Preserving the Light of Ramadan – Habib Umar bin Hafiz

How do we preserve the light of Ramadan once the month has ended?

 

One of the keys to preserving what we have attained is in the intentions we make before the month ends. We should make firm intentions to do good in Shawwal and beyond. We also need to beg Allah to preserve and increase the gifts He has given us. We need to be consistent in our attendance of gatherings and classes, consistent in our recitation of the Quran while reflecting upon its meanings and consistent in our recitation of the adhkar with presence of heart. We must also choose the best company and sit in the presence of people who have been given light.

To Remedy the Heart by Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi

The following is the third in a series of three excerpts on the heart of the believer from Hakim al-Umma Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi’s book (Allah have mercy on him) Sukoon-e-Qalb, translated by Saad Razi Shaikh.

For human beings, two kinds of worlds exist. The first is the material world, which we can see with our eyes and touch with our hands. Along with it, there’s another world (batin) which we can neither see nor touch. In this hidden world, the soul lives, the heart beats, wishes are born, hopes and desires find wings, joy and sorrows, love and hate, selflessness, and other emotions are cultivated. The fascinating thing is that it is this hidden world that we can neither see nor touch that is our real world. As long as it works, the person stays alive, they get all rights in society, when it no longer works, the person is declared deceased and their rights cease to exist.

Just as the human’s apparent body is sometimes healthy and sometimes sick, the soul too is sometimes healthy and sometimes it becomes sick. Just as flu, fever, and other diseases are from the sicknesses of the body, so too are sorrows and anger, selfishness, arrogance, pretense, and vanity from the diseases of the heart.

Islam’s Holistic Way of Life

Because Islam is a holistic way of life, it has not disregarded either of these two worlds. It has given us guidance for the outward diseases, it has also given us rulings for the hidden diseases.  For our outward lives, it has given such brilliant actions like prayers, fasting, zakat; it has also refrained us from bad deeds. Similarly, for our inward lives, it has decreed certain beautiful attributes for us and refrained us from vile ones. The rulings of outward acts are the subject of the field of fiqh, the rulings relating to the inward acts are explained in the field of tasawwuf.

The Reality of the Heart

The subject matter of tasawwuf, therefore, relates to the world of the heart which is hidden from us, yet which holds deep importance for us. The question arises, what is the heart? If we ask doctors, we’ll get the reply that the heart is a lump of flesh in the chest of the human being, which pumps blood. But the heart spoken of in tasawwuf is different from this lump of flesh. In the spiritual understanding, the heart and soul are two forces that the Creator created with the outward heart. Just as the eyes can see, the ears can hear, and the hands can touch, so the lump of flesh that is the heart is able to desire. In the spiritual understanding, the heart is this very force capable of creating different emotions and desires.   

Tasawwuf teaches us that this hidden world of the heart is the foundation of the outward world. The making and unmaking of human beings depends on this, if the world of the heart is right, if its system is okay, the right desires are created in it. If the right emotions are born in the heart, the person remains healthy, if the world of the heart begins to disintegrate, the outward life of the person also begins to disintegrate.

To Remedy the Heart

The treatment (islah) of the heart is necessary. If you desire salvation in the hereafter (akhirah) and well-being (afiya) in this world, rectify your heart. After the obligatory acts of worship (fard) start spending more time in voluntary acts, in the reading of the Qur’an. Many people spend more time in worship but they do not have much religious knowledge. They should acquire the knowledge of the deen. The cure to the diseases of the heart is religious knowledge, the remembrance of Allah, and the company of the people of Allah.

About the Author

Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (Allah have mercy on him) was one of the foremost Indian scholars of the twentieth century. A prolific writer with over three hundred books to his name, his works span the Islamic Sciences, touching on matters of everyday fiqh, correct beliefs, and spiritual remedies, amongst others.

Signs of a Diseased Heart by Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi

The following is the second in a series of three excerpts on the heart of the believer from Hakim al-Umma Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi’s book (Allah have mercy on him) Sukoon-e-Qalb, translated by Saad Razi Shaikh.

How can a person know if their heart is diseased? In regard to this, Hafiz Ibn Qayyim (Allah have mercy on him) has mentioned some symptoms.

