Praying On A Plane

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: What is the ruling of praying on a plane? How does one determine the time for prayer and does one have to pray standing?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate

It is obligatory to pray on the plane. When it is reasonably possible for a person to pray standing or sitting (with actual prostration) then he must do so.

The prayer time should be determined by making a reasoned estimate based on one’s location. [Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; Tahtawi/Shurunbulali, Hashiyat Maraqi al-Falah] Determining Maghrib is straightforward as it is when the sun has completely set below the horizon. Isha is when it is totally dark. Fajr is when light appears on the horizon. Zuhr time does not vary much from one place to another. Asr is when the shadow of something is equivalent to two full shadow lengths, and one should pray it half-way between Zuhr and Maghrib to be safe.

And Allah alone gives success
Faraz Rabbani

Praying the Confirmed Sunnas With Make-Ups: I Feel Overwhelmed

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: I have realized that the prayers I was performing were invalid. Is it necessary for me to make them all up, including the Witr prayers?  Can I leave sunnah prayers in order to make up all these past prayers?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Walaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

I pray that this finds you well, and in the best of health and spirits. May Allah grant you all good and success in this life and the next.

The position of all four schools of Sunni law is that it is obligatory (fard) to make up all missed prayers, regardless of why they were missed. And prayer is the first thing we will be questioned about on the Day of Judgement, as the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) informed us.

As for Witr, then it is necessary (wajib) because of the many hadiths emphasizing it. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Witr is a duty, and whoever refuses to perform it isn’t of us.” (Abu Dawud and Ahmad) However, because it is a less emphatic duty than the obligatory prayers, you can first make up your obligatory prayers, and make up your witr prayers after. However, both must be made up nonetheless.

A Gift From Allah:

You should consider the make up prayers you have to be a gift from Allah, for there is no outward work you can do to draw closer to Allah more effective and powerful than obligatory prayer–such as your make ups. Thank Allah before and after each of these prayers for opening this door of connecting with Him. Perform these prayers with true yearning for Allah, because each prayer is a step you take towards Allah. And Allah tells us in the authentic hadith qudsi, “Whoever comes to Me walking, I rush to them.” (Muslim, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Maja)

Also, remember the counsel of our Beloved Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) that, “Take of religious practice that which you can sustain, for–by Allah!–Allah doesn’t tire until you do.” (Bukhari and Muslim) From “sustaining” one’s practice is that it not be overwhelming for one. Thus, take on a consistent, sustainable amount of make up prayers that is not difficult or draining, and that you can perform meaningfully and with a sense of turning to Allah with true yearning.

The Confirmed Sunnas

According to the Hanafi school, one would still have to stick to one’s confirmed sunna prayers (sunna mu’akkadas), because they remain strongly enjoined such that missing them even once without excuse is blameworthy, and making this a habit is sinful. [Ibn Abidin, Hashiya]

One’s missed prayers are a debt owed to Allah. As such, the first step is to repent, by resolving not to willfully miss any more prayers, feeling remorse, seeking Allah’s forgiveness, and resolving to make them up. This resolve, to be true, needs proof. As such, one must make up one’s prayers as quickly as reasonably possible. The way to do this is to develop a routine whereby one makes up a given amount of prayers (such as 3, 4 or 5 days of prayers, or more) every day, without exception. And one should not forget that Allah Most High has told us in a Hadith Qudsi, “My servant draws near to Me by nothing more beloved to Me than that which I have made obligatory upon him.”

As for people who did not pray for a very long time (like an old aunt), and just won’t pray their sunnas and perform their makeup prayers, then they should be told to try and pray one or two makeup prayers (or as much as they will be able to keep up with, long term) with each current obligatory prayer, with the repentance mentioned above. This way, they will at least be repaying their debt to Allah in some way. They, too, should remember that Allah Most High has told us in a Hadith Qudsi, “My servant draws near to Me by nothing more beloved to Me than that which I have made obligatory upon him.” As such, people should keep in mind that there is nothing more pleasing to Allah than for them to make up their missed obligatory prayers.

May Allah give us success to follow the ways most pleasing to Him.

Faraz Rabbani.

