Does the Collection of Fluid Under One’s Skin Invalidate One’s Ablution?

Shaykh Abdurrahim Reasat answers a question related to the discharge of fluid under one’s skin and its effect on ablution, according to the Hanafi school of thought. In addition, he clarifies what is meant by an external agent.



Assalamu alaikum,
I am slightly confused regarding what is meant by an external agent in
In my case I washed my feet in the sink and one of my toes had a patch of peeled skin, caused from wearing new shoes. By me walking normally and the normal pressures applied on the foot be considered an external agent i.e. considered similar to squeezing? The little liquid that did exit didn’t go beyond the peeled skin, but is it considered pure despite the above, and does anything need to be washed?


Wa ‘alaykum as-salam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh

The scenario you described above does not invalidate your wudu, and, because the liquid didn’t pass beyond the point of exit, your foot is deemed pure. Nothing needs to be washed.

The ‘agent’ referred to above would be anything which would make the blood/liquid exit and flow, such as squeezing.

The liquid is considered to have flowed if it exits and flows due to its own momentum. (Midani, al Lubab).

Don’t try to over-think it. The principle is simple. Remember, the Messenger of Allah said, “Indeed, the [practice of] the religion is ease itself, and no one makes the religion hard on themselves except that it overwhelms them.” (Bukhari).

I hope that helps.




Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani


Skin Conditions and Wudu

Shaykh Abdul-Rahman Reasat advises on how to deal with skin conditions in relation to purification and prayer.



Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh

I have these white things in my face which are similar to pus but they are dry. Also they are really small, so you can only see them when you look really close. After wudu, they are on the surface of my skin, meaning that when I wash my face they come out of the skin, because they aren’t firm in the skin. They move away as soon as you touch them. Therefore I don’t know if I should repeat wudu. But even if I repeat, they sometimes come out again because they are so sensible. I have very light acne. Maybe that will help you to see what I mean.



Wa alaykum assaalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

The white things you describe do not break your wudu. Wudu is nullified is situations similar to yours by an impurity exiting the body and then flowing from its point of exit by itself. Making it move by squeezing the area, or wiping it does not invalidate one’s wudu if it would not have moved itself. (Maydani, al-Lubab).

Please consider taking a course on the rulings related to purity and prayer. You’ll find that studying a proper text with a teacher answers most of your questions, as well as many other which may not have come to mind.

May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.



Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Doubts about Purity after Waking Up

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat is asked about the relation between dreams that cause arousal, possible orgasm, and purity.



Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

For the past few months I have been having so much hardships with regards to my purity after waking up. I didn’t even know women can have wet dreams until I came across something online. Since then I have doubts about everyday dream and try to replay it to see if it was a “wet dream.” My question is what exactly is a wet dream? What is the sexual climax in the dream? Is it the orgasm? If I have a dream where there is something sexual, or if I see someone I like but I don’t remember or did not have an orgasm do I need to do ghusl? On another website it said if you have a wet dream but don’t remember an orgasm or did not have an orgasm you don’t need to do ghusl. Is this okay? And in this case if you have a wet dream or any dream with something sexual, and didn’t or don’t remember having an orgasm so sexual climax but you do see discharge, do I have to still do ghusl?

Are all dreams where there is someone you like or an opposite gender, a wet dream. I mean in some dreams I see myself or someone holding hands. In some dreams there are opposite genders. In some dreams I see a wedding. In some dreams, I or someone is taking a shower but I don’t see any private parts. In some dreams I see someone I like so I feel butterflies. Sometimes I see someone I like or any male and I feel aroused. But to what extent should I know I had a wet dream?

I keep thinking that every dream with even the slightest bit of something sexual is a wet dream and when I see even the slightest bit of discharge I feel I need to take ghusl or I am impure and my prayers won’t be accepted. Please help me. I read the post on rules for men and women regarding wet dreams but that just confused me even more. In that answer, we are told if there is no discharge we don’t have to take a ghusl, but do we check for the discharge right after waking up?