The First Symptom

When a person starts to value the fleeting things over other [more lasting] things, it should be understood that their heart is diseased. For example, they like the house of this world but are not concerned about building their house in the Hereafter. They worry about finding respect in this world but are unconcerned about the honor or humiliation they’ll face in the Hereafter. They want ease in this world but are unconcerned about the torments they may find in the Hereafter.

The Second Symptom

When a person stops crying altogether, it is understood that their heart has hardened. Sometimes, a person’s eyes cry, sometimes their heart cries. The crying of the heart carries more virtue than the crying of the eyes. It is not necessary that tears must come out of the eyes when crying. There are people of Allah whose hearts cry but tears don’t fall from their eyes. Their crying from their hearts is accepted by Allah, and the doors of repentance (tawba) are opened for them. The crying of the heart and eyes both carry importance, some people cry with both—both their eyes and their hearts cry.

The Third Symptom

If a person desires to meet other people but doesn’t remember their meeting with Allah, they should understand that this spells death for their hearts. People are so attached to each other that they long to meet each other, they become sad and impatient when they do not get to meet one another. But they do not remember their meeting with Allah Most High.

The Fourth Symptom

When a person becomes fearful of remembering their meeting with Allah, but becomes happy when sitting with other people, it is a sign of the death of the heart. To become fearful when remembering their meeting with Allah means becoming fearful when doing tasbih or engaging in muraqaba. Sitting in the prayer room (musalla) becomes a burden on such a person. Understand this broad principle, if you wish to understand a person’s relationship with Allah. Look at how they sit in their musalla. A person who is mindful of Allah sits with a tranquillity (sukun) like that of a child sitting in their mother’s lap. For a person who has crookedness in their hearts, sitting in the musalla weighs heavy on them. They say their salams and immediately run from the mosque. Some are such that their hearts are unwilling to come to the mosque in the first place.

A Cataract of the Heart and Its Remedy

A cataract is a disease of the eyes. A veil appears in front of the eyes, which makes the person unable to see. Similarly, a cataract grows in the heart, when sins cloud a person’s vision. Then the person ends up missing all their prayers with no worry whatsoever. They have no issue in uttering lies with their tongues, even though there are hadiths saying that “a person who tells lies, such a foul smell emanates from their mouth that the angels flee from them.” Such a foul smell comes, but the person remains unfazed. Consider the place in which the person commits sins, it is written in the books that the land pleads and cries, “Ya Allah! Allow me to bury this disobedient servant of yours.” But the person, engrossed in their sins, remains unconcerned.

Just as when a person who contracts a cataract visits the doctor and gets treatment, similarly, a person whose heart has hardened must visit the majlis, the gatherings of the people of Allah. Visiting them removes the cataract of the heart. The vision of the heart returns and the person starts to see again. A chance meeting and the person’s life completely changes. We’ve seen so many people for whom the company of the people of Allah has transformed their lives.

Can someone measure the force of this?

A look from the person of Allah can change destinies.

Many a time, diseased hearts come to the suhba, the company of the people of Allah, and the world of their hearts change.    

The Dwellings of the Heart

The ruin of the heart is easy, but the settling of hearts is hard. A poet has expressed this well.

We’ve seen desolate ruins; we’ve seen living settlements.

A heart once ruined is not easy to reset. 

To ruin the heart is easy, to resettle it is no game.

To settle the heart is no game, it is settled step-by-step.

Just as a town is populated with some difficulty, so too is the heart settled with difficulty. May Allah grant us success in settling our hearts.

About the Author

Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (Allah have mercy on him) was one of the foremost Indian scholars of the twentieth century. A prolific writer with over three hundred books to his name, his works span the Islamic Sciences, touching on matters of everyday fiqh, correct beliefs, and spiritual remedies, amongst others.

Living Simply: Can Too Much Devotion Cause Burnout?

Part Four: Being Extremely Moderate

By Shaykh Farid Dingle

In order to get through life with ease, the early Muslims (salaf) focused on certain key ways of living that would make it spiritually and practically easier and more fruitful. They coined a term for the variegated rules that they lived by, a term that summarized the system of living for the Hereafter. They called it zuhd: detachment from this world. For the purpose of this article series, we have found the best match in terms of meaning to be asceticism. Other terms to describe zuhd are indifference towards worldly matters or simple or minimal living. This is the fourth article from a series of articles and podcasts by SeekersGuidance scholar, Shaykh Farid Dingle.