The Spiritual Retreat (i`tikaf)

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: Could you please give some details regarding the rulings of i`tikaf?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

The Fiqh of I`tikaf (spiritual retreat)

Based on Shurunbulali’s Imdad al-Fattah, and other Hanafi texts

In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate. May His abundant blessing and most perfect of peace be on His Beloved Prophet, the best of creation, and his family, companions and followers.

I`tikaf means ‘remaining’ somewhere.

The technical usage of the term is:

a) for men: to remain in the mosque, with an intention,

b) for women: to remain in their designated prayer area (musalla) at home, with intention, or at the mosque (though it is normally somewhat disliked for them to do so).

I`tikaf is a means of great reward. It says in the Fatawa Hindiyya,

“Its excellence is obvious, for the one make such a spiritual retreat:

– Has submitted their entire person to the worship of Allah Most High;
– seeks closeness;
– distances themselves from the worldly distractions that prevent one from proximity;
– drowning their entire time in actual or effective worship, for the basis of its legislation is to wait from one prayer time to the next prayer in congregation;
– it also makes the one is retreat resemble the angels who do not disobey the command of Allah and do what they are commanded, while glorifying Allah by night and day without tiring…” [1.212]

Legal Status

1. Recommendation

I`tikaf is generally recommended at all times, for both men and women, as defined above for each. It is especially recommended in Ramadan, and even more so in the last ten nights, especially the odd ones.

2. Communal Sunna

It is a strongly emphasized communal sunna for at least some people in each community to make i`tikaf for the entire last 10 days of Ramadan, as this was from the communal guidance and practice of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace). It is blameworthy upon the community as a whole not to arrange and implement this.

3. Necessary

This is when one vows to make i`tikaf. Its minimum is an entire day (and night), and one must fast with it.

Two Important Conditions

Two important conditions for i`tikaf are:

a) that one intend it (and one should intend the general i`tikaf [spiritual retreat] every time one enters a mosque);

b) that one not be in a state of major ritual impurity (i.e. anything necessitating ghusl).

Things permitted during I`tikaf

Everything normally permissible, besides sexual relations, is permitted during i`tikaf, such as eating, drinking, and talk.
What to do during i`tikaf

One should busy oneself with the beneficial as much as one meaningfully can, such as:

1. Voluntary prayer,

2. Reciting the Book of Allah, with reflection, contemplation, and passion,

3. Remembrance of Allah, in all its forms,

4. Gaining beneficial knowledge, and listening to inspiring religious discourses (which is why it is wise to make i`tikaf in a mosque with people of learning, and good company to inspire one towards the good).

One should avoid simply wasting time in things bereft of benefit, let alone the haram, though there is nothing wrong in taking ‘breaks’ in which one relaxes with others, as a means of being able to return to one’s worship with vigor and devotion.

How does one’s i`tikaf end?

When one leaves the mosque or (for women) place of prayer, one’s i`tikaf ends.

During an extended i`tikaf (such as the communal sunna one), one may leave the mosque:

1. For a necessary ghusl.

2. To perform wudu (if such facilities are not found within the mosque),

3. To use the toilet.

Leaving for other reasons will end the i`tikaf.

I`tikaf for Women at Home

It is recommended for women to do i`tikaf (spiritual retreat) in a specific place in their house, a quiet room, for example, whenever they have the time and are able to do so without neglecting their family duties and other responsibilities.

Even when in one’s monthly period, it is recommended in the Hanafi school to sit in a designated place of prayer (musalla) at home, after having made wudu, and make dhikr for the time it takes to pray.

It is recommended for women to designate a place in their houses as their ‘masjid’. They can do i`tikaf there at any time, even for a brief period of time, [Radd al-Muhtar] and attain the great rewards mentioned in the hadiths for i`tikaf (as long as they fulfill their other worldly and religious duties, as is the case for men).

The full communal sunna i`tikaf is for the entire ten days (in the mosque, for men). This is not expected of those working or housewives, for that matter. If one is able to arrange things, and one’s husband agrees, one may perform i`tikaf for the entire 10 days.

However, the fiqh principle is that, “If something cannot be done completely, it should not be left completely.”

Thus, whenever free of pressing responsibilities, women should go to their place of worship, intending i`tikaf (spiritual retreat), even if only for a short amount of time, and keep themselves busy as much as possible in worship.

