What Is the Ruling on Wearing Vintage Clothing?


Question: What is the ruling on wearing vintage clothing? If the clothing was worn by an unbeliever who committed bad actions, will the clothing have negative energy that can affect the one wearing it?

Answer: Assalamu alaykum sister,

It is permissible for you to wear vintage clothing, as there is no certainty about whether it was affected by filth or not. Clothing is deemed pure unless otherwise proved. As a rule, it would be religiously pre-cautionary to wash it three times, in case it was affected by impurity.

As for negative energy, I don’t know of any such thing, especially after it is washed. The Prophet said, may Allah bless him and give him peace, “Verily Allah does not look to your bodies nor to your faces but He looks to your hearts and to your deeds.“ [Muslim]

Washing Filthy Clothing in the Washing Machine

May Allah clothe us all with tawfiq, good character, and pure hearts.

[Ustadha] Shazia Ahmad

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadha Shazia Ahmad lived in Damascus, Syria for two years where she studied aqidah, fiqh, tajweed, tafseer, and Arabic. She then attended the University of Texas at Austin, where she completed her Masters in Arabic. Afterward, she moved to Amman, Jordan where she studied fiqh, Arabic, and other sciences. She recently moved back to Mississauga, Canada, where she lives with her family.

Guidelines for Using Makeup

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalamu-alaykum, I am a nonmarried woman and I love beauty, and its a big part of who I am. I don’t wear makeup to provoke the lust of men. I wear light natural-looking makeup, it makes me feel better and more confident. Is it permissible?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

Using makeup is not intrinsically impermissible. But the permissibility of the extent of its usage depends on the circumstance at hand.

Makeup: Limits and Guidelines

In private settings, such as when a lady, married or otherwise, is in the company of the same gender or members of her unmarriageable kin (mahram), it is permitted for her to wear makeup as she likes provided the environment is safe from improper gazes. Similarly, it would be praiseworthy for a married lady to adorn and beautify herself with makeup or otherwise for her spouse whilst in the privacy of her home or the like.

In public settings, makeup usage needs to be restrained, unassuming, and restricted, if required, to what maintains reasonable presentability alone, such as covering up blemishes and the like. What this means is that it should not be plain and obvious that you are wearing makeup. Usually, the sign of an amount of makeup that is not impermissible is that which would not normally attract the undue attention of the opposite gender. But if it is more than the minimum required amount, it would appear to enter into the realm of impropriety and offensiveness (karaha), depending on the amount used.

Note that what counts is the reality of how you are perceived by the opposite gender, even if your intention is not to attract such attention. Of course, things are not easy and times are difficult, particularly given the constant barrage of idealism pumped out by the fashion and cosmetic industries, but the reward of obedience is in accordance with the difficulty borne by each person. Ask Allah for steadfastness and do your best.

The Centrality of Modesty

The Blessed Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Modesty is from faith.” (Bukhari) Believers should strive to be colored by their modesty, namely, an inward trait of reserve which drives one to leave that which is ugly and unbecoming, such as disobedience and wrong. This subsequently manifests on the limbs and outer body in dignified, gracious comportment and uprightness in following the Sacred Law (shari‘a). Both genders are called upon to uphold such modesty, seeking thereby Allah Most High’s eternal grace and bounty in this world before the next.

Finally, it’s important to be aware that some may resort to makeup as a blanket to cover insecurities in confidence, appearance or otherwise. This is unhelpful and can be damaging to a person’s self-esteem and general emotional health in the long term, so it is wise to be honest with oneself and seek some counsel, even professionally, if needed. It may also be helpful to keep the company of a religious group of sisters in such circumstances because you can sometimes do in a group what you cannot do alone. As a community, we need to work on having strong faith, recognizing and appreciating our worth, as we are, before our Ever-Loving Lord, and having a principled outlook in living life governed by religious values and ethics.

