Re Previous Answer on Wife’s Conjugal Rights

Shaykh Jamir Meah clarifies certain aspects of a previous answer on a wife’s conjugal rights.

I am writing to inquire a further look at this portion from a previous answer: What Does Islam Say About the Neglect of the Wife’s Sexual Rights?

Islam already takes into account the fact that a woman may have times where she is physically or psychologically unable to fulfill her husband’s desire, and by doing so, her condition may worsen. In these cases, the husband would be prohibited from forcing the wife to have intercourse, and if he did so, he would be sinful.

I am concerned about whether the wording is intentional. Wouldn’t it be more accurate to say that a man should never force his wife to have sex with him, and if she refuses he cannot force her to? I think the traditional definition of rape here still applies in that case, but I think that would also be an example of domestic abuse. This hadith is often misquoted by people to scare and demoralize Muslim women, in my experience. It would be good to see a lesson or article dedicated specifically to it.

Jazak Allah khayr, for all the good work that you do. Insha Allah that good only increases in the future.

Due to the question being predominantly about the wife’s conjugal rights and the husband’s neglect of it, the answer was mainly focused on this issue.

The “rape” section was in response to a very brief, almost passing, part of the question. (I think it was completely edited out from the final question published.) Hence my very brief response to it. I cannot remember the exact question, but it was not a direct or general question about forced sex within marriage, more about if the husband demands relations while the wife is unable to have relations, hence my specific answer on that.

I wholeheartedly agree that a specific and detailed article on this latter topic would be beneficial. For now, the relevant rulings and details, which concur with my own understanding and how I would address the issue, can be found in this excellent answer by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam: Can a Wife Refuse her Husband’s Call to Bed?

This is a sensitive topic that can be exploited by many, both men and women. For sure, we need to do more to educate and warn Muslim men about these rulings and to have proper conduct and care in marriage, but we must also be aware that there is currently a very strong feminist movement at work which has it’s own agenda, much of which is insidious.

Warmest salams,

Jamir

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Uncertainty in Marriage (Shafi‘i Fiqh)

Shaykh Abdurragmaan Khan answers questions about uncertainty concerning marriage and divorce.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa baraktuh.

I need help. Sometimes I feel very sad. My husband and I have argued many times throughout our marriage and sometimes I wonder if we are still husband and wife. He has even joked about a conditional divorce once. He said “If there is violence, we’re over.” At first he said he didn’t mean divorce but when I asked him again, he said Yes. He said that he said “Yes” so that I would listen and stop asking. Is that now a conditional divorce? Can you change the intention of a past sentence?

Please help me, I just want to move on with my life.

Thank you.

Thank you for writing to us.

  1. Arguing, no matter how excessive, does not constitute a divorce, unless a divorce is clearly pronounced.
  2. Your husband’s statement, “if theres violence, we’re over” will only be considered a conditional divorce if he intended divorce by his words, “we’re over,” as is the case with all figurative speech. In the case at hand, he consistently seems to be saying that he did not intend divorce, which effectively means that there would be no divorce even if violence was to occur.
  3. One may not change his intention that he had when pronouncing a particular formula or sentence. By way of example, if he intended divorce while uttering the above words, it remains as such and he cannot change the intention that he had at the time of uttering. Similarly, if he did not intend divorce, his intention cannot change subsequently.
  4. In short, you are not divorced from your husband, even if violence may have occurred after his utterance of the above statement. In addition, it would be advisable that you and your husband go for counseling and try and determine what is the root cause behind all quarreling and arguing within your marriage. Many a times, the solution is rather simple and can easily be identified by and experience counselor.

May Allah bless your marriage and remove all difficulties and challenges, Amin.

And Allah knows best,

Abdurragmaan Khan

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Is It Valid to Marry in Secret?

Ustadh Salman Younas answers a question about the validity and rightness of wanting to marry someone without the parents’ knowledge and consent.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I love someone and I want that relationship becomes halal. Right now I want to marry her without telling anyone just to make it halal, and it is not possible right now to take permission from my parents neither from her parents.