Introduction to Asceticism (Part One)

Listening More, Talking Less (Part Two)

Entertaining Ourselves to Death (Part Three)

In striving for success in the Hereafter, one should not fall into extremism or imbalance. Rest is part of the journey. This article emphasizes the need for moderation with regards to acts of worship and being diplomatic with oneself in order to avoid burning oneself out and never reaching one’s goal.


With the outpouring of encouragement and recommendations to strive for the Hereafter, it is often easy to go to extremes, particularly if one never gives oneself a break. One can even become obsessive about the halal and the haram, become too strict towards oneself spiritually or demand excessive physical worship from oneself to remain healthy. All of these actions have been shunned by the Qur’an and Sunnah in the clearest of terms.

One of the early Muslims said, “Strive [in worship] so long as you still have an interest in it and leave off striving while you still have a taste for it. The amount of worship that you do on a regular basis should be reasonable.

These words point to a very important concept: the need to have diplomacy with oneself. Personal change takes time and skill, and pushing oneself too hard for too long often results in burnout. One should demand from oneself complete adherence to the Sacred Law while still giving oneself treats, so to speak, and incentives from that which are halal. Allow yourself some time to relax and enjoy things. 

If one tries to become a robot that just does the recommended and obligatory actions alone, one will break. It takes moderation and mercy towards oneself in order to keep going till the end of one’s life. Imam al-Busiri says in his Poem of the Cloak:

Be careful of being full (with food) and of being too hungry: How many a time has extreme hunger lead to worse things than extreme satiation?

What he means is that if you starve yourself too much of halal worldly pleasures, you may end up falling uncontrollably into all sorts of vile and haram things—things that someone who simply kept things in moderation wouldn’t ever be tested with.

Beating oneself up about past sins is also a problem. Indeed, one should be serious and genuine in one’s repentance and take the practical means not to return to them. But there is a big difference between someone who is once bitten and twice shy and someone whose past sins haunt them like shell shock. Allah, at the end of the day, is forgiving and far greater than one’s sins. Being saddened at the thought of one’s past sins is healthy. Being bogged down and depressed is being extreme.

Consistency and Moderation are Key

Thus, consistency is the key, and one cannot be consistent if one goes to extremes; rather, one would just burn oneself out. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), as Waki ibn al-Jarrah tells us, used to prefer works of worship done consistently, even if they were not much. (Ibn Majah) Mansur ibn al-Mutamir (d. 132 AH) said, “They used to prefer that one increase in worship, and they used to dislike that one decrease. They used to encourage consistency.”

Consistency was Encouraged

The practical way to find the golden mean is to start off with certain extra acts of worship, such as reciting ten minutes of Qur’an a day or praying two cycles of prayer in the mid-morning (Duha) or the like and then slowly adding to it, making sure that one can always balance it with one’s work or other commitments. 

One knows that one is going to extremes when performing these acts infringe on one’s obligations, or cannot be realistically done on a regular basis, or has negative effects on one’s health & family relations, or causes one to fret about keeping up with them. Waki quotes a hadith saying, “This religion is mighty, so stride into it with moderation.” 

Do Not Allow Yourself to Dislike Worship

Stressing yourself out due to trying to perform extra acts of worship is not healthy, and you may end up hating it. The hadith concludes saying, “Someone who is off by himself neither travels any distance nor keeps any riding mount on its legs!” That is to say that it is not something that one can maintain on a regular basis. Worship is not about competing with others or even competing with oneself—it is exactly as it reads: worship. Worship means expressing one’s love, need, fear, and hope towards the greatest being in existence and the most important thing in one’s life. When this becomes one’s impetus, the process becomes moderate automatically.

Waki quotes another hadith to the same effect: 

“Adhere to a moderate way.  No one makes things too intense for themselves in their religion save that it will overthrow them.”

And yet another, 

“Let each of you only do the amount of worship that he is actually able to do. 

Not one of you has any idea when he will die.”

Be Gentle to Yourself

Waki closes the chapter with a very interesting hadith: 

“Allah is gentle and He loves gentleness. He gives when it is applied that which He does not give when violence is applied.”

It is interesting that he mentions this hadith because one would normally associate gentleness and violence with the way in which one should or should not deal with other people. But one can actually be gentle or violent with oneself: one can proceed on the path of change with wisdom, moderation, pragmatism, and determination; or one can try to make oneself a victim by punishing oneself with guilt and unbalanced moral judgments or try to quixotically “go where no man has gone before” in terms of acts of worship and end up exhausting oneself physically and spiritually before any personal change can actually happen.