What if you go to the washroom  20 minutes after waking up, etc., and the discharge has dried and you can no longer see it clearly on your underwear? Or sometimes I am wearing patterned underwear, so I cant make out the discharge that may be on it. Does it have to be discharge you can see right away, or do I have to look really really close to see if there is discharge? Because that’s what I do right now. I literally take my underwear off and bring it close to my eyes to check for spots or discharge.

Please help. Islam is a religion of ease, I don’t know why I am making it hard for myself. I am now scared of sleeping over at the homes of relatives because I always have to take a bath in the morning, and doubt every dream is a wet dream. Please help me with regard to this, may Allah bless you.



Wa alaykum assaalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

The dream is of no consequence. Whether it is sexual in nature or not, what the ruling in this situation is based on is the discharge.

The discharge here is of sexual fluids, and is likely to be much more than normal discharge. In the situation in question you would clearly see the trace of a large amount of liquid. If you are having to look up close at is there has not been any discharge.

So, in summary, if you see a discharge which is greater in quantity than the normal, white discharge, perform a ghusl. The dreams, and their intensity are of no consequence if no sexual fluids were discharged. (Shurunbulali, Maraqi al Falah).

You seem to be suffering from OCD. That is why you are making the practice of religion difficult on yourself. Please seek professional help for this, and you’ll find that religious matters will also seem easier.

This answer may also be of some benefit.

May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.



Mice Droppings on Sofa

Shaykh Abdul Rahim Reasat is asked if one can assume that dry mice droppings once removed from an area render the area pure.


Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

We had an issue with a couple of mice in my house, which we’ve cleared out. I noticed that they had left droppings on the sofa – they were dry and slightly smaller and skinnier than dried rice. When removing them they left no trace behind. Does the area need to be washed with water?

Further, I’ve read that mice are constantly dripping urine, but I don’t see any marks on the sofa or else where, do I assume purity in this regard?




Wa alaykum assaalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

No, it does not need to be washed. Simply removing the droppings by vacuuming them will suffice. After this you can assume the area is pure and leave the matter.

The default ruling for all things is that they are pure – unless their impurity has been stated buy the fuqaha, such as wine, blood, urine, etc. (Majid ʿItr, al-Mufassal fi al-Fiqh al-Hanafi̧). In a place where mice have been you have no way of knowing where or if the mice have urinated in a particular spot. Mere possibility is not given any weight in this situation.

May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.



Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.



Wiping over Thick Socks

Ustadh Salman Younas clarifies the meaning of thick socks or khuff, their conditions, wiping over them, and the rulings on this.



Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Can you please give a detailed answer with proofs and references of why doing masah on thick socks (not leather khuffs) are permitted, such as 1000 miles socks etc. I asked our local imam and he said the thick socks are not on the same condition as khuffs. He mentioned some of the criteria for the khuffs like thickness, standing firmly without any support which socks doesn’t as he said, the water shall not go through, one should walk excessively without any hardship etc.

I have heard different opinions from the scholars and did used 1000miles socks which makes a lot more ease for me on my job, but are a bit confused since there are different of opinions among the scholars, and after all the tahara is the basis of all other acts of worship.

Looking forward to clarification on this issue.

Jazak Allah khayr.



Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

In the Hanafi madhhab, it is valid to wipe on socks that fulfill the “meaning” of leather footwear (khuff). 1000 mile socks would seem to fulfill this meaning.

The basic reasoning underlying this position is that the shariah permitted wiping on leather footwear. This dispensation was established contrary to analogical reasoning (qiyas), and, therefore, cannot be extended to other items. However, Hanafi scholars make it clear that what was affirmed contrary to analogy was not the permissibility of wiping over footwear of a particular make, such as leather, but the permissibility of wiping over footwear that fulfilled a particular meaning.