When she has to do something important, such as go to the kitchen or go shopping or visit a sick neighbor, she can leave her i`tikaf and return when able.

Such an i`tikaf is valid (and recommended) even outside Ramadan for women. In fact, it is best for them to intend i`tikaf every time they enter their place of worship (musalla) even for their daily prayers.

It is not valid for men to do i`tikaf in other than a mosque. [Durr]

The Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) said, “Whoever stands the nights of Ramadan in prayer out of faith and seeking reward shall have their previous sins forgiven.” [Bukhari & Muslim]

May Allah give us success to follow the guidance of His Beloved (Allah bless him & give him peace).

Walaikum assalam,

Faraz Rabbani

MMVIII © Faraz Rabbani and SunniPath.

Intercourse During the Month of Ramadan

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam

Question: Can a husband and wife have Intercourse during the month of Ramadan?

Answer: Yes, it is perfectly okay and permitted for a husband and wife to have sexual intercourse during the blessed month of Ramadhan after sunset (iftar) and before true dawn (al-Fajr al-Sadiq), meaning when they are not fasting.

Allah Most High says:

“Lawful for you, on the night of the fasts, is the approach (sexual intercourse) to your wives. They are your garments and you are their garments. Allah knows what you used to do secretly among yourselves; but He turned to you and forgave you; so now cohabit with them (your wives) and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread. Then complete your fast till the night appears; but do not cohabit with your wives while you are in retreat in the mosques. Those are Limits (set by) Allah. Approach not near thereto. Thus does Allah make clear His Signs to men: that they may learn self-restraint.” (Surah al-Baqarah, V: 187)

In the above verse, Allah Most High clearly mentions the permissibility of sexual intercourse with one’s spouse during the nights of Ramadhan. In the beginning of Islam, the ruling was that if one went to sleep or offered his Eisha prayer, one could not eat, drink or have sex with one’s spouse until sunset the following day. This proved to be somewhat difficult for the Muslims, hence thereafter Allah, the Almighty and Wise, revealed the abovementioned verse, in that it is permissible for one to eat, drink or have sex at night until true dawn comes in, after which one’s fast commences. Some Companions abstained from sexual intercourse during the whole month of Ramadhan, hence the abovementioned verse was revealed. (See: Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 1/298)

However, it should be noted that in the last part of the above verse, Allah Most High prohibits sexual intercourse whilst one is in I’tikaf, hence it is unlawful for the one who is in the state of I’tikaf to cohabit with his spouse whether in the Masjid or outside the Masjid.

As far as your second question is concerned, it is perfectly permitted and lawful for a legally married couple to have sex on Eid day, as there is no fast on this day.

And Allah knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK

Is Expiation (kaffara) Necessary For Not Fasting in Ramadan?

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam

Question: A Muslim, ignorant of his deen, and ignorant of the importance of fasting in Ramadhan did not fast, or make niyyah to fast at all in the month for many years. Then he returned to Islam, and made tawbah for his sins and he calculated he had missed about 400 fasts in his life. Does he have to make up the 400 fasts?

Answer: Expiation (Kaffara) only becomes necessary upon an individual if a fast was broken deliberately after actually starting it by eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse. As such, if a fast of Ramadhan was not kept altogether, then although one will be sinful for not fasting, a Kaffara will not be necessary, rather one will be obliged to make up for the missed fast (qadha).

The great Hanafi jurist (faqih), Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) states while discussing the acts that make one only liable to make up for the fast (qadha) and not expiation (kaffara):

“If an individual broke his fast by mistake, such as whilst gargling water entered into his mouth unintentionally…or…..or he woke up in the morning without making an intention of fasting….then in all these situations, only a Qadha will be necessary.

Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) explaining the above states:

“(Or he woke up in the morning without making an intention to fast)…..Because a Kaffara is only necessary upon a person who broke the fast after keeping it…. (Only a Qadha will be necessary) meaning there will be no Kaffara. (See: Radd al-Muhtar ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 2/401-406)

Therefore, in light of the above, the one who missed the obligatory fasts of Ramadhan should firstly repent to Allah Almighty and seek his forgiveness for not fasting. Secondly, it will be necessary to make up (qadha) for the 400 fasts that were missed, although a Kaffara will not be necessary. The person concerned should begin making up for the missed fasts as soon as possible, Insha Allah.