If we marry each other will it be legitimate? And if we do not get involve in any physical relation before the marriage with the permission of our parents will it be legitimate?

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

According to the Shafi‘i school, in order for a marriage contract to be valid the following must be present:

    1. 1. The bride’s guardian (wali)

2. Two upright Muslim witnesses

3. The groom

4. The offer and acceptance.

Without these being present, the marriage contract would not be valid. As you can see, “secret” marriages executed without the knowledge and consent of the bride’s legal guardian are not valid in our school. (Tuhfatul Muhtaj, Nihayatul Muhtaj)

Hanafi School

Although the Hanafi school holds that the bride’s guardian is not a legal integral for the validity of the marriage, when there is no serious need to take this position, marriage without your parent’s knowledge and consent would be highly discouraged.

While your feelings towards each other are strong right now, please do not forget your respective mother and fathers, their feelings, and everything they have done for you both. Marriage is a huge step and one that takes a child away from the family home forever. Do your best not to break their hearts and cause them unnecessary anxiety, for in many cases, couples that do so later regret it and wish they had done things differently.

For more detailed answers to the Hanafi position and related concerns, please refer to these answers, particularly the second answer: What Are the Minimum Steps That Must Be Taken for a Marriage to Be Valid? and Can We Get Married Without Involving Our Parents?

Relationships

Whether one is in a physical relationship or purely an emotionally attached relationship, either way, it would not be permitted to continue. Allah has commanded us:

وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الزِّنَى إِنَّهُ

And do not come near to adultery. (Sura al Isra 17:32)

Coming near zina includes every inclination of the heart, every loving gaze, every touch, every word spoken with intent of affection, with someone one it is not permitted to do so with. These tender emotions are guarded and preserved for after marriage, which makes the marital bond that much sweeter and pure.

There is a saying in Egypt which goes something like, “The one who walks through the door is respected, the one who climbs through the window is not.” In other words, the man who does not go through the proper means of asking for a bride’s hand in marriage, i.e. the father or guardian, deserves no respect, while the one who goes through the correct channels, regardless if his acceptance is accepted or not, is still respected and his dignity and reputation remain intact.

Don’t forget, by marrying this girl, you are essentially taking someone’s daughter away from them. This is hard enough for parents when their child gets married with their consent, let alone behind their backs.

Conversely, from the bride’s point of view, she should not give her affection to anyone easily, rather she should deem herself worthy, and accept only a man who is respectful, dignified and who carries out his affairs with principles and correct conduct. This not only earns the respect of the family, but the woman herself will value and respect him more, and he respect her more.

Though it may be hard to put your relationship on hold until a solution can be found in regards getting married, put it on hold you must. You should take the lead and show strength and resolution.

In this time, I suggest that you both work on your relationship with Allah Most High, for whom your love should be more than anyone else. When you truly love Allah, step by step, you will both desire what is pleasing to Him, and naturally forgo what you want and accept whatever Allah has in store for you both.

Solutions

Marriage is a celebration of two people coming together lawfully, and it is important that it is made public for many reasons.

Try to resolve the issue by following the helpful suggestions mentioned in this answer: Can I Marry Without My Parents’ Consent?

Be patient and true, and you’ll find that Allah will open up things for you in ways you never would have expected.

Warmest salams,

Jamir

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Father-in-Law Kissed Daughter-in-Law

Ustadh Salman Younas gives general advice on a case of a father-in-law kissing the daughter-in-law by mistake and how one should act in such cases.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

A case has arisen in our town that a father in law suddenly and unexpectedly kissed his daughter in law. This all happened in seconds. After that he is shameful and saying that he didn’t do this intentionally and lustfully and there is no erection or ejaculation, and he is ready to swore on the Qur’an that she is like my daughter and I have not done this intentionally.