The “meaning” of the khuff that Hanafis unanimously identified was an item that (i) covered the foot and (ii) could be normally walked in. As such, any item that fulfilled this basic meaning would be valid to wipe on. This is clearly affirmed by a number of scholars, such as ʻAbd al-Ghanī al-Nabulsi (d. 1143/1731) who quotes al-Saruji (d. 710/1310) as stating:


The correct position (al-sahih) according to them is that if they cover the obligatory area of the foot and it is possible to walk in them, wiping them is permitted however they may be. (Nihayat al-Murad, pp. 350)


Similarly, Ibn ʻAbidin stated when discussing wiping on cotton socks:


I say: What is apparent is that when the conditions are met, it would be permitted to wipe on cotton footwear. They only excluded it due the conditions generally not being fulfilled in it. This is indicated by what is stated in al-Nasafi’s al-Kafi when he explained the impermissibility of wiping over socks made from cotton being due to regular walking not being possible in them. This demonstrates that if it were possible, it would be permitted. (Hashiya, 1:179)


Note here that al-Nasafī’s comments are actually about a jurmiq made from cotton but this does not effect the argument given that a jurmuq takes the same conditions and rulings as a khuff.)
For this reason, most later scholars, such as Imam al-Marghinan, al-Mawsili, al-Nasafi, Ibn al-Humam, and others, gave fatwa on the position of Abu Yusuf and Muhammad that it is valid to wipe on “thick” socks because they fulfilled the meaning of a khuff, i.e. covered the feet and could be walked in. Here, it should be noted that “thickness” has a specific legal definition, namely a sock that can be walked in normally. Any sock that possesses this ability is legally deemed thick and valid to wipe on. (Ibn ʻAbidin, Minhat al-Khaliq, 1:192)

As for many of the other conditions you mention, such as water-resistance or remaining on the shin, these are simply extensions of this “meaning” and, in specific, aim to emphasize the notion of thickness in a non-leather sock. In other words, they aim to describe the type of sock that can be walked in (“What are the attributes of a thick sock that can be normally walked in?”). Effectively, they are akin to descriptive conditions, and jurists forwarded different descriptions to identify the type of socks that could be walked in. For this reason, they often differed with one another on these conditions. However, none of them disagreed on the condition of covering the foot or walking, since these were the central conditions.

I hope this provides some clarity on this issue. There are many details I could not mention here for this would require far more space than is available here.



Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.



Praying in Clothes with Dog’s Saliva on Them

Ustadh Tabraze Azam is asked if it is permissible to disregard dog saliva if the dog serves a useful function.

I read in one of your answers that if you work in a place where a dog may lick your clothes quite often it is allowed for a Hanafi person to follow the Maliki opinion on the matter and be able to pray.

I was wondering, if the dog licks a person on Monday and the person wears the same clothes to work on Tuesday but doesn’t get any saliva on his clothes on Tuesday, can he still pray in those clothes or is it essential that he should have worn clean clothes to begin with on Tuesday when coming to work for that rukhsa to be valid?

Insha Allah you get a chance to answer.

The basis is that it is acceptable to take a dispensatory ruling from another legal school (madhhab) if there is a hardship (haraj/mashaqqa), or a need (haja) or benefit (fa’ida) in doing so. This is on condition that you avoid impermissible talfiq, namely, joining between the positions of the legal schools in a manner which none would deem valid.

Thereafter, if there is actual difficulty in upholding the Hanafi position of the ritually filthy nature of the saliva of dogs, it would be permitted to follow another legal school on the issue, the details of which may be sought from its scholars. As for the applicability of the dispensation, it doesn’t have a time restriction as we are talking about a type of saliva affecting your clothing.

Please also see Dog Saliva, Dog Hair, and How to Purify Impurities, Can I Pray in Clothes that Were Licked by a Dog? and Why Is Mixing Between Madhabs (Talfiq) Impermissible When The Earlier Generations Seem To Have Done It?

And Allah Most High knows best.


Tabraze Azam

Is My Umra Valid?

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat is asked about the validity of Umra if a sister has doubts about purity.

I went on Umra during my period. My periods stop on the sixth day, but this time it didn’t stop until the thirteenth day. On the twelfth day I went and did Umra, thinking I am now in istihada [period of abnormal bleeding], and did tawaf and sa’i [moving back and forth between Safa and Marwa] after entering tuhr [a state of purity] and making wudu.

