Necessary to Perform Tarawih Prayers in the Mosque?

Is it Obligatory to Complete the Entire Qur’an During Tarawih Prayers?

Performing Tarawih Prayers Again as an Imam

Is It Valid for a Child to Lead Tarawih?

The Ruling of the Tarawih Prayer: A Confirmed Sunna

Reciting From a Copy of the Qur’an (Mushaf) in Tarawih and Other Prayers

Expiatory Payment (Fidya) for Missed Ramadan Fasts

Brief Overview of Expiatory Payments (fidya) for Missed Ramadan Fasts

Feeding People to Expiate For a Corrupted Fast

Is Expiation (kaffara) Necessary For Not Fasting in Ramadan?

When Is Expiation Required For A Fast?

How Many Expiations Are Required For Multiple Broken Fasts?

Can My Sister Pay Expiatory Payments (fidya) For Missed Fasts Due To Her Diabetes?

Can I Pay Fidya for Missed Days of Fasting Due to Menses?

Can a Healthy Person Skip Prayer and Fasting and Pay Expiation?

The Expiation (Kaffara) for Having Sex While Fasting

Must I Fast 180 Days as Expiation for 3 Broken Fasts?

Things that Break the Fast

Principles on what invalidates the fast

Does Watching Pornography While Fasting Break One’s Fast

Using Creams, Powders, or Topical Medications While Fasting

Does Swallowing Phlegm Break Your Fast?

Vaseline On Lips While Fasting, and Hitting Kids

Applying Medicine to One’s Teeth: Does it Invalidate the Fast?

Ramadan: Injections, Eye Drops, And Doubts

Using Chapstick While Fasting

Accidental & Forgetful Breaking of the Fast: What Is the Difference?

What Corrupts a Fast: Questions About Water Entering the Body

Bleeding Gums While Fasting

The Effect of Smoking on Fasting, and the Effect of Sins on Faith

Using Asthma Medication: Is My Fast Invalidated?

Accidentally Inhaling Perfume While Fasting

Does breathing in Air break one’s Fast?

Passionate Kissing While Fasting

Fasting and Illness

Too Sick to Fast in Ramadan, Too Poor to Pay the Expiatory Payment (Fidya)

Long-Term Illness that Prevents Fasting

How Can I Benefit From Ramadan When I Can’t Fast Due to Being Ill?

Laylat al-Qadr

When is Laylat al-Qadr?

Worship & Prayer on Laylat al-Qadr

Making Up Missed Fasts

Making Up Missed Fasts and Illness

Can I Combine My Intentions for a Missed Ramadan Fast and An Optional Sunnah Fast?

Do I Have To Make Up Missed Fasts Within A Year?

Making up Obligatory Fasts and Prayers

Making of Missed Fast

Years of Missed Fasts and Expiation (kaffara)

Breaking One’s Fast/Not Fasting Due to Hardship

Breaking One’s Fast Due to Weakness & Migraines

Can I Break My Fast If My Job Makes Fasting Too Difficult?

Fasting in Extreme Latitudes

Attending Juma, Praying and Fasting While Training to be a Firefighter

Can I Break My Fast If My Job Makes Fasting Too Difficult?

Fasting and Pregnancy

Pregnant Women & Fasting

Pregnancy & Making Up Fasts: Does She Really Have To?

The Spiritual Retreat (I`tikaf)

The Spiritual Retreat (i`tikaf)

The Three Types of I’tikaf (Spiritual Retreat)

Ramadan Advice, Benefits and Inspiration

Worship in Ramadan For a Menstruating Woman

How Do I Make The Most Of Ramadan?

Fasting Its Principles and Virtues-Imam Ghazali from al-Arab’in

Inner Dimensions of Fasting-Imam Ghazali

The Spiritual Purpose of Fasting – Closeness to Allah

Practical Tips for Fasting During Ramadan

Work Ethics for Muslims Fasting During Ramadan

Prophetic Supplications for Fasting

Virtues of Fasting in the Summer

Health Benefits of Fasting, and the Maximum Recommended Fast

General Ramadan Answers

When and Where Do I Break My Fast on a 20 Hour Airline Flight?

Should I Feel Bad for Not Fasting When I Had to Travel?

At What Age Must One Start Fasting?

Eating After Dawn & Breaking The Fast For An Invitation

The Chaining of Shayateen (Devils) During Ramadan

Does Each Makeup Prayer During Ramadan Count as 70 Makeup Prayers?