One can try to make oneself a victim by punishing oneself with guilt and unbalanced moral judgments.

To illustrate this point, let us listen to how Bakr al-Muzani (d. 108 AH) explained Abu Bakr al-Siddiq’s high spiritual state. He said, “Abu Bakr did not outdo them in fasting or prayer. Rather, it was just something that settled firmly in his heart.” So it wasn’t about what he did—it was about the way he was. This “way” naturally caused him to fulfill his religious obligations and to strive toward extra deeds, but always within the bounds of moderation and balance.


About the Author

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies, he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to crafts lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language which can be found here. 

The corresponding podcast is due for release soon.

How to Have Spiritual Openings and See With the Light of Faith

Some Counsel of Imam Shafi’i and Its Explanation

 

by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

 

In the Name of Allah, the Merciful and Compassionate

 

Imam Shafi’i said,

 

“Whoever would love for Allah to open their heart, or to illuminate their gaze, should:

(1) leave excessive talking regarding things that don’t concern them;

(2) keep away from sins; and 

(3) have between them and Allah some carefully hidden good deeds.

 

If they do this, Allah will grant them openings of Knowledge that will busy them from all other.” [Bayhaqi, Manaqib al-Shafi’i, 1.22]

 

Brief Explanation:

 

One. ‘Would love’

Love (hubb) returns to two meanings: (a) strong inclination (al-mayl) and (b) preference (ithar). True love has both a strong inclination to Allah, and preferring what is pleasing to Allah over what is pleasing to one’s self.

 

Two. ‘To open their heart’

Opening of the heart (fath) is for the heart to become alive with the meanings of faith (iman), so that their faith is not merely a rational acceptance, but consciousness that moves their thoughts and actions.

 

Three. ‘Illuminate their gaze’

This refers to seeing – with the eye of their heart (basira) – everything being from Allah Most High.

 

Four. ‘Leaving excessive talking’

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should say the good or remain silent.” [Bukhari and Muslim]

 

Five. ‘Things that don’t concern them’

The Messenger of Allah (peace & blessings be upon him) said, “From the excellence of a person’s Islam is leaving all that doesn’t concern them.” [Tirmidhi]

 

What concerns, or should concern one, is anything that has worldly or next-worldly benefit, whether for oneself or others, in a manner pleasing to Allah. [Ibn Allan, and others]

 

Six. ‘Keep away from sins’

Sins pollute one’s state, stain the heart, distance one from Allah and weaken the light of faith.

 

The key to returning to Allah – and the essence of repentance (tawba) is leaving sins. The key to leaving sins is (1) identifying the cause of the sin; and (2) diligently working to remove the cause of the sin from one’s life. If unable to identify the cause – or to remove it – then one should consult either (a) a trusted friend; or (b) a trustworthy scholar with spiritual insight.

 

Seven. ‘Hidden good deeds’

The key to Allah’s acceptance is sincerity (ikhlas) – in one’s purpose, state and actions. Sincerity is seeking Allah Most High, Himself alone, without ulterior motives. Having some good deeds – such as night worship, Qur’an recitation, remembrance, reflection, charity, or service to others – in secret, such that others don’t see or know about it, helps cultivate sincerity and cull insincerity.

 

Eight. ‘Openings of knowledge’

This refers to both (a) the meanings of faith and consciousness that Allah places in the hearts of those who cultivate sincerity in the ways described, and (b) Allah granting one openings in beneficial knowledge (al-ilm al-nafi’) that enable one to seek and spread the good, whether worldly or religious, for oneself or others.

 

These are some brief points on the wise words of Imam Shafi’i (Allah have mercy upon him).

 

And Allah is the giver of success and facilitation.

 

‏قال الإمام الشافعي رحمه الله:

‏مَن أحب أن يفتحَ الله له قلبَه أو يُنوِّرَ بصرَه فعليه بـ:

‏- تركِ كثرة الكلام فيما لا يَعنيه

‏- واجتنابِ المعاصي

‏- وأن يكونَ له فيما بينَه وبينَ الله خبيئةٌ مِن عمل

‏فإنه إذا فَعل ذلك فتح الله عليه من العلم ما يَشغله عن غيره

‏مناقب الشافعي للبيهقي: 22/1

Saving Our Souls Series

Our teacher, Shaykh Yusuf Weltch, guides us through a journey, a path that ultimately leads to true happiness; the love of Allah.  Join us as we take this trip.  Keep an eye on this page for updates to new articles and podcasts.