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

My assumption is that you are asking about hurmat al-musahara, which is the non-marriageable kinship (mahramiya) created between a person and the relatives of his spouse as a result of marriage and valid intercourse. Thus, a man who marries a woman and consummates the marriage is not permitted to marry her mother or any daughters she has from a previous marriage. Similarly, a person cannot marry the wife of his father. The Qur’anic verse affirming the basic idea of hurmat al-musahara is, “Do not marry those [women] whom your fathers married.” (Sura al-Nisa 4:22)

Outside of a marriage context, however, the scholars differ on whether hurmat al-musahara is ever established. In other words, does adultery–fornication or touching–kissing outside of a marriage relationship establish this hurma? The Hanafis say it does (adding specific conditions when it comes to touching/kissing), while the Malikis and Shafi‘is say it does not. In other words, if a father-in-law touched his daughter-in-law directly with lust, the marriage between the former’s son and the daughter-in-law would be broken according to Hanafis but not so according to the Malikis or Shafi‘is. (Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; al-Shirbini, Mughni al-Muhtaj; al-Dasuqi, Hashiya)

Given the sensitivity of the situation you describe and the scarcity of details you offer, I cannot offer a specific ruling for this case but only the following general advice:

1. In the specific scenario you mention, people must avoid rushing to judge someone’s marriage as invalidated on account of this act even if it has been clearly shown to have taken place. This is because (i) there is established difference of opinion on the matter, and (ii) annulling someone’s marriage, in this case the daughter-in-law and her husband (the father’s son), on account of someone else’s independent and unsolicited action seems highly unjust and problematic.

2. People must take care to avoid making insinuations against the father-in-law, the daughter-in-law, and other family members, or spreading gossip, hearsay, and the like.

3. If the father-in-law is known to be an otherwise upright person and there is no reason to suspect that something is amiss, people should leave things be, accept him at his word, and let him and the family manage the issue.

4. If there are reasonable signs and indications to suspect something unsavory and wrong taking place on the part of the father-in-law (e.g. abuse), this should be referred to the proper authorities. However, one should tread carefully before suspecting any such thing.

Because of the sensitivity of this situation, I would advise you to consult local scholars – people who are reliable, pious, have wisdom, and who have an understanding of family and community dynamics.

Salman

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Is It a Divorce If a Spouse Sings a Break up Song and the Husband Nods to the Beat? 

Question: I would like to know if, while I am singing a break-up song and my husband nods his head to it, that would constitute a divorce? What if he sings a break-up song to me?

Answer: Wa’alaykum assalam. Thank you for writing in.

Going by the examples you have given, no divorce has been affected.

Divorce

Words that affect divorce are of two types: explicit, where the meaning is unequivocal, such as ‘I divorce you’, and implicit (of which there are a great many expressions), where the words are ambiguous and could mean divorce or could mean something else, such as ‘Leave the house’.

An explicit expression does not require an intention of divorce for divorce to be affected. An implicit expression requires an intention of divorce to be made for it to be affected.

In the specific examples you gave, the lyrics are not explicit expressions of divorce. It does not seem that they are implicit expressions of divorce either. If other lyrics were sung at other times which were implicit, then from your account, it does not sound like either of you made any intention for divorce while singing them. Your husbands nodding his head up and down to the beat of the songs in these cases also do not constitute as a divorce. As such, no divorce has taken place.

Sincere counsel

Dear sister, as much as it may seem hard to not listen to music for those of us who grew up in the West, I would highly encourage you and your husband to wean yourselves off listening to music.

There are many elements in music and songs that are impermissible, and the lyrics are most often than not incongruous with the high moral spirit of the religion, leading one to a state of heedlessness and a deadening of the heart. At the very least, it will prevent scenarios that fill one with doubts and anxieties such as you have described in your question. Needless to say, Muslims should not be supporting the music industry in any way.

The Prophet ﷺ said, ‘Verily, Allah does not look at your appearance or wealth, but rather he looks at your hearts and actions [Muslim].

We must remind ourselves when Allah looks at our works, that we ensure that our actions are in accordance to what He has made lawful, not engaged with something displeasing to Him. When He looks at our hearts, we want Him to find hearts which are alive, that are filled with only good intentions and occupied with love and gratitude for Him.