Please also see: Is It Permissible to Have Semi Permanent Eyebrows Done? and: Is It Permissible to Use Cosmetics and Body Care Products That Contain Animal Ingredients?

(Tahtawi, Hashiyat al-Tahtawi ‘ala Maraqi al-Falah, quoting Ibn al-Humam (1.154); Jurdani, al-Jawahir al-Lu’lu’iyya Sharh al-Arba‘in al-Nawawiyya)

And Allah Most High knows best.


[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorized the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan, and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based on his family.

Wearing Skin-colored Clothing

Ustadh Salman Younas is asked to clarify the rulings on covering one’s awra in cases where one is wearing skin-colored clothing.



Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

What is the permissibility of wearing skin-colored clothing? For example, I am a women and prefer covering of the feet as awra. However, I have shoes that would normally show my feet if not worn with socks. Can I wear socks that are opaque but skin-colored in order to not have the shoes look odd against white or black socks?

Also, how would this apply to wearing skin-color long sleeve shirts underneath otherwise transparent dresses? Is this halal? Is this a form of deception?

Please note that even though I choose to cover my feet, I would like the answer to this question according to the Hanafi madhhab.

Jazakum Allah khayr.



Wa alaykum assaalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

As long as the clothing covers your nakedness (awra) in a manner where an onlooker cannot see the underlying skin in normal conditions, you would be considered as having covered your nakedness. This would be the case even if the clothing you are wearing is ‘skin colored’.

For certain parts of the body (such as the chest), it is also imperative to cover in a manner where the limbs are not clearly defined. In the case of the feet, however, this does not apply since socks inevitably define the shape of the feet.



Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Difficulties with Hijab in the West

Ustadah Raidah Shah Idil is asked if it is better not to observe hijab when living in the West due to possible harassment and conflict.



Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

It has been increasingly bothering me that I do not wear a hijab. I think it is fair to assume that covering a woman’s adornments is for protecting herself and the honor of her husband – am I right in saying this?

Following that, given today’s world and especially living in a xenophobic generation where there is so much conflict, scrutiny and violence against women who wear hijab/niqab etc. Doesn’t it go completely against the idea of protection for a woman in the first place? For example at airports while passing through security, while walking around in a town where Muslim women wearing hijabs are stared at as opposed to being left alone.

I guess my question really is, is it not better for a woman to protect herself by not wearing a hijab and therefore protecting herself by not being scrutinized or stared at, than her wearing one blindly without thinking about its repercussions, especially and limited to the western world and not Middle Eastern countries, where I believe it is absolutely better for a woman to wear her hijab i.e. cover her adornments, than not.

I’ve tried so much to find the right answer regarding this topic and I really need someone to help me out. Since I believe in the hijab and women generally covering their adornments, however I also believe in being sensible and doing their best to be aware at all time and safeguard ones self and their family and avoid any kind of conflict, but I also believe in speaking the truth always and standing up for what is right, but I also want to avoid as much unnecessary conflict from people who simply will not understand and if anything, it is valuable time best spent doing something good in this world that will actually have good results.



Wa alaykum assaalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I pray this finds you well. May Allah reward you for reaching out to us.

Difficulties Wearing Hijab

Dear sister, you raise many very good points about the real tribulation faced by many women who wear hijab. None of it is easy, nor is any of it lost on Allah.

Please know that despite these real hardships, hijab remains an obligation in today’s world.

We observe hijab because Allah commanded us to, just like He commanded us to pray, fast, perform Hajj if one is able to, and so on.

Please refer to this link: Is Hijab Obligatory?


Those whose souls the angels take while they had wronged themselves, the angels say (to them), “In what business were you (involved)?” They say, “We were oppressed in the earth.” They say, “Was not the earth of Allah wide enough for you to emigrate to it?” Those people are such that their refuge is Jahannam. It is an evil place to return.” [Qur’an, 4:97]

If you are living in a deeply Islamaphobic part of the world, and this is preventing you from wearing hijab – then please set the intention to move somewhere else. InshaAllah Allah will place barakah in your decision, because you have chosen to prioritize what pleases Him.

