Make Up For Missing Prayers

Answered by Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat

Question: Assalamu Alaikum, How does one make up for a large number of prayers (let’s say, years of them)? Does he/she have to make up for each individual prayer? Would they have to make up for all those prayers or would a general tawbah be required in such a case?

Answer: Wa ‘alaykum as-salam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh

I pray you’re well.

The Importance of the Prayer

The prayer is of central importance in Islam, and trying to perfect one’s prayer is a life-long objective of every believer. It is the purest act of worship through which slavehood to Allah Most High is expressed.

From puberty onwards, every believer is expected to perform the five fard prayers – and the wajib witr prayer for Hanafis – every day. If any of these are missing then one will be accountable for them on the Day of Judgement.

Therefore, all missed prayers must be made up – regardless of the reason behind them being missed. One must also repent from any prayers missed due to negligence.

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said, “The first thing a servant will be taken to account for on the Day of Judgement from his deeds is the prayer. If it is right he is successful and saved. Otherwise, he is ruined and has lost out.

The Lord – Infinitely Generous and Lofty is He – will say [to the angels], ‘Look; does my servant have any voluntary worship which can compensate for the deficiencies in his obligatory worship?’ Then the rest of his works will be treated in the same way.” (Abu Dawud).

This narration also highlights the importance of  the sunna prayers and voluntary worship.

How To Make Up Missed Prayers

The simplest way is to start from the point you reached puberty. If you do not know the precise month and year then make a good guess.

Once you have this date calculate the number of years, months, and days from puberty until you started to consistently pray properly. It might be wise to add 2% of this figure as a backup.

At this point you should start to make up the prayers. You do need to pray them in order, and there is no rush.

The easiest way is to start making up one day’s worth of prayers a day. The order can be mixed up to facilitate the process, though it is better to pray maghrib and the witr prayer in a place where no one can see you. This is to avoid letting others know that you missed prayers in the past. The other prayers can be passed of as voluntary prayers.

It is also important that you keep on top of your current prayers – they are a priority. Also, do not miss the emphasised sunnas: the two before fajr; the four before zuhr, and the two after it; the two after maghrib, and the two after ‘isha.

A sample routine could be that you make up:

before/after fajr – a previous zuhr

after sunrise until noon – a previous maghrib

after zuhr – a previous asr

before (ideally) / after asr (before the sun goes reddish) – a previous ‘isha

after maghrib – a previous fajr

before bed/tahajjud time – a previous witr.

This way you’ll be able to place the missed prayers in the slots of the recommended voluntary prayers without disrupting your routine much. Alternatively, you could find a 20 minutes slot in the day and pray them all back to back.

The Intention

The simplest intention is to say “I intend to make up the last fajr/zuhr/asr, etc prayer that I missed and have not prayed yet.” Do this for every prayer, and each time you perform a prayer one will be knocked off the list and the one prior to it will become ‘the last prayer you missed’

Keep a separate written record of how many days you have made up, ideally in a place you won’t lost it, such as iCloud.

Beware Of Burnout

The Devil will undoubtedly come and make you rush through the prayers, and also make you think the number you are doing isn’t enough. Ignore him. Start with making up one day a day, and when you have consistently done this for three months consider adding another day to the routine.

This way you will keep advancing. A small amount over a long period of time is better than a big sudden splash and then nothing. I know many people who have built up to consistently making up five days worth of prayers a day, and kept at it. This requires a bit of sacrifice but the fruits are well worth it.

As with everything, ask Allah for help, and tell Him you are doing this to please Him, and to fulfil His rights that you were deficient with. This way you will be rewarded for it all even if you die before completing them all. Allah is very kind and generous.

(Shurubnulali, Maraqi al Falah)

May Allah facilitate all matters for you.