Part 1: Introduction | Click here

  • An article on the heart and the need to take care of it

Part 2: Obligations of the Heart | Click here

  • We’ve heard of bodily obligations, but what are the obligations of the heart?

Part 3: A Precious Counsel from a Revered Scholar | Click here

  • The believer’s state

Part 4: 22 Sins of the Heart | Click here

  • Yes, even the heart can sin, which are the worst of sins

Part 5: 12 Sins of the Stomach | Click here

  • Everything we digest has an impact on the heart

Part 6: 12 Sins of the Eyes | Click here

  • Seeing eye to eye with the legislation

Part 7: 38 Sins of the Tongue | Click here

  • Do you want Paradise guaranteed for you?

Part 8: The Sins of the Ears

Part 9: The Sins of the Hand

Part 10: The Sins of the Private Parts

Part 11: The Sins of the Feet

Part 12: The Sins of the Body

The Masters and the Millennials | Part 8: Challenges in Living the Way of the Prophet – Shaykh Abdurragmaan Khan

This is the eighth part of a series, click here for the previous article.

In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate

We continue our discussion of the book al-Fawa‘id al-Mukhtarah – selected beneficial anecdotes for the wayfarer – by Habib Zayn bin Sumayt. Our focus in this podcast is on the importance of books and reading in the life of students of knowledge.

The text provides insight into the lives of the scholars of Hadramaut and their attachment to books and reading. The west has lost its love of reading, and our youth almost completely neglect it. Let us take guidance from these great people and start reading.

Important books and their sequence of study

Imam al-‘Aydarus bin ‘Umar al-Habshi said that the six primary works of tasawwuf that should be studied are the following:

  1. Ihya′ ‘Ulum al-Din by Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali
  2. Minhaj al-‘Abidin by Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali
  3. Arba‘in fi Usul al-Din by Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali
  4. Al-Risalah al-Qushayriyyah fi ‘Ilm Al-Tasawwuf by Imam al-Qushayri
  5. ‘Awarif al-Ma‘arif by Imam al-Suhrawardi
  6. Qut al-Qulub fi Mu’amalat al-Mahbub by Abu Talib al-Makki

These six works are foundational. Students of knowledge in western academic circles often believe they are able to study any text. This belief is mistaken and students who try to study any text often misunderstand the scholars. It is vital that they follow a specific sequence. For instance, the Hadrami scholars of fiqh follow this sequence:

  1. Al-Risalah al-Jami‘ah wa al-Tadhkirah al-Nafi‘ah by Imam Ahmed bin Zayn al-Habashi
  2. Safinah al-Najah fi Fiqh al-Shafi’i by Salim ibn ʿAbdullah ibn Saʿd ibn Samir al-Hadrami al-Shafiʿi
  3. Mukhtasar al-Latif fi Fiqh al-Shafi’i by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abd al-Rahman Balhaj BaFadl al-Hadrami
  4. Al-Muqaddimah al-Hadramiyyah by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abd al-Rahman Ba-Fadl al-Hadrami
  5. Al-Ghayah wa al-Taqrib fi al-Fiqh al-Shafi’i by Abu Shuja’ Hussayn bin Ahmad al-Asfahani
  6. Safwah al-Zubad by Ahmad bin Husayn bin Hasan bin ‘Ali ibn Arslan al-Ramli
  7. ‘Umdah al-Salik wa ‘Uddah al-Nasik by Shihab al-Din Abu al-‘Abas Ahmad bin al-Naqib
  8. Minhaj al Talibin by Abu Zakariyya Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi

This order of study involves moving from a smaller to a larger text, each discussing the fiqh in greater detail. Students must not try to jump the queue. Those who do so have become raisins before being grapes! They remain unenlightened, devoid of understanding.

Sayyidi Habib ‘Umar wrote a book, Maqasid Halaqat al-Ta‘lim, on the importance of understanding the sequence of the books in the various disciplines. It has been translated by Shaykh Amjad Tarsin and published by Dar al-Turath al-Islami.