And Allah knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK

Fasting in Extreme Latitudes

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam


 Question : In the areas that are situated on extreme latitudes, you mentioned that there are four methods of calculating the times for the Eisha and Fajr prayers. How would these times be used for fasting in Ramadan? It seems that any of the methodologies enumerated could result in 20+ hour fasts, which does not seem reasonable for an entire month of fasting. It may become very difficult for one to fast for 20 hours and more.



 Answer : Firstly, with regards to fasting, the texts of the Qur’an and Sunnah clearly indicate that the time for its commencement is at true dawn (al-fajr al-sadiq) and it ends at sunset (ghurub). There is also the consensus of the Ummah (ijma) on this.


Secondly, as mentioned in an earlier post, one of the methods of calculating the times of Eisha and Fajr prayers respectively is the method of Aqrab al-Ayyam, which means to calculate the times according to the last day when Dawn did actually set in. (See for details a post on this website in the Salat section).


Now, for example, on the last day when true dawn (al-fajr al-sadiq) set in, it was around 1:20 A.M. This time will remain the beginning time for the fasts throughout the period where the sun fails to descend fully below the western horizon.


Indeed, the fasts may be twenty hours long, but this is something one will have to adhere to. It should be remembered that the duration of the fast on the last day when true dawn did actually appear, was also twenty hours. Now, when true dawn actually does appear (meaning we experience actual fajr al Sadiq), then (obviously) we must begin our fasts from that time, thus there is no alternative but to follow this ruling during the days when we don’t experience the actual appearing of Fajr al-Sadiq, for the duration of fasts in both times is similar.


One should always keep in mind that certain rulings may definitely be difficult to practice upon, but the rewards by Allah in the hereafter are immense.


However, if old and weak people are unable to bear the long fasts, and they fear becoming extremely ill, it would be permitted for them not to keep the fasts in Ramadhan and thereafter make them up (qadha) when the duration of the fasts becomes less.


And Allah Knows Best

 Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK

The Rulings Related to a Latecomer & a Note on the Durr Al-Mukhtar

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: What does a latecomer do when completing the rest of his prayer?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

In the Durr al-Mukhtar, a commentary on the Tanwir al-Absar, Imam `Ala’ al-Din al-Haskafi begins by explaining the principle regarding the latecomer, and then gives an example, stating:

“The latecomer… makes up the beginning of his prayer in terms of recitation, and the end of his prayer in terms of the tashahhud.

Therefore, someone who has caught one rakat in other than the fajr prayer needs to perform two rakats with the Fatiha and a sura [f: or its equivalent, which is 3 short verses], between which he sits for the tashahhud, and adds a fourth rakat in a 4-rakat prayer in which he only recites the Fatiha, and does not sit before it.” [Haskafi, Durr al-Mukhtar Sharh Tanwir al-Absar]

This may be a little terse, but if the principle and the subsequent example are understood things should be clear:

Scenario 1: If you prayed 1 rakat of a 4-rakat prayer with the imam, then when you get up:

– In terms of recitation you are in your first rakat and so you recite both the Fatiha with a sura. In terms of the whole prayer itself, you are in your second rakat, so you sit for the tashahhud.

– Then, the next rakat is your second rakat in terms of recitation, so the Fatiha and a sura are both recited.  Overall, this is your third rakat. If it is maghrib, you sit for your final sitting here, otherwise you stand up to perform the final rakat.

– Then you are in your third rakat in terms of recitation, so you only recite the Fatiha; it is your final rakat overall, so you sit for the final sitting.

Scenario 2: If you prayed 3 rakats of a 4-rakat prayer with the imam, when you get up:

– You are in your first rakat in terms of recitation [see the principle outlined by Imam al-Haskafi, above], so you recite both the Faitha and a sura; it is the final rakat you are praying, so you sit for the tashahhud, then send blessings on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), and recite a dua, even if very short. [Note: reciting a dua at the end of the prayer, before the salams is a confirmed sunna in the Hanafi school.]