[Shaykh] Abdul-Rahim Reasat

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat began his studies in Arabic Grammar and Morphology in 2005. After graduating with a degree in English and History he moved to Damascus in 2007 where, for 18 months, he studied with erudite scholars such as Shaykh Adnan Darwish, Shaykh Abdurrahman Arjan, Shaykh Hussain Darwish and Shaykh Muhammad Darwish. In late 2008 he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continued his studies for the next six years in Sacred Law (fiqh), legal theory (Usul al-fiqh), theology, hadith methodology, hadith commentary, and Logic with teachers such as Dr Ashraf Muneeb, Dr Salah Abu’l-Hajj, Dr Hamza al-Bakri, Shaykh Ahmad Hasanat, Dr Mansur Abu Zina, and others. He was also given licences of mastery in the science of Qur’anic recital by Shakh Samir Jabir and Shaykh Yahya Qandil. With Shaykh Ali, he was able to study an extensive curriculum of Qur’anic sciences, tafsir, Arabic grammar, and Arabic eloquence.

Can Muslim Women Be Imams?

Answered by Ustadh Farid Dingle

Question: assalam alaykum, I´m from Italy and here some people think that Islam is for man and the woman have a second place in Islam. I see a program in tv, about one woman can be Imam, and they say this is a revolution inside Islam. So my question are: woman can be Imam in a community? she can be Imam for women and men? where in the Holy Qur’an say that woman can’t be Imam for the Ummah?

Answer: Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Dear questioner,

Gender equality in Islam

All looks at everyone equally and everyone is welcomed to draw near to him in sincerity, dedication, fear and hope. Whoever excels another in these is greater in Allah’s eyes, regardless of race or gender.

Allah Most High says, ‘Verily, Muslim men and Muslim women, believing men and believing women, worshipful men and worshipful women, true men and true women, patient men and patient women, humbled men and humbled women, men and women who give in charity, men who fast and women who fast, men who protect their chastity and women, and men who remember Allah much and women, Allah has prepared for them [indescribable] forgiveness and a tremendous reward.’ [33: 35]

So Allah men and women are equal before Allah, irrespective of gender.

That said, Allah has also told us in the Quran that he has not given everyone in this life the same provision, and rights and responsibilities:

´It is We who have divided up each person’s livelihood in the Lower Life, and we have raised some over other whole categories such that some should be subject to others. And your Lord’s mercy is better than that which they amass’ [43: 32]

Some people are rich, and that gives them the right to buy things that others can’t; that also gives them the responsibility to support others. Some people are strong and healthy, and that gives them the right to enjoy their health, and the responsibility to defend the weak. Some people are really intelligent and have the ability and therefore the responsibility to fulfill certain communal obligations, such as being a brain surgeon or a mufti. Some others do not have such capabilities, such opportunities, etc., and this is all from the wisdom and mercy of Allah.

None of this “favouritism” reflects how Allah looks at His slaves: they are all equal and their true and ultimate rank is how they are morally.

And one such way that Allah has apportioned and organised temporal life in this “Lower Life” is that He has not made men and women the same, and has not given them the same rights and responsibilities.

Allah has said in the Quran, ‘Men are in charge of women because We have given more to some than others.’ [4: 34]

Men are not women, and women are not men. Allah has made two genders to compliment one another, and has put one in charge of the other in this life, even though they are equal before Allah’s eyes in the next.

Well, to what degree are men in charge of women?

Generally speaking, no man has any control or say in what another man or woman does. However the general tack in Islam is that men are in charge of leadership roles, such as being the caliph, judgeship, leading the household, and leading the Eid and Friday prayers.

Woman can be and do many things: they can be politicians, muftis, CEOs, millionaires, writers, revolutionists, mothers, astronauts, you name it! But there is a general hierarchy in things that touch the structure and performance of the Muslim community.

This responsibility, dictates that one follow the other, and the other show mercy, consideration, stewardship to the other in light of the grave responsibility that rests on his shoulders. This hierarchy is for everyone’s benefit: emotionally, physically, financially, politically, economically …

Responsibility means answerability: so men, or women, who abuse their rights and do not fulfill their what is required of them, must provide an answer for their transgressions before a Sharia court in this life, and Allah’s court in the next.

For more details on Women’s active role in the authority, please see: Do the Hadiths Say Women Can’t Be Leaders?

Can women lead the prayer

Please see: How a Female Imam Should Lead a Congregation of Women in Prayer? [Shafi’i School]

An Explanation of the Hanafi School’s Position on Women’s Congregational Prayer

I pray this helps.

[Ustadh] Farid Dingle

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to crafts lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language.