Yet I am still doubtful whether I was right or wrong. Please help me and answer my question. And if I was wrong please tell me what to do.

I pray you are well.

Your Umra was valid – provided you were able to remain in a state of wudu during your tawaf. If not, you need to sacrifice a sheep in Mecca.

Continuation Of Blood

If bleeding persists after the number of days you usually see it – 7, for example – you should not pray your prayers as there is a chance that the number of days you menstrual cycle lasts may change. If it stops before ten full days then this is your new cycle – 9, for example.

If, however, it continues past ten days then you assume that your menstrual cycle lasted the original number of days (7) and everything else was istihada. This means you all have to repeat the missed prayers from the day of the cycle ending until the point you realized the bleeding was istihada.

(Birgivi, Dhukhr al-Mutaʾahhilin; Kasani, Badaʾiʿ al-Sanaʾiʿ).

May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.


Prayer, Past Sins, and the Hijab

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat gives valuable advice on how to make up prayers and not burn out.

I’m sorry. I sent a question through earlier about making up missed prayers. I also wanted to ask, if I should be including the nafl prayers for dhuhr, maghrib and isha in my makeup prayers, or can these be left out without any further sin?

As I have years of prayers to make up, would it be sinful for me to do anything outside this in my spare time. For instance, would reading a fictional book, watching a film, going out with family, be sinful for me? Should I only be using spare time to make up prayers? I’m feeling overwhelmed because I feel like I will not be able to do anything else without sin or guilt.

Also, I am trying to learn the prayer as I go along if this takes me some time and I miss a current prayer in the process am I making my situation worse?

I am also trying to work towards wearing the hijab, but again I feel overwhelmed. I initially thought covering my hair and wearing loose clothing that fully covers me would be sufficient. I was going to stick to wearing long skirts and loose tops, dresses that fall below my knees with leggings, jeans–trousers with loose tops that fall to my knees or below my knees. But now after reading some things I’m doubting if I’d still be sinning as I’m not wearing a jilbab, and trousers may not be modest enough or even leggings with dresses below the knees.

I’m starting to get depressed, as I feel like I’m going to have to make loads of changes at once. Everything I read makes me find another obstacle. I’ve always kept my hair shorter as I find it easier to manage, and I’ve now read it’s also haram for me to cut it. If my hair is going to be covered by a scarf, can I not keep it short for ease and comfort, as no one will see it?

In the past I had the bad habit, and I think I may have broken some fasts due to this. How do I figure out how many I may have broken, and do I need to fast 60 days as well as making the individual fasts up? If I can’t remember exactly when I started puberty, how do I calculate how many prayers I need to make up?

I work. If I delay a prayer and have to do qada due to this am I digging a deeper hole for myself?

Please advise me on what I need to do. Does the fact I have sinned in the past mean I have to give up all my free time for prayer. I don’t know if that’s something I’ll be able to do.

Jazak Allah khayran.

I pray you are well.

Leaving nafl prayers is not sinful. If you have fard and wajib (witr, for example) prayers to make up it is be best to leave the nafl and focus on the fard and wajib.

It’s best to ask Allah for help, make a routine which you can practically manage daily, and make up your missed prayers methodically. A constant drip of water over time can split a rock; whereas a big splash of the same amount just makes it wet.

May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Severe Doubts in Washroom

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat is asked about severe doubts on purity in the washroom.

For the past seven months I have been going through so much doubts and uncertainty in my life. I feel like searching for answers online has made it worst. Please give me direct answers to the following, and advise dua to remove uncertainty and whispers of shaytan. I feel like Allah is mad at me, I don’t know why this is happening to me, and I am so depressed. Even when I get the right advice on these matters I keep thinking in more detail and then questioning if even the littlest thing is impure or is transferring impurity. I’m so overwhelmed, I keep crying, and have so much anxiety. Sometimes I ignore it and go about how I normally did all this, but then start feeling anxious that Allah will get mad at me.