A Note About The Durr al-Mukhtar:

The Durr al-Mukhtar [‘The Chosen Pearl’] is one of the central late texts of the Hanafi school. Its author, Ala’ al-Din al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him), was the Grand Mufti of Damascus during the 11th Islamic century, and his works, particularly the Durr, profoundly influenced all texts that came after it, and became the central reference for legal details and rulings. This was due to a number of reasons, among them:

(a) The text it comments upon, Tumurtashi’s Tanwir al-Absar, written in the beginning of the 11th Islamic century, is the most detailed and precise text (matn) in Hanafi fiqh, as stated by Imam `Abd al-Hayy Lakhnawi in al-Fawa’id al-Bahiyya;

(b) Haskafi summarized and chose the most important conditions, details, exceptions, alternate positions, and legal discussions mentioned by the great later Hanafi scholars before him (such as Babatri, Kamal ibn al-Humam, Mulla Khusraw, Ibn Nujaym, and many others);

(c) All this was done with extreme precision and clarity, which is a great help for those busy giving fatwa or in court. [However, at times it can be concise to the point of becoming confusing, even to scholars, which is one of the many reasons there are so many supercommentaries on it.]

There were many supercommentaries written on the Durr al-Mukhtar. The most famous are the Hashiya of al-Tahtawi and the Hashiya of Ibn Abidin (named Radd al-Muhtar). The latter is the primary reference for legal verdicts in the Hanafi school everywhere the Hanafi school is practiced. [Note: the Indo-Pak scholars often refer to Ibn Abidin as “al-Shami” and to his Hashiya as “al-Shamiyya” or “Fatawa Shami”.]

Ibn Abidin had great admiration for the work of Ala’ al-Din al-Haskafi, authoring at least four commentaries on his works, and even naming his son after him, Ala’ al-Din Abidin. Ala’ al-Din Abidin wrote a completion on his father’s Hashiya, and authored a beautiful manual on worship, belief and halal & haram: al-Hadiyya al-Ala’iyya (Gifts of Guidance), which is being annotated and translated at present.

Ibn Abidin wrote his magnificent Radd al-Muhtar, the central reference for fatwa positions in the Hanafi school across the lands, as detailed marginal glosses (hashiya) on Durr al-Mukhtar. He said :

“al-Durr al-Mukhtar, the commentary on Tanwir al-Absar, has flown through the lands, and circled the cities, and become more manifest than the sun at mid-day, until people have busied themselves with it, and it has become their recourse. It is most deserving of being sought, and of the school (madhhab) being on it… for it contains more well-verified rulings, and sound details than many a longer work…” [Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar, 1: 2]

And Allah alone gives success.

Walaikum assalam,
Faraz Rabbani.

Brief Miscellaneous Q & A Relating to Fasting

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Q: Is taking a meal before commencing a fast (suhur) necessary in order for a fast to be valid?

A: No, Suhur is not necessary. However, it is a virtuous act of Sunnah that should not be missed unnecessarily.

Q: What time does Suhur begin?

A: One can take Suhur any time after midnight, but it is more advisable to take it in the latter hours of the night, preferably just before the break of true dawn (al-Fajr al-Sadiq).

Q: Is an intention for fasting necessary and when should one make the intention (niyyah) for the fast of Ramadhan?

A: The intention for fasting is necessary but very simple: It is to know in your heart that you will fast that day. It is valid to have this intention any time from Maghrib the night before up to the Islamic midday of the actual day of fasting, for current Ramadhan fasts and voluntary fasts. The Islamic midday is half way between the beginning of Fajr and Maghrib times. (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya)

Q: Can a man have sexual intercourse with his wife during the nights of Ramadhan?

A: Yes, it is permitted to have sexual intercourse with one’s spouse during the nights of Ramadhan. However, one must stop before the break of dawn (al-Fajr al-Sadiq). It will also be permitted to take the obligatory ritual bath of purification after one has started one’s fast.

Q: Is it permissible to kiss and caress one’s wife whilst fasting?

A: Non-sexual affectionate kissing, from which there is no fear of leading to intercourse or ejaculation, will be allowed and not disliked. However, if one fears that kissing will lead to ejaculation or sexual intercourse, then it will be disliked (makruh) to kiss, but one’s fast will remain valid as long as kissing does not lead to actual sexual intercourse or does not result in ejaculation. If kissing resulted in ejaculation, one’s fast would become invalid and hence will have to be made up (qadha), without having to expiate for it (kaffara). Passionate kissing when saliva is exchanged will invalidate one’s fast, with both Qadha and Kaffara necessary. (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 1/200 & 1/204)

Q: Does a fast break when one swallows the saliva of one’s spouse?