Intercourse during the month of Ramadan

Is Your Ramadan Fast Still Valid If You Stop Eating and Make Your Intention to Fast Between Fajr and Islamic Midday?

Should I Feel Bad for Not Fasting When I Had to Travel?

Brief Miscellaneous Q & A Relating to Fasting

Newlyweds Having Intercourse While Fasting During Ramadan

Zakat on a Building

Answered by Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat

Question: Assalamu alaykum

I have a building which I rent out. The money earned from it is spent on financing my Islamic school (completing the structure, paying staff, and for other materials). I am in debt due to this.
Is zakat due on the structure?

Answer: Wa ‘alaykum assalam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

No, it seems like you do not owe any zakat. There would be no zakat on the building unless it was purchased with the intention of reselling it.

As for the rental income, if it is used up paying for the things you mentioned then no zakat would be due on it either. Zakat would only be due if you were over the nisab amount at one point, then a lunar year passes without you losing anything surplus to your essential costs, and then you were over the nisab amount at the end of that year. You would also deduct your debt from the final amount.

If you were over the nisab amount after all this then you’d say 2.5% of what you had in zakat. [Mahbubi, Sharh al Wiqaya]

May Allah reward you abundantly for your efforts to facilitate the teaching of the din. You’ll find it to be one of the deeds which doesn’t end at your death. Its reward goes on and on. [Muslim]

Wassalam,
[Shaykh] Abdul-Rahim Reasat

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat began his studies in Arabic Grammar and Morphology in 2005. After graduating with a degree in English and History he moved to Damascus in 2007 to study and sit at the feet of some of the most erudite scholars of our time.

Over the following eighteen months he studied a traditional curriculum, studying with scholars such as Shaykh Adnan Darwish, Shaykh Abdurrahman Arjan, Shaykh Hussain Darwish and Shaykh Muhammad Darwish.

In late 2008 he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continued his studies for the next six years, in Fiqh, Usul al-Fiqh, Theology, Hadith Methodology and Commentary, Shama’il, and Logic with teachers such as Dr Ashraf Muneeb, Dr Salah Abu’l-Hajj, Dr Hamza al-Bakri, Shaykh Ahmad Hasanat, Dr Mansur Abu Zina amongst others. He was also given two licences of mastery in the science of Qur’anic recital by Shakh Samir Jabr and Shaykh Yahya Qandil.

His true passion, however, arose in the presence of Shaykh Ali Hani, considered by many to be one of the foremost tafsir scholars of our time who provided him with the keys to the vast knowledge of the Quran. With Shaykh Ali, he was able to study an extensive curriculum of Qur’anic Sciences, Tafsir, Arabic Grammar, and Rhetoric.

When he finally left Jordan for the UK in 2014, Shaykh Ali gave him his distinct blessing and still recommends students in the UK to seek out Shaykh Abdul-Rahim for Quranic studies. Since his return he has trained as a therapist and has helped a number of people overcome emotional and psychosomatic issues. He is a keen promoter of emotional and mental health.

Recommended Books on Jurisprudence, Raising Children and Marriage

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: Assalamu alaykum

1. Could you suggest a good book that would guide us in day to day acts and issues in the Hanafi Fiqh?

2. Could you suggest some books on how to raise children which helps us give them a solid foundation in Deen and dunya? And maybe a guide to marriage as well.

3. There are time I release semen (Mani) during urination. Do I have to perform Ghusl for that? It so happens if I don’t have a night fall, this condition keeps on recurring and I may have to do Ghusl many a times during the day for many days?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful and Compassionate

Book Recommendations

Fiqh:

(1) I would recommend as a basic primer of Hanafi fiqh – Ascent to Felicity – translated by Shaykh Faraz Khan. It is a detailed but not overwhelming text covering the basics on the rulings of worship.

Raising Children:

(2) Educating Children: Classical Advice for Modern Times by Imam Muhammad bin Ahmed al-Ramli

Marriage:

(3) Initiating and Upholding an Islamic Marriage by Hedaya Hartford

Releasing Semen During Urintation

It is not obligatory for you to perform a ritual bath (ghusl) if semen comes out when urinating. It is a condition that the semen come out with desire. The only exception to this is if one wakes up from sleep and finds a wetness on their clothes or body. This also necessitates ghusl. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al -Falah]

Hope this helps
And Allah knows best
Yusuf Weltch

Wassalam,
[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.