Recitation Error During Prayer

Answered by Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat

Question: In Surah Fatiha and Surah Ikhlas i didn’t pronounce from throat not pronounce correctly, made all these mistakes without knowing it and i have made these in all my previous prayer since i have started. Now what should i do? Do i have to repeat all those prayers? Dose mistakes done in recitation during without knowing them even if they changed the meaning are forgivable?

Answer: Wa ‘alaykum as-salam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh

I pray you are well.

No, none of those prayers need to be repeated. According to the Hanafi school such mistakes are overlooked. (Ibn ʿAbidin, Radd al-Muhtar). Not all mistakes in Tajwid alter the meaning.

It would be a good idea, however, to find a Tajwid teacher locally and rectify your recitation if possible. Don’t worry about the errors though. Sometimes, it takes a while to perfect pronunciation. Use it as a means to get closer to Allah with a good intention.

May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.

[Shaykh] Abdul-Rahim Reasat

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Abdul Rahim Reasat began his studies in Arabic Grammar and Morphology in 2005. He moved to Damascus in 2007 to study and sit at the feet of some of the most erudite scholars of our time, such as Shaykh Adnan Darwish, Shaykh Abdurrahman Arjan, Shaykh Hussain Darwish and Shaykh Muhammad Darwish. In late 2008 he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continued his studies in Fiqh, Usul al Fiqh, Theology, Hadith Methodology and Commentary, Shama’il, and Logic with teachers such as Dr Ashraf Muneeb, Dr Salah Abu’l Hajj, Dr Hamza al-Bakri, Shaykh Ahmad Hasanat, Dr Mansur Abu Zina amongst others. He was also given two licences of mastery in the science of Qur’anic recital by Shakh Samir Jabr and Shaykh Yahya Qandil. With Shaykh Ali Hani he was able to study an extensive curriculum of Qur’anic Sciences, Tafsir, Arabic Grammar, and Rhetoric.

Supplying Medication Containing Unlawful Substances

Answered by Shaykh Jamir Meah

Question: Assalam Alaykum

I work as a pharmacist, sometimes doctors prescribe medication which contains unlawful substances such as alcohol or gelatin and this is what I have to supply to the patient, sometimes those patients are Muslim. Would I be sinful for checking off/ supplying such medication?

Answer: Wa’alaykum assalam, thank you for your question.

The onus to check if medical cases permit consumption of impure substances for treatment rests on the doctor, and the patient’s acceptance. Your checking the dosage, ingredients, and supplying the medication based on the doctors prescription would be permissible, if the doctor prescribing it is known to be qualified and competent. Patients also have the individual responsibility to look into what they are being prescribed and consuming.

However, it would be recommended for you to mention to Muslim patients that their medication contains such ingredients, so they have the choice to take it or refer back to the doctor for an alternative prescription. This way,  you have done what is in your capacity to inform them and allow them to make an informed decision. And Allah knows best.

Warmest salams,

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. He travelled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years privately studying a range of Islamic sciences under the foremost scholars and muftis from the Ribat Tarim, specializating in Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies under many of Amman’s most prominent scholars, in a range of Islamic sciences, including Islamic theology, logic, legal principles and precepts, hadith studies, grammar and rhetoric, seerah, Quranic studies and tafsir. He is also an experienced homeopath, having studied and been mentored under some of its leading practitioners.

Reading Qur’an For A Deceased

Answered by Ustadh Farid Dingle

Question: As-Salaamu ‘Alaykum,

A few years ago I signed up to read a juz of the Quran as part of a khatm sign up sheet for someone’s passing.. I had forgotten about that for a while and now I don’t even remember what juz number I signed up for.. I feel very worried. What should I do? Do I read the whole Quran with the intention of all of it being towards that same khatm? JazakAllah Khair.

Answer: Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Dear questioner,

The moral weight of promises

Allah Most High has said:

Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives zakah; [those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous. [2: 177]

And the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, ‘The signs of a hypocrite are three, even if he fasts and prays and claims to be a Muslim: when he speaks he lies, when he gives a promise he breaks it, and when he is trusted he is treacherous.’ [Bukhari and Muslim]

We can learn from these divine teachings that fulfilling one’s promise is of the perfection of faith, and breaking one’s promise is of the signs of hypocrisy.

The believer vs. the hypocrite

That said, there is a big difference between making a genuine promise with full intent to fullfil, and just lying to someone’s face. The latter is what is meant by the hadith.