A: Yes, if one is certain of swallowing one’s spouse’s saliva, then this would invalidate one’s fast and necessitate both a Qadha and Kaffara.

Q: If one kisses or caresses one’s spouse and consequently ejaculates, is one’s fast broken?

A: Yes, the fast is invalidated. However one will only have to make up for the fast (Qadha), and there will be no expiation (Kaffara) in this situation.

Q: What is the difference between a Qadha and Kaffara?

A: Qadha (makeup) means to keep another fast in order to make up for the fast which was invalidated, whilst Kaffara (expiation) means to perform an act to expatiate the sin of having broken a fast.

Q: In what way is a Kaffara fulfilled?

A: A Kaffara may be given in the following two ways: 1) Fasting for two months consecutively without missing a single fast, 2) Feeding sixty poor people. It should be remembered that if one has the ability to fast then one cannot adopt the second method; rather, one will have to fast for sixty days continuously.

Q: Does an injection invalidate one’s fast?

A: No, it does not invalidate one’s fast, although it is better to avoid taking injections whilst fasting unnecessarily.

Q: Does taking out blood or a blood test invalidate one’s fast?

A: No, a blood test does not invalidate the fast, as it is merely the taking out of blood. However, it will be disliked if it could weaken one from being able to maintain the fast.

Q: Does smoking invalidate one’s fast?

A: Yes, it does invalidate one’s fast. (Ramadhan is a good time to quit smoking forever!).

Q: Is it allowed to use an Asthma Pump during the Fast?

A: If one has a genuine medical need for an asthma pump that cannot be otherwise fulfilled, then it would be permitted to use it. However, it would break the fast and require that the fast be made up later (Qadha). This is because anything that has a perceptible body breaks the fast if it enters the body through a normal channel.

Q: When does vomiting break one’s fast?

A: Vomiting only breaks one’s fast if: a) one returns and swallows the vomit down the throat, or b) one vomits a mouthful intentionally. It is not broken by non-deliberate vomiting or (deliberately) vomiting less than a mouthful. If one’s fast is broken by vomiting, then one will only have to make up (qadha) for the fast, a Kaffara will not be necessary.

Q: How does one decide when vomiting is a mouthful?

A: The definition of “mouthful vomiting” is that which one cannot hold back in one’s mouth without difficulty.

Q: Can one fast whilst travelling?

A: Yes, one may fast while travelling. However one should not burden oneself if the journey is long and difficult, for in such situations it is advisable not to fast.

Q: Can a woman on menstruation (haydh) or post-natal bleeding (nifas) fast?

A: No, she cannot fast. It will be unlawful (haram) for her to do so.

Q: Does a woman on menstruation (Haydh) or post-natal bleeding (Nifas) have to make up for the fasts missed?

A: Yes, she will have to make Qadha for the missed fasts.

Q: Does one have to perform the Qadha fasts immediately after Ramadhan?

A: No, it is not necessary. However, it is recommended to complete the missed fasts of Ramadhan as soon as possible.

Q: When can a sick person break his/her fast on the opinion of a doctor?

A: When a competent Muslim doctor says that if he/she continues fasting, it will bring danger to his/her life or severely effect the health, then in such a situation it will be permitted to break one’s fast. One will not be liable for a Kaffara but will only have to make up for the fast (Qadha).

And Allah knows best
Muhammad ibn Adam
Darul Iftaa
Leicester , UK

Accidentally Inhaling Perfume While Fasting

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam

Question: If one is fasting and sprays perfume on oneself and accidentally inhales some of the perfume, will it break the fast? Will Qadha have to be made?

Answer: In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

One’s fast does not break by wearing, feeling or smelling fragrance. As such, it is permitted to apply perfume (itr), deodorant, or spays whilst in the state of fasting. However, if one was to intentionally inhale something that has a perceptible body, such as smoke, then one’s fast would become invalid.