  1. Water splashes on the body during istinja – on any part of the body including hair, face, neck etc. – is it pure or impure?
  2. Water splashes on items or clothes during istinja. Is that pure or impure?
  3. Is the hand that is used to wash during istinja considered clean? I feel like any water that falls from my hands and fingers as I get up to go the sink is impure, and get scared I’ll make things dirty or my body dirty.
  4. Is your hand considered impure from touching the water jug used for istinja? Are any parts of the body considered impure if it comes in contact with the water jug?
  5. Do I have to dig into each nail when washing my hands after doing istinja? I know for peeing you just pour water. But istinja for defecation, when you use your left hand, do you have to dig into each nail when washing with soap?
  6. Do I have to wash the handle or tap of the sink every time I wash my hands? After washing my hands, I close the tap then feel I should wash the tap and then my hands again because tap is dirty now or impure.
  7. Is the water on the sink and countertop in the washroom impure? I always feel while I am wiping the counter and water splashes on my feet I need to wash my feet. Or if I place items on the counter they are dirty now and I should wash them before using, and then wash my hands after touching them.
  8. Is the rag or mop used to wipe and dry the floor dirty. While I wipe the floor and water on the floor if a bit of the rag or mop comes into contact with skin or feet I feel like I should wash that area of skin or my feet.

These are uncertainties I have been facing regarding purity and impurity within the bathroom. I have more questions but those are unrelated. Anyways, I feel like I will never get ease. Please help me. Thank you. May Allah reward you all.

I pray you are well.

The answer to all the scenarios above is: pure; and you don’t have to dig into the nails when washing your hand after istinja.

It seems you have contacted us before with a similar list of questions. Please try to calm down. Your anxiety should not let you think that Allah hates you. You are in a test – that is all.

Having a Good Opinion of Allah

The Messenger of Allah told us that “Whoever Allah wants good for He continually tests him.” Have a good opinion of Allah, and ask for a way out of your predicament. The moments when you are feel overwhelmed are the best moments to ask, because Allah swiftly responds to those who ask in desperation.

Anytime you think that Allah hates you – tell yourself that this statement is a lie. He made you a believer and that “Allah is the ally of the believers” (Sura al-Baqara 2:256). The fact that you have belief is enough to prove He loves you. Ask Him for help, seek support from friends and family, and learn about the virtues of patience and trust in Allah. They will bring you much-needed light in the darkest hours.

I don’t advise you to go searching online for answers, nor is it advisable for you to look up detailed issues without a scholar, as it will only worsen your issues. Find a reliable local scholar and ask him to explain purity to you in a simple manner, and do just that.

Seek Professional Help

You have OCD. Although it seems unbearable, this issue can be fixed. It may take some time, but you will be rewarded for the difficulty you endure. Please find a professional practitioner of effective therapies such as EFT, EMDR, or PSTEC, and get some help. If you have to spend some money doing so, then consider it as charity upon oneself.

Please refer to this answer for more clarity.

May Allah give you a way out very soon.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Doubts about Cleanliness

Shaykh Salman Younas is asked if minute amounts of filth affect ritual purity.

I prayed my salah and after I came to washroom I found a drop of urine to the size of an ant, so I just soaked my hand with water and rubbed it gently, and did not squeeze that, and the stain was gone too. Please tell me whether I am tahir or najis?

You are not considered impure.

Even if you prayed with a small drop of urine on your body/clothing of the type you describe, this is excused. In the Hanafi school, the extent of approximately 5 cm, in diameter, is excused in liquid filth that is deemed “major filth,” such as urine. While it is best to remove such filth before praying, if one did pray while being effected by this amount of filth, the prayer is valid.

This ruling shows that there is leeway when it comes to the rulings of filth and impurities. As such, we should not be excessive in how we deal with this issue, nor fall into baseless misgivings. The base assumption that we hold regarding our bodies, clothing, place of prayer, etc., is that it is pure unless there is clear evidence to the contrary.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.