I realize, of course, than it is no easy matter to just pack up and leave one’s livelihood. The alternative would be for you to put your trust in Allah, wear hijab, and adjust to your new reality. No change is easy at first, but anything is possible through Allah.

Internal Shifts

I strongly suggest that you perform the Prayer of Need, and ask Allah to help you come to hijab. With great difficulty comes great reward, inshaAllah.

Conflict over Hijab

It is not your responsibility to explain or advocate for hijab. Keep it simple. Your responsibility is to wear it, while also upholding the inner aspect of hijab. Take each day as it comes, instead of catastrophising about the worst possible outcome. InshaAllah with dua and commitment, Allah will keep you safe.

Please see Can I Remove My Hijab for My Safety? and Am I a ‘Dayyuth’ If I Let My Wife Go out Without Hijab and How Do I Maintain Protective Jealousy (Ghayrah)?


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Mens’ Awra when Swimming

Ustadh Farid Dingle explains the rulings concerning the awra for men, how that applies to swimming, and suggests ways to make it halal.



Assalam alaykum wa rahmatuLlah wa barakatuh.

I would like to start swimming as a way of staying fit. However I can’t find trunks that cover the awra. Also the pools are mixed gender.

As the majority of the time would be spent in the pool, would it be permissible to go swimming in normal shorts, not trunks.

Jazak Allah khayr.


Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

The Letter of the Law

There are number of websites and companies that sell swimming trunks that conform to what Allah wants from us. See, for example, Kap Swim.

A mixed pool is completely out of the question. Whether you like it or not, you will definitely see men and women exposing themselves, and being around more than half naked women is not exactly something Allah wants for us. You just have find a pool that has men-only times. Or even better, go for a swim in a river, lake, or sea.

Sayyidina Umar once saw some men and women making wudu from large water container and ordered that they be separated. I somehow doubt he would be very keen on mixed swimming pools.

As Muslims who believe that Allah is true and His religion is true, we have to stick by the truth come what may.

The Wisdom of the Law

This world has always been a bit crazy, but we are now seeing it at one its craziest times, a time when society, families, and marriages are really struggling to survive.

Allah has commanded us to clothe ourselves and protect our eyes for many, many reasons: it ennobles and spiritually uplifts us and those around us, it maintains healthy relations, protects trusts of chastity, and above all sets rules and standards for our relationships.

The Sacred Law preserves our communities, and ultimately, our minds, by clearly outlining who is who and how each interacts with the other. This is your father and this is your mother, so you see such-and-such of their body, and your can interact with them physically within such-and-such parameters; this is your wife or husband, so you can so you see such-and-such of their body, and your can interact with them physically within such-and-such parameters.

All of these parameters preserve certain spiritual, psychological, and societal needs, and when they are transgressed people and their relationships really suffer. The story of King Oedipus, and many, many other social trials and ailments that we all see on a regular basis, are all a testimony to this.

The Chapter of Light

To understand this all more clearly, let us look at a few verses from the Chapter of Light in the Qur’an.

Tell the believing men to lower their gave somewhat and guard their private parts. That is purer for them. Indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what they do.

And tell the believing women to lower their gave somewhat and guard their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which appears thereof and to wrap their headcovers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their women … (Sura al-Nur 24:30-31)

Notice how these societal measures deal with clothing and nakedness, and measure very, very clearly who is to see who, and what they are to see of each other. Notice too that these societal strictures are followed almost immediately by some of the profoundest spiritual words in the whole Qur’an.


Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a niche within which is a lamp, the lamp is within glass, the glass as if it were a pearly [white] star lit from [the oil of] a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow even if untouched by fire. Unfathomable light upon unfathomable light. Allah guides to His light whom He wills. And Allah presents examples for the people, and Allah is Knowing of all things.
In houses that Allah permitted to be raised and that His name be mentioned therein; exalting Him within them in the morning and the evenings[Are] men whom neither commerce nor sale distracts from the remembrance of Allah and performance of prayer and giving of zakah. They fear a Day in which the hearts and eyes will [fearfully] turn about. (Sura al-Nur 35-37)


Dress and social decorum are linked inseparably to religious vibrant and flourishing communities and families that produce people who love Allah, and seek Allah in all that they do, and strive with might and main to fulfill their slavehood to him.

I pray this helps.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Prayer, Past Sins, and the Hijab

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat gives valuable advice on how to make up prayers and not burn out.

I’m sorry. I sent a question through earlier about making up missed prayers. I also wanted to ask, if I should be including the nafl prayers for dhuhr, maghrib and isha in my makeup prayers, or can these be left out without any further sin?

As I have years of prayers to make up, would it be sinful for me to do anything outside this in my spare time. For instance, would reading a fictional book, watching a film, going out with family, be sinful for me? Should I only be using spare time to make up prayers? I’m feeling overwhelmed because I feel like I will not be able to do anything else without sin or guilt.

Also, I am trying to learn the prayer as I go along if this takes me some time and I miss a current prayer in the process am I making my situation worse?

I am also trying to work towards wearing the hijab, but again I feel overwhelmed. I initially thought covering my hair and wearing loose clothing that fully covers me would be sufficient. I was going to stick to wearing long skirts and loose tops, dresses that fall below my knees with leggings, jeans–trousers with loose tops that fall to my knees or below my knees. But now after reading some things I’m doubting if I’d still be sinning as I’m not wearing a jilbab, and trousers may not be modest enough or even leggings with dresses below the knees.

I’m starting to get depressed, as I feel like I’m going to have to make loads of changes at once. Everything I read makes me find another obstacle. I’ve always kept my hair shorter as I find it easier to manage, and I’ve now read it’s also haram for me to cut it. If my hair is going to be covered by a scarf, can I not keep it short for ease and comfort, as no one will see it?

In the past I had the bad habit, and I think I may have broken some fasts due to this. How do I figure out how many I may have broken, and do I need to fast 60 days as well as making the individual fasts up? If I can’t remember exactly when I started puberty, how do I calculate how many prayers I need to make up?

I work. If I delay a prayer and have to do qada due to this am I digging a deeper hole for myself?

Please advise me on what I need to do. Does the fact I have sinned in the past mean I have to give up all my free time for prayer. I don’t know if that’s something I’ll be able to do.

Jazak Allah khayran.

I pray you are well.

Leaving nafl prayers is not sinful. If you have fard and wajib (witr, for example) prayers to make up it is be best to leave the nafl and focus on the fard and wajib.

It’s best to ask Allah for help, make a routine which you can practically manage daily, and make up your missed prayers methodically. A constant drip of water over time can split a rock; whereas a big splash of the same amount just makes it wet.

May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Can a Son Force His Mother to Wear Hijab?

Ustadh Farid Dingle is asked whether a son can force his mother to wear hijab.

Can a teenage son force his mother into hijab or certain types of clothing?

A teenage son cannot force his mother to do anything, but he can and must, just like anyone else, command her to comply to Sharia which includes wearing the hijab and dressing modestly.

Please see What Are the Requirements of Hijab? for more detail.

It would be a good idea for both mother and son to read these together too: A Reader on Calling to Allah, Giving Advice, and Commanding the Good.

I pray this helps.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Friendship between a Boy and a Girl

Ustadha Raidah Shah Idil answers questions about friendship before marriage.


Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa baraktuh.

Months ago, I met a brother in a seminar. We kept in contact and built a friendship with a lot of respect. A few days ago, I asked him how he would react if his sister had contact to a strange guy he doesn’t know. He thought about the question and suggested to break off. (We have written over WhatsApp.) We both are Muslims and he understood it and showed respect to me and my family. But we promised to stay cool if we’re going to see us again.