The first step towards attaining to this is to gradually and systematically diminish any aspects of our lives which distract us from our real objective in life. ‘You will never leave anything for the sake of Allah Almighty but that Allah will replace it with something better.’ [Ahmad]

I pray Allah makes you and your husband among those who are firm in the faith, and guidance to others.

Warmest salams,

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. In 2007, he travelled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years studying the Islamic sciences on a one-to-one basis under the foremost scholars of the Ribaat, Tarim, with a main specialization and focus on Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies in a range of Islamic sciences, as well as teaching. Jamir is a qualified homeopath.

Is It a Divorce If a Spouse Sings a Break up Song and the Husband Nods to the Beat? 

Question: I need urgent help. If there was a song playing that says “You ruin my life, by not being mine” and “there’s nothing I hate more than what I can have.” and my husband nods and moves his hand up and down. I sang other parts of the song. Is it considered a divorce if a Muslim husband sings a break-up song or if a Muslim wife sings a break-up song and the husband nods to the beat?

Answer: Wa’alaykum assalam. Thank you for writing in.

Going by the examples you have given, no divorce has been affected.

Divorce

Words that affect divorce are of two types: explicit, where the meaning is unequivocal, such as ‘I divorce you’, and implicit (of which there are a great many expressions), where the words are ambiguous and could mean divorce or could mean something else, such as ‘Leave the house’.

An explicit expression does not require an intention of divorce for divorce to be affected. An implicit expression requires an intention of divorce to be made for it to be affected.

In the specific examples you gave, the lyrics are not explicit expressions of divorce. It does not seem that they are implicit expressions of divorce either. If other lyrics were sung at other times which were implicit, then from your account, it does not sound like either of you made any intention for divorce while singing them. Your husbands nodding his head up and down to the beat of the songs in these cases also do not constitute as a divorce. As such, no divorce has taken place.

Sincere counsel

Dear sister, as much as it may seem hard to not listen to music for those of us who grew up in the West, I would highly encourage you and your husband to wean yourselves off listening to music.

There are many elements in music and songs that are impermissible, and the lyrics are most often than not incongruous with the high moral spirit of the religion, leading one to a state of heedlessness and a deadening of the heart. At the very least, it will prevent scenarios that fill one with doubts and anxieties such as you have described in your question. Needless to say, Muslims should not be supporting the music industry in any way.

The Prophet ﷺ said, ‘Verily, Allah does not look at your appearance or wealth, but rather he looks at your hearts and actions [Muslim].

We must remind ourselves when Allah looks at our works, that we ensure that our actions are in accordance to what He has made lawful, not engaged with something displeasing to Him. When He looks at our hearts, we want Him to find hearts which are alive, that are filled with only good intentions and occupied with love and gratitude for Him.

The first step towards attaining to this is to gradually and systematically diminish any aspects of our lives which distract us from our real objective in life. ‘You will never leave anything for the sake of Allah Almighty but that Allah will replace it with something better.’ [Ahmad]

I pray Allah makes you and your husband among those who are firm in the faith, and guidance to others.

Warmest salams,

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. In 2007, he travelled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years studying the Islamic sciences on a one-to-one basis under the foremost scholars of the Ribaat, Tarim, with a main specialization and focus on Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies in a range of Islamic sciences, as well as teaching. Jamir is a qualified homeopath.

Is It Obligatory to Try to Have Children?

Answered by Shaykh Abdurragmaan Khan

Question: Assalam alaykum,

I don’t want children in the future. I am very sure about it. But I heard from a lot of people that this isn’t Islamic correct. I don’t get it. Maybe it is mustahab to have children but you can’t make a women put in such a pressure and let feeling her bad for her choice. What is the truth about this matter?

Answer: Wa alaykum al-Salam

Thank you for your question.

One of the noble objectives of marriage is offspring. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala says in surah al-Baqarah, “So now have relations with them, and seek that which Allah has decreed for you”. Many of the scholars stated that, “that which Allah has decreed for you.” refers to children.