It is stated in Maraqi al-Falah:

“…If one inhaled fragrance by intentionally drawing it towards one’s self and smelling it’s smoke, whilst remembering that one is fasting, then one’s fast would become invalid…..This is something regarding which many people are neglectful, hence people should become alert and not consider it (inhaling something that has a perceptible body) similar to smelling rose, its water and musk. There is clear difference between smelling the fragrance of musk and other perfumes and between something that has a perceptible body like smoke entering one’s inside intentionally.” (Maraqi al-Falah with Hashiya al-Tahtawi, P: 660)

Therefore, if one was to deliberately inhale through one’s nose a perfume that has a perceptible body such as the smoke of Loban or the smoke of that which is known in the Indian Subcontinent as “Aghar Batti”, then one’s fast would become invalid. Similarly, if one intentionally sprays perfume in the nose and inhales it, one’s fast would break.

However, there are two things that need to be remembered here:

Firstly, in order for one’s fast to become invalid, one has to inhale the smoke intentionally and deliberately. If the smoke of a perfume entered through one’s nose or throat unintentionally, then one’s fast will not break. (Maraqi al-Falah, P: 660)

Secondly, in the situation where one’s fast does become invalid (i.e. when one deliberately inhales something that has a perceptible body), one will only have to make up for the fast later (qadha) and a expiation (kaffara) will not be necessary. (ibid)

In light of the above explanation, if one accidentally inhaled perfume, then one’s fast will not become invalid. However, if one intentionally and deliberately sprayed the perfume (that has a perceptible body) in the nose and inhaled it, then the fast would become invalid, hence one will have to make up for the fast later.

And Allah knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK

Praying Witr After Tahajjud & Make-Up’s

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: I understand that the witr prayer should be the last prayer of the night. If I planned to pray tahajjud and pray witr afterwards but missed both the prayers, do i have to make up the witr prayer? If so, when should it be made up? Also, if I am not sure I will wake up for tahajjud should I pray the witr right after `isha and if I do will my tahajjud still count if I pray it after having already prayed witr?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Walaikum assalam,

In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

In Imam Fakhr al-Dïn al-Zayla`ï(Allah have mercy on him) wrote in his Tabyïn al-Haqà’iq Sharh Kanz al-Daqà’iq:[1]

“It is recommended to delay the witr prayer until the end of the night if one is sure of waking up, in order for it to be the last of his night prayers, because the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Make the witr prayer the last of your night prayers.” (Related by Bukhari, Muslim, & others). If one is not sure of waking up at night, one should perform the witr prayer before sleeping, because of the hadith narrated by Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Whoever fears not waking up at the end of the night should pray witr before sleeping. And whoever is confident about waking up at the end of the night should pray witr then…” (Related by Muslim and others) [Tabyïn al-Haqà’iq, 1: 84]

Sayyidi Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) said in hisRadd al-Muhtar:

“If one prayed witr before sleeping and then wakes up… it is not disliked to pray. Rather, it is recommended to pray. However, witr is not repeated.” [Radd al-Muhtar: 1: 369]

Therefore, if one invariably gets up for tahajjud (the night vigil), then it is best to pray witr then. Otherwise, one should pray witr before sleeping, because it is a sin to delay a necessary prayer past its prescribed time.

This is why Abu Hurayra relates, “My beloved one [=the Prophet] counseled me not to sleep except having prayed witr.”[2]

And Allah knows best.

Faraz Rabbani.

[1] Imam al-Zayla`i’sT abyïn al-Haqà’iq is one of the relied-upon commentaries in the Hanafi school. It is particularly important for the strength of its presentation of the legal reasoning behind the rulings, as well as their proofs. Note, though, that its author is Imam Fakhr al-Din `Uthman ibn Ali al-Zayla`i (d. 743 AH), not Imam Jamal al-Din Abd Allah ibn Yusuf al-Zayla`i(d. 762 AH), author of the masterly Nasb al-Rayain which he gave a detailed analysis and exposition for the proofs of the Hanafi school. The latter was a student of the former, though.

[2] Note: The scholars mention that some of the Companions, due to their extreme poverty, sometimes got so weak that they couldn’t be sure about waking up for the night prayer. In fact, Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) would sometimes faint on the road because of his extreme hunger, because he was busy learning and memorizing the words of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace).

MMVIII © Faraz Rabbani and SunniPath