Now my problem is, since this happened, I feel broken. I feel pain inside me. But it isn’t just because of him. I’m really under stress and feel that it wasn’t the right time to ask him this question even though it’s Islamically right. I’ve lost a good friend. I want to write him again but I don’t understand why it’s Islamically incorrect. I want to have a clear explanation. I’m aware of the relationship between men and women. But I need him right now as my friend. And thinking a lot of Islam makes me just more sad.

I pray this finds you well. May Allah reward you for reaching out to us.

Friendship between Opposite Genders

Dear sister, I am sorry for your heartbreak. Please know that you have done what is pleasing to Allah, even if it hurts.

For a clear explanation, I encourage you to read this answer by Shaykha Zaynab Ansari: Can a Young Man and Woman be Platonic Friends?

Emotional Regulation

Because you are in pain, I encourage you to treat yourself with love and compassion. Soothe yourself through the different aspects of your being – the spiritual, mental, emotional, and physical. You know yourself best, so write down the different things you can do for yourself, every hour, every day, until you feel more balanced.

I have some suggestions for you, to help you get started.

Spiritual Self-care

  1. Do everything in your power to have a good opinion of your Merciful Lord.
  2. Guard your obligatory prayers, and strive to perform them mindfully.
  3. Wake up in the last third of the night, even if it is 5-10 minutes before the entry of Fajr and pour out your sorrow to Allah.
  4. Perform the Prayer of Need as often as you need to.
  5. Read these duas as often as you need to: Selected Prophetic Prayers for Spiritual, Physical and Emotional Wellbeing by Chaplain Ibrahim Long

Mental Self-care

  1. Write down your troubling thoughts so you can see them in front of you.
  2. Investigate your beliefs, which have often been installed from childhood. Do you believe that the world is a safe place? Do you believe that you are more than enough, as you are? Do you believe that Allah is there for you?

Emotional Well-Being

  1. Journal about how you feel, allow yourself to feel those strong emotions, and let them go. Remind yourself that feelings are signals, but not fact.
  2. Reach out to close family and female friends.
  3. Listen to guided meditations on apps such as Calm and Headspace.
  4. Store your worry on apps such as Worry Box.

Physical Well-being

  1. Walk every day.
  2. Ground yourself in nature.
  3. Strengthen and relax your body through pilates and/or yoga.

Possibility of marriage

Please know that we are all hard-wired for connection. Allah has set loving limits on gender interaction because He knows our easily we can fall. If you feel so strongly about this young man, and feel ready, could marriage be something to explore? Do speak to your parents first, if you think that could be the case. It is far better to have them on board, from the beginning.

Also, please remember that marriage is another big shift. It is not a silver bullet that will heal all of your pain.

In any case, I encourage you to prepare for marriage through empowering yourself with knowledge through this course Marriage in Islam: Practical Guidance for Successful Marriages and reading this book Before You Tie The Knot.

I pray this has been helpful. May Allah ease your heartache, and gift you with a husband who is your dearest friend and your companion on the path to Jannat al-Firdaws.

Please see Love, Marriage and Relationships in Islam: All Your Questions Answered.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Men, Women and Perfume

Ustadh Tabraze Azam is asked why it is men may wear perfume when women, it seems, may not.


Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Why can’t women wear perfume when men can? Back then at the time of the Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, this was done by men and in those days perfumes were different. Nowadays some perfumes have special substances that the other gender find sexually attractive. By that I would understand why women shouldn’t wear it, but then nor should men certainly? Yet back then it was prohibited for women too ? Why? I don’t understand it.


Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

In principle, both men and women can wear perfume.

Generally, ladies were interdicted from perfuming themselves before leaving the home. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said, “The perfume of men is a scent without color, and the perfume of women is colored without scent.” (Abu Dawud) Scents of color were perhaps something specific to their time, but the important part is the idea of manifest smell.

Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari, the famed Afgani polymath, writes in explanation of this tradition (hadith) that women aren’t permitted to wear fragrant scents when leaving the home, namely, if doing so will attract the undue attention of the opposite gender. The reason for this is that such unwarranted attention goes against the meaning of concealing one’s beauty or adornment in public settings. Allah Most High says, “And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their chastity, and not to reveal their adornments except what normally appears.” (Sura al-Nur 24:31)

Similarly, when it comes to personal care products and the like, such as strong smelling detergents, the same ruling would generally apply. But in situations where you won’t be around any unrelated men, such as whilst on a family picnic in a secluded spot, it’s fine to wear such scents even if you’re leaving the home.

As for merely making yourself smell customarily pleasant and normal, in a manner which clearly doesn’t invoke the undue attention of the opposite gender, this is acceptable. But you should err on the side of caution lest you fall into religiously problematic territory, namely, dislikedness (karaha) at the very least.

There is somewhat of a fine line between not smelling unpleasant, by regular personal upkeep and the like, and adorning oneself beyond the need. Accordingly, each person should follow the prophetic advice to honestly “seek a ruling from your heart.” Usually, the scholars were firm on this issue with some even listing it among the enormities, given the emphatic warnings against it, so it’s good to exercise a little restraint. 

As for men, the basis is that their perfume is noticeable, as understood from the earlier tradition and many other statements of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace. He once remarked, “Four things are from the way of the prophets: modesty, perfume, the tooth-stick and marriage.” (Tirmidhi) Rulings are based on the normative case and not the exception, and here, it is women who have been called upon to be more reserved in their displays of adornment in public. 

There are many rulings which assign a certain duty to men or women for one reason or another, or in a similar fashion, limit something, and what we should strive to realize is our servitude in this temporary life, whilst acknowledging that the Sacred Law is full of wisdom, even if we don’t seem to perceive it. 

(Qari, Mirqat al-Mafatih Sharh al-Mishkat; Ibn ‘Ashur, al-Tahrir wa al-Tanwir)

Please also see Kohl and Perfume While Fasting, and Women Wearing Perfume and Can We Use Deodorants, Creams, and Perfumes That Contain Alcohol?

And Allah Most High knows best.


Tabraze Azam

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Mixed Schools and Talking to Other Students

Shaykh Abdurragmaan Khan answers a question about how to deal with having to sit next to a person of the opposite gender in a mixed school.


Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I go to a school that is mixed and in one of my classes, I sit near a boy. I do my very best to avoid him, but is it okay if I talk to him now and again – obviously staying in the limits?


Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I pray you’re well insha Allah. Jazakum Allah khayran for your question and may Allah reward you for being concerned about your religious practice.

Unfortunately, mixed gender schools are now part of most people’s lives and for some, there are no alternatives. Religious individuals and groups must therefore learn how to deftly maneuver within the reality of their environment; balancing the often difficult task of remaining firm on clear principles of social conduct while at the same time doing their best not to isolate or repel others.

We often have to remind ourselves that traditional gender barriers that religion places are no longer understood or observed by most people, especially in the West. Of course, we should maintain these barriers for they serve a necessary purpose, however, we must also be sympathetic in attitude to people to whom such formal interaction may seem strange or extreme. Acknowledging this at least allows us to view and interact with others in a merciful and respectful manner. In time, they may even admire and appreciate the wisdom in our customs.

In these situations, one can only do the best one can, observing proper etiquette and modesty while remaining genuine and good-natured. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said, “Do not be extremists, but try to be near perfection and receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded.” (Bukhari, Muslim)

Suggestions on Mixed Schools

You could ask the teacher if it is possible to seat you next to a female student.

If you must sit next to a boy, then just ensure that you are properly covered and avoid physical contact. Talking now and again to greet him or when needed is fine. Be natural and don’t be harsh. It’s also not his fault he is sitting next to you!

Simple questions and answers usually suffice to be pleasant yet succinct.

You may also refer to this post: How to Deal with Free Mixing in Public Schools.

I wish you the very best. Warmest salams,


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.