The right to having children is a right of both husband and wife. Your question does not mention your specific circumstance. Are you married? Does your husband want children? Whose criticizing you and making you feel bad?

If it is that you are married and individuals outside your marriage are criticizing you, then you should ignore them. However, if it is your husband that desires children, then, unless you have a valid reason or excuse, you should not be stripping him of this right. Similarly, had it been the wife that desires children, the husband, unless he has a valid reason or excuse, should not deprive his wife from her rights. The Messenger sallaLlahu alayhi wasallam in a narration, indicating to the wife’s right to have children, prohibited the husband from practicing coitus interruptus without the permission of his wife.

Further, it’s important for husband and wife to discuss these matters prior to marriage. When both parties agree not have children then there is no problem in that.

Finally, psychiatrists mention a number of reasons why certain women may be completely deterred from having children, many of them relating to her youth or upbringing. This is a worthy avenue to explore as it may present solutions to a challenging situation.

And Allah knows best

Wassalam
[Shaykh] Abdurragmaan Khan

Shaykh Abdurragmaan
received ijazah ’ammah from various luminaries, including but not restricted to: Habib Umar ibn Hafiz—a personality who affected him greatly and who has changed his relationship with Allah, Maulana Yusuf Karaan—the former Mufti of Cape Town; Habib ‘Ali al-Mashhur—the current Mufti of Tarim; Habib ‘Umar al-Jaylani—the Shafi‘i Mufti of Makkah; Sayyid Ahmad bin Abi Bakr al-Hibshi; Habib Kadhim as-Saqqaf; Shaykh Mahmud Sa’id Mamduh; Maulana Abdul Hafiz al-Makki; Shaykh Ala ad-Din al-Afghani; Maulana Fazlur Rahman al-Azami and Shaykh Yahya al-Gawthani amongst others.

Can I Marry a Girl After Fantasizing About Her Mother?

Answered by Shaykh Jamir Meah

Question: Assalamu alaykum

I once had immoral and bad thoughts about my future mother in law and masturbated to those thoughts. There was no contact between me and my future Mother in Law. Can I still marry her daughter according to Shafi’i fiqh?

Answer: Assalam ‘alaykum. Jazakum Allah for your question.

Having immoral thoughts about your future mother in law is prohibited. However, it does not affect the permissibility of marrying her daughter.

Sincere Counsel

It is important that you first repent from your thoughts and actions, by praying two cycles of prayer with the intention of repentance. Ask Allah to forgive you and to help you overcome these thoughts and prohibited actions. Focus on your marriage and devote your love and desire towards your wife alone.

If you are struggling with addictions, especially if it has been long term, then start now by weaning yourself off bad habits, as they may affect your marital life a great deal.

Please refer to the various answers below, some of which contain very good practical steps and resources to help control urges and overcoming the issues:

Masturbation Archives

Once you have prayed tawba, be positive and strive to stay firm on the road to healing. If you fall on the way, just keep going. With the help of Allah, anything is surmountable.

Warmest salams,
[Shaykh] Jamir Meah

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. In 2007, he traveled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years studying the Islamic sciences on a one-to-one basis under the foremost scholars of the Ribaat, Tarim, with a main specialization and focus on Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies in a range of Islamic sciences, as well as teaching. Jamir is a qualified homeopath.

What Are the Etiquettes When Going Through a Divorce?

Answered by Shaykh Jamir Meah

Question: Assalamu alaykum

I am going through a divorce.

What are the etiquettes when going through a divorce?

Answer: Wa’alaykum assalam. I pray you’re well. I am sorry to hear that you are going through a divorce.

The best of etiquettes when divorcing is to try to be as amicable and forgiving as possible with one another, as Allah Most High tells us, ‘Then when they have [almost] reached the end of their waiting period, either retain them honourably or separate from them honourably.’ [65:2]

Waiting Periods

If the marriage has been consummated (and the divorced woman is not pregnant) then the waiting period is three valid purities between menses.

If the marriage was not consummated, then there is no waiting period.

If the wife is pregnant, then the waiting periods ends when the child is born.