So, if one makes a promise, one must keep it, but if you unable to or you just happen to forget this is not a sin: ‘Indeed Allah has overlooked for my the mistakes of my nation does, and that which they do forgetfully or under compulsion.’ [al-Bayhaqi and Ibn Majah]

This means that if you generally meant to fulfill the promise but then forgot, you are not sinful, and the hadith of the signs of hypocrisy does not apply to you.

It is however a deficiency in one’s faith, even if it is not sin, to forget about something that you are supposed to do. May Allah forgive us all?

What to do now?

InshaAllah, you are not sinful for forgetting to recite then portion of the Quran you had promised to do, but this is a wake-up call from Allah to raise you to a higher level of trustworthiness with Him and His creation.

What you should do is, this month, when you are reciting Quran intend that the whole khatm is dedicated to whatever the original cause was and when you finish each day make a special dua to Allah to make you a trustworthy slave. Please make that dua for me too, if you remember.

I pray this helps.

[Ustadh] Farid Dingle

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to crafts lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language.

Ramadan 2020 Reminders | Episode 9: Never Lose Hope | Shaykh Edris Khamissa

Ustadth Edris Khamissa reminds us that we should never lose hope in the mercy and blessings of Allah. However, if we wish to be recipients of Allah’s mercy and bounties, we need to ensure that we are manifesting mercy to our fellow human beings. Let us take the opportunity this Ramadan to strengthen our bonds with family, friends and strangers.

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09-Take Not For Granted- Shaykh Sadullah Khan

In this ninth episode, Shaykh Sadullah reminds us about the daily blessings we took for granted. Now, due to the Covid-19 measures, basic activities and acts of love cannot be expressed. Humanity in the 21st century thought that they were powerful, advanced and developed. However, a small organism has shown us our true nature.

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Playing Chess

Answered by Shaykh Abdurragmaan Khan

Question: Assalam alaykum,

My son is very strong in playing chess.Can we let him play chess in tournaments? What about tournaments where there is prize money for a winner?
Can we use this money? What about making it as career?

Answer: Wa alaykum salam

Thank you for your question.

All the schools of law agree that if playing chess leads to one of the following, it is haram or impermissible to play it:

1. gambling
2. any indecency
3. neglecting prayer by delaying it beyond its allotted time
4. a state of heedlessness of Allah.

Even if these evils are absent, scholars still differ about the permissibility or impermissibility of chess. The Shafi’i school is possibly the most lenient in this regard. Imam Nawawi mentions two positions in his various works, namely the official view that it is makruh or reprehensible to play chess and another view that it is permissible (Rawdah al-Talibin). Please note that, in a broad sense, ‘makruh’ is regarded as a lesser form of permissibility than ‘permissible’.

In his Tuhfah, ibn Hajar al-Haytami says regarding the narrations that prohibit the playing of chess and the like,

“However, Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said, “not a single tradition has been transmitted through an authentic or sound transmission. In addition, a number of the senior companions and many successors (tabi’in) played it. From among those who played it was (the great scholar) Sa’id ibn Jubayr, may Allah be pleased with him.”

In conclusion, if your son is able to maintain a balance such that the game does not consume him and he does not become negligent of his Creator, Allah, glory be to Him, then the playing of chess will be permissible – makruh according to the official view and simply permissible according to the non-official view.

And Allah knows best

[Shaykh] Abdurragmaan Khan

Shaykh Abdurragmaan
received ijazah ’ammah from various luminaries, including but not restricted to: Habib Umar ibn Hafiz—a personality who affected him greatly and who has changed his relationship with Allah, Maulana Yusuf Karaan—the former Mufti of Cape Town; Habib ‘Ali al-Mashhur—the current Mufti of Tarim; Habib ‘Umar al-Jaylani—the Shafi‘i Mufti of Makkah; Sayyid Ahmad bin Abi Bakr al-Hibshi; Habib Kadhim as-Saqqaf; Shaykh Mahmud Sa’id Mamduh; Maulana Abdul Hafiz al-Makki; Shaykh Ala ad-Din al-Afghani; Maulana Fazlur Rahman al-Azami and Shaykh Yahya al-Gawthani amongst others.

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