The Ihya of Ghazali
Imam al-Haddad said it is important to read books such as the Minhaj in fiqh and the Ihya in tasawwuf because, through them, one receives great openings, as well as elevation of the soul.

Habib ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Saqqaf was the qutb of his time. A qutb is a pole or axis around which everything revolves. It is one of the highest stations of sainthood. However, even if one reaches this station, he is not necessarily the qutb of his time because there can only be one quṭb at a time. Habib ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Saqqaf read the Qur’an eight times every 24 hours. He said: “Whoever does not study the Ihya does not truly have modesty”.

Imam Haddad loved the Ihya and collated whatever was mentioned in it in one of his books, Al-Nasa’ih al-Diniyyah, which has been translated into English under the title of Counsels of Religion. Some of the pious say that the one who reads and acts on the Ihya will be of the people of Paradise.

Our pious predecessors emphasised the reading of the following four introductions:

The books of Imam Nawawi
Imam Haddad had three books that would constantly be recited to him, one reading after the other. One of these books was Riyad al-Salihin by Imam Nawawi which has been translated into English. It has many benefits and Allah grants many openings to the one who reads it.

An enlightened person once visited a scholar. He saw the scholar’s library and asked why some of the books emit light while others do not. The scholar asked him to remove the books which were emitting light and he did so. They were all Imam Nawawi’s books.

Imam Nawawi was regarded as the qutb of his time. Habib Ahmad bin Hasan al-‘Attas said that Ibn Hajar al-Haytami memorised the Minhaj of Imam Nawawi, and through that, Allah blessed his writings so that their benefits spread throughout the world.

Other books of great benefit

  • Muqqadimah of al-Tafsir al-Kabir of Fakhr al-Din al-Razi up to Surah Baqarah
  • Muqqadimah Sharh Sahih Muslim by Imam Nawawi
  • Muqqadimah al-Majmu’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab by Imam Nawawi
  • Muqqadimah of Ibn Khaldun

Al-Shifa by Qadi Iyad, which has been translated into English by Aisha Bewley, under the title, “Muhammad: Messenger of Allah”, is said to have been tried and tested for the removal of difficulties.

Let us attach ourselves to the books of the predecessors (salaf) for they contain blessings, knowledge and openings. Reading their books is like sitting at their feet, taking from them, connecting to them and receiving their secrets. It is an invaluable opportunity to insulate ourselves from the trials and tribulations of western society by seeking their light and guidance.

Saving Our Souls Series | Part 6: 12 Sins of the Eyes – Shaykh Yusuf Weltch


Our eyes and our ability to see are from Allah’s greatest blessings upon us. With them, we’re able to see His marvelous creation and reflect over his might, but all blessings need to be used correctly. If Allah blesses you with wealth it is from gratitude that you use that wealth in permissible ways. Likewise, the great blessing of sight must be used in halal ways and the sins of the eyes must be avoided.

The following are the sins the eyes commit:

  1. The looking of a man at marriageable women
    • Looking at a marriageable woman is of two types:
      • With desire – this is impermissible in every case unless for necessity.
      • Without desire – this is impermissible if one looks at a part of her body which is not permissible to see (i.e. everything except her face and hands).
        • Note: that in the Hanafi school the feet are also included in the above exceptions.
  2. It is also impermissible for women to look at marriageable men
    • Looking at a marriageable man is of two types:
      • With desire – this is impermissible in all cases unless for necessity.
      • Without desire – it is impermissible to look at that which is between his navel and knees.
  3. It is impermissible to look at the nakedness of anyone without a religiously sanctioned excuse.
  4. It is impermissible for the woman to expose any part of her body, besides the face and hands, in the presence of those who are not permitted to see
  5. It is impermissible for both a man and woman to expose that which is between their navel and knees in the presence of anyone who can see and understand what they are seeing, even if the onlooker is of the same gender or unmarriageable kinship. The exclusion to this is the spouse.
    • This also applies if the onlooker is a small child if they can discern what they have seen and could possibly describe what they have seen to others. Thus this doesn’t apply to the very small child who is too young to understand what they have seen.
  6. It is impermissible for the man to expose his genitalia and for the woman to expose that which is between her navel and knees, even if done in private without necessity.
    • The exception is in the presence of their spouse.
  7. It is permissible – in the case of unmarriageable kinship, between those of the same gender, or in the case of an undesired small child (even if the child is not from one’s unmarriageable kinship or of the same gender) – to look at the entire body besides that which is between the navel and knees on condition that no desire is present.
  8. The exception to this is the infant, whether boy or girl, who is not at the age of discernment, as it is permissible to look at them to every part except for the private part of a girl unless the onlooker is the mother.
    • All of the above is also permissible between spouses,
  9. It is impermissible to look at any Muslim with the eye of belittlement
  10. It is impermissible to look into the home of another without their permission.
  11. It is impermissible to look at anything which one has hidden (i.e without permission).
  12. It is impermissible to be witness to an evil done in one’s presence without trying to redress it with one’s hand or tongue.
    • That is unless one has a religiously sanctioned excuse or leaves the gathering.