Further Rulings and Etiquettes

General: During the waiting period, the general rules relating to a wife applies to the divorced wife, barring awra, seclusion, and sexual relations.

Finance: The husband must provide the normal financial support due to a wife during this period.

Accommodation / Seclusion: The wife has a right to stay in the husband’s house for the duration of her waiting period. In that time, they are not allowed to be in seclusion with one another. Avoiding seclusion in one house is difficult unless there are two separate quarters for everything (i.e. bathroom, kitchen) and including entry doors. As such, in most cases, the husband should move out during this period.

Leaving the House: According to the Shafi’i school, the divorced wife is not permitted to leave the house unless for necessity, such as if she needs to work and earn money, or for an emergency. If this opinion proves difficult, one may follow the Maliki position, which permits a woman in her waiting period to leave the house during the daytime, even without a need, such as for social reasons and events, whilst returning in the evening. For more specific details on the Maliki opinion, you may refer to this answer here.

Travel: However, what seems apparent from all the rulings, including the more expansive Maliki position, is that travel would not be allowed. In this case, it would be advisable not to travel and forgo the amount.

Mut’a / Gifts: In the Shafi’i school, if the husband divorces his wife, it is obligatory for the husband to give the wife a payment called the mut’a. Perhaps a reasonable amount to give is between a quarter to half the typical dowry amount of the place and time.

If one does not follow the Shafi’i school, then it is still praiseworthy to give a valuable gift or money to the divorced wife.

[‘Iyanat al Talibin, al Yaqut al Nafis]

I would also encourage you to seek further advise from a qualified local scholar.

Support

Solid support from family and good friends is important during the divorce process, even if the divorce was amicable and mutually agreed.

It is also important to have time to reflect on one’s own and focus on the next stages of life. The most important aspect of this is focusing on our relationship with Allah.

I pray the above is of benefit to you. May Allah make the situation easy for you both, and grant you the very best.

Warmest salams,
[Shaykh] Jamir Meah

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. In 2007, he traveled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years studying the Islamic sciences on a one-to-one basis under the foremost scholars of the Ribaat, Tarim, with a main specialization and focus on Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies in a range of Islamic sciences, as well as teaching. Jamir is a qualified homeopath.

Can a Husband Forgo Payment After a Khula’ Agreement? (Shafi’i)

Answered by Shaykh Jamir Meah

Question: Assalamu alaykum

I have gone through a legal court which has deemed it fit to order a khula’ arrangement. They told my wife to give me 25% of the dowry.

Do I have to take this money?

Answer: Assalam ‘alaykum. I pray you’re well.

A khula’ agreement is a divorce given by the husband to the wife in exchange for an agreed payment, which could be money or other items of value. The reliable opinion is that a khula’ transaction counts as one divorce and if the couple wish to marry again they would have to enter into a new marriage contract.

Khula’

A simple example of khula’ consists of the husband saying to his wife, ‘I divorce you for $500’ and wife answering ‘I accept’. The wife must accept immediately otherwise the khula’ is not valid.

Among the conditions of the item exchanged for the divorce is that it is 1) something of value, 2) it is specified, 3) that it returns to the husband, and 4) that the wife is able to deliver it.

[Tuhfatul Muhtaj, ‘Iyanat al Talibin]

Your situation

Given that you have gone through a legal court which has deemed it fit to order a khula’ arrangement, and if the khula’ (in its spoken form) has been properly conducted, then the 25% of the dowry due on your wife is considered a debt owed to you. As such, and like all other debts, you may choose to accept the payment or waiver it. Either way, the khula’ will be valid.

If the court insists on the payment being made officially in a legal setting, then your wife should pay the money to you. What you both choose to do with the money after the legal proceedings is up to you and does not affect the validity of the khula’.

Warmest salams,
[Shaykh] Jamir Meah

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. In 2007, he traveled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years studying the Islamic sciences on a one-to-one basis under the foremost scholars of the Ribaat, Tarim, with a main specialization and focus on Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies in a range of Islamic sciences, as well as teaching. Jamir is a qualified homeopath.