May Allah forgive us for all that which we’ve looked at intentionally.

The Masters and the Millennials | Part 7: Importance of Etiquette – Shaykh Abdurragmaan Khan

This is the seventh part of a series, click here for the previous article.

In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate

We will be focusing here on good etiquette (adab). We are in need of good manners because we live in a society where the youth do not respect the elderly, and the elderly do not display much care for the youth.

Virtues of good etiquette (adab)
It is narrated that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “The one who does not show etiquette to the elderly is not of us.” In addition, many narrations discuss etiquette. Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Mubarak said, “We are more in need of a little adab than we are in need of much knowledge.” Imam Shafi’i said, “My teacher Imam Malik advised me to let my knowledge be the salt and my adab be the dough.” The vast majority of Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal’s students attended his classes to learn adab.

The work Ta’lim al-Muta‘allim tells the story of two men who left home seeking knowledge. They studied together for the same number of years. When they returned home, one had gained deep knowledge of fiqh but the other had not gained that much. When the people asked why this had happened, they were told that the scholar who had gained a deep understanding of the religion had faced the qiblah whenever he studied. Allah granted him an opening because of his adab. The other one had sat with his back to the qiblah and therefore had gained little knowledge.

You will receive knowledge in proportion to the amount of adab you show to your teachers. Abdurrahman ibn Qasim said, “I served Imam Malik for twenty years. I received knowledge from him for two years, and received adab for the other eighteen years. How I wish I had dedicated all twenty years to adab”.

Our level of adab is often connected to our opinion of ourselves. The more a person considers himself a great man of knowledge and demands respect from others, the more the illness of pride enters his heart, and the more difficult it is for him to display adab. On the other hand, the more a person considers himself the least of people, the more he is able to display beautiful adab.

The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “I was only sent to you to perfect your character.” He also said, “The best of you are those who are best in character.” Our scholars, especially the Ba’Alawi sayyids, take the view that tasawwuf is entirely about having good character.

Examples of Adab
For example, the seating arrangements for major events at Dar al-Mustafa, the institute of Sayyidi Habib Umar, reflect the utmost adab. Senior scholars sit in front of the gathering, facing the rest of the participants. The first few front rows are reserved for senior men, who are seated according to seniority. Younger students of knowledge are seated behind them. Many times when Habib Ali Mashhur (Allah have mercy on him) attended the gathering, he would be seated in the front, facing the gathering, and Habib Umar (his younger brother) would sit in the first row out of adab to his brother.

There are many examples from among the Prophet’s companions illustrating their adab to him. For instance, Thabit sat crying in the road after Allah Most High revealed the Quranic verse: “O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet or be loud to him in speech like the loudness of some of you to others, lest your deeds become worthless while you perceive not” (Sura al-Hujurat, 49:2). A passing companion asked him why he was crying, so he said, “I fear this verse of the Qur’an was revealed regarding me, because I have a loud voice, and when I speak my voice is naturally louder than that of the Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace). I fear that my deeds have been blotted out and I am going to be from among the people of the fire.” The companion, whose name was Asim, told the story to the Prophet, who asked him to call Thabit. When Thabit came to the Prophet, he said, “O Thabit, why are you crying?” Thabit said, “My voice is too loud and I fear that this verse of the Qur’an refers to me.” The Prophet cheered him up, saying, “Are you not pleased that you will live in this world praised and that you will be killed as a martyr and enter Paradise?”

The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was displaying excellent adab by saying this, because it is good etiquette to cheer someone up by saying something that makes them feel good about themselves. His statement was very good news for Thabit, who also undertook never to raise his voice above the voice of the Messenger.

Self-sacrifice: a Form of Adab
The following narration is important within the current context of coronavirus: The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said it is haram for Muslims living in a city afflicted by plague to leave that city. They must remain in the city. No one must travel to or from the city. The Prophet is telling us not to run away to save our lives. We should stay in the city, fearing that we may already be carrying the disease, and prefer to be afflicted and die because Islam is about self-sacrifice. We must be prepared to sacrifice ourselves so that others can be safe.

If we develop the quality of self-sacrifice, it will become much easier to serve others, to give them preference, to honour and respect them, to display etiquette towards them, and to have a good opinion of them.

Etiquette with Our Teachers
Shaykh Abd al-Qadir al-Jaylani once saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) before Zuhr. The Prophet told him to deliver discourses and teach and call people to Allah. He said, “I do not have a pure Arab tongue so how can I speak among the eloquent people of Baghdad?” The Prophet said, “Open your mouth.” So he opened his mouth and the Prophet spat into it seven times. He told him to speak in front of people and call them to the way of Allah Most High with wisdom and good admonition. Shaykh Abd al-Qadir prayed Zuhr and thereafter a large number of people gathered around him to learn from him. However, he was struck with fear and unable to speak. Then he saw Sayyidina Ali (Allah be pleased with him) standing at his side. Sayyidina Ali said, “O my son, call people to Allah.” He said, “O my father, the crowd has instilled within me a sense of fear that is causing me to become tongue-tied and I cannot speak.” So Sayyidina Ali told him to open his mouth and, when he had done so, Sayyidina Ali spat into it six times. Shaykh Abd al-Qadir asked why he had not done so seven times, so he said, “I stopped at six so I may have adab with the Messenger of Allah.” Thereafter Sayyidina Ali left and Shaykh Abd al-Qadir was able to speak to the people.

Habib Muhammad al-Saqqaf once remarked on the importance of adab. He said their nurturing had been such that they would always make sure that they dressed less well than their teachers.

Our community has a very insightful saying: you may achieve whatever you like in life, in the form of degrees, academic knowledge and wealth, but if you do not have etiquette and good character, you have nothing.

May Allah make us people possessing good etiquette.

Saving Our Souls Series | Part 5: 12 Sins of the Stomach – Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

When they said the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach, they couldn’t have been more correct. Islam teaches us that the way to a sound heart is through a good stomach. On the contrary, if you consume haram it will hurt your soul. Quite literally, you are (spiritually) what you eat.

From the sins of the stomach are the following:

  1. Consuming money from usury:
    • This applies to direct consumption of it, spending from usurious money, and benefitting from it in any manner, even if not used for food.
  2. Consuming money from unjust taxation
    • This refers to all wealth that is misappropriated, whether unjustly taken by rulers or the imposition of unjust taxes.
  3. Consuming wealth which was misappropriated
    • Misappropriation is the open unlawful seizure of people’s wealth, forcefully, with no right to do so.
  4. Consuming wealth from theft
    • This not only applies to the thief, rather includes any benefitting from stolen property by anyone.
  5. Consuming wealth which was earned in a manner impermissible in the Sacred law
    • Such as corrupt business transactions
  6. Consuming alcohol. The Islamically sanctioned penalty for the drinker of alcohol is forty lashes for the free person, and twenty for the slave.
    • This applies to even a drop of alcohol or any intoxicating agent. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Whatever intoxicates in abundance than even a little of it is prohibited (haram).” [Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasaa’i, and others]
  7. Consuming or drinking an intoxicating agent
    • This applies to marijuana and other drugs.
  8. Consuming any impurity whether by eating or drinking
  9. Eating or drinking anything considered filthy
  10. Consuming the wealth of the orphan
  11. Consuming endowments contrary to the conditions of the endower
    • An endowment is that which one relinquishes ownership of something permanent, stipulating benefit from it to remain for the poor, scholars, those striving in the path of Allah, the Muslims, or others. It has many religious injunctions related to it, thus any usage of it contrary to the conditions of the endower is impermissible
  12. Consuming anything which was taken under duress.
    • Anything which is taken without the full willful consent of the owner. So anything that was taken due to own’s shyness or shame for not giving it that had it not been for that they would not have given it – it is not permissible to take nor benefit from.

May Allah allow us to consume only that which is halal and forgive us our sins.