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Adopting and Conveying a False View for the Sake of Dawa

Ustadh Farid Dingle untangles questions on establishing a state and the rule of law, authority, personal opinions and ijtihad, and who one should follow.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Praise be to Allah Most High and may His peace and blessings be upon His Messenger and those who follow him.

Is it permissible for a dawah group with the intention and goal of establishing khilafah and shar‘ia to demand of its followers to leave their personal opinions of ijtihad in regards to what the group deems to be essential to keep the unity of the group on the way to establishing the state?

They quote as evidence the maxim “that without which an obligation cannot be fulfilled is an obligation”(ma la yatim al wajib illa bihi fahuwa wajib).

They also quote the version of events regarding the bayah of Uthman. A;;ah be pleased with thim, which is mentioned in Tarikh al-Tabari and al-Bidayah wa al-Nihaya and others, where Ali, Allah be please with him, declines the bayah because of the condition of following as shaykhayn in addition to kitab and sunna and Uthman, Allah be pleased with him, accepts the bayah with its condition.

Their claim is that Uthman, Allah be pleased with him, stepped down from his opinion and Ali, Allah be pleased with him, didn’t.

They say that this is evidence that one can leave whatever opinion he has for the sake unity of the ummah in action, saying and believe regardless of whether the person believes something else.

So is the Amir khass like the amir Aam in regards to the right to be obeyed ?  Is it possible and is there perhaps any scholarly precedence for this analogy ? I’m especially interested the extension of the right of the amir to be obeyed (whether Aam or khass) to actually adopting his opinion and carrying it to the people despite disagreeing with it?

I hope my question is clear and understandable and I hope you will provide us with an answer and references since this topic affects hundreds of people.

Note: They say that this applies to the muqallid and the mujtahid, even if he is mujtahid mutlaq.

Jazakum Allah khayr.

 

Answer:

Wa alaykum assaalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Question 1: Is it permissible for a dawah group with the intention and goal of establishing khilafah and shari‘a to demand of its followers to leave their personal opinions of ijtihad in regards to what the group deems to be essential to keep the unity of the group on the way to establishing the state?

1) This question assumes that there are no Islamic states, and that Shari‘a law is not applied. The former is not true, and the latter is not entirely true.

Any Muslim ruler who has military and political control over an area makes that area an Islamic state. Based on this definition, most, if not all, Muslim countries are Muslim states. The significance of that is that their laws that do not categorically contradict the Sacred Law are biding, and that their ruler must be obeyed by their subjects.

As for saying that Sharia is not upheld, that is true to a great extent in many Muslims countries, though not all. And given the fact that they are Islamic states, the proper way to “establish Shari‘a” is to work with the governments and not against them, in whatever form and capacity one can.

It is worth noting that there, at least in my opinion, many Muslim rulers who would love to apply Shari‘a Law 100% but whose hands are tied by the political weakness of the country, and moral weakness of their own people. Being a ruler of a country is no easy business.

2) For the sake of political, communal, or familial unity, is it valid for a non-scholar (muqallid) to adopt another valid position?

Yes, a thousand times yes. Can one follow something that is invalid? No.

Question 2: So is the lesser/specific Muslim ruler (Amir khass) like the greater/general Muslim ruler (amir Aam) in regards to the right to be obeyed?

I am no mujtahid or specialist in Islamic political theory, but I have never heard of these terms. The authority of a Muslim ruler (defined above) is only extended to those who he appoints as governors and judges and the like.

As for any temporal or moral authority granted to someone trying to set up an “Islamic state,” I’ve never heard of anything like that. [al-Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun (specifically his discussion on the Hisba); The Governing Ordinances, al-Mawardi; al-Ihkam fi tamyiz al-fatawa an al-ahkam wa tasarrufat al-qadi wa al-imam, al-Qarafi]

My Advice

Make your heart and soul conform to the state of Iman, Islam and Ihsan, and help existing Muslim countries and Muslim people and non-Muslim people get closer to the Quran and Sunna.

May Allah give you success through Sacred Knowledge.

Farid

 

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


 

Who Should I Emulate and Love More, Abu Bakr or Ali?

Answered by Shaykh Jamir Meah

Question: Assalam alaykum

Should I love more and should I emulate more, Abu Bakr or Ali, may Allah be pleased with them?

Answer: Wa alaykum assalam. Jazakum Allah khayr for your question. May Allah increase you in your striving to emulate the most noble of people to have ever walked upon this earth, after the Prophets.

The question of which Sahabi a person should love or emulate more, is a difficult one to answer. It’s a bit like asking, which parent, or which sibling should one love more? The reality is, that each Companion had their own praiseworthy qualities that marked them out as special, that fulfilled a role in the development of the Umma, and for which we love them, and that motivates us to emulate them. May Allah be pleased with them all.

Starting point

A good starting point to this question is to emulate the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, as much as one can. The greatness and virtue of any Sahabi is only through him, Allah bless him and given him peace. Conversely, following one of the Companions, means following the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace.

Learn as much as you can about the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, through his blessed biography and characteristics and sunnas. This study will be endless. Therefore, to make it of practical benefit, I suggest that while reading, note down those characteristics that stand out for you, whether it be his blessed mannerisms, his generosity, modesty, advice and instructions to others, the way he dealt with others etc. Work through the list, adopting one sunna act or trait once a week.

By the end of the year you would have adopted 52 characteristics or sunna acts of the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace! Continue like this as long as you are able, building your list, then increasing to two a week or more. By repetition and constancy, these Prophetic characteristics and acts will become your own characteristics and acts. This would indeed be a tremendous blessing and achievement.

The Companions

There a numerous hadith (some weak) which praise all the Companions, others that praise specific Companions, while others indicate a “hierarchy” of veneration between the Companions. Examples of these are:

The Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, is reported to have said: “The best of my nation is my generation then those who follow them and then those who follow them.” (Bukhari) As mentioned, emulating any of them, means emulating the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, for they were the best in striving to emulate him, Allah bless him and given him peace.

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and given him peace, said, “Stick to the two after me, Abu Bakr and Umar.” (Jami’ al-Tirmidhi)

It was reported that Sayyidna ‘Ali said: “The best of people after the Messenger of Allah is Abu Bakr, and the best of people after Abu Bakr is Umar.” (Ibn Majah).

There are many other such narrations, which also mention Sayyidna Uthman, Sayyidna Ali, and many others of the noble Companions of the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, including the Mothers of the believers and not forgetting the great female Companions.

What becomes apparent through reading through all these narrations, is that generally speaking, the understood hierarchy of greatness among the Companions is first Abu Bakr, then Umar, then Uthman, then ‘Ali.

Which Companion should a Person Love or Emulate Most?

Despite the hierarchy we have mentioned, who one loves and emulates is not governed by any given order, but rather one’s own heart and its inclination.

Love is a personal affair, motivated by personal reasons. Some love another because the other is the same as them. Some love because the other is the opposite of them. Others love because the other inspires them, while some love because the other grounds them, and many other reasons besides.

For some people, they feel that they can instantly relate to, and therefore practically emulate, a specific Companion more readily than directly emulating the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, who was perfection. So they choose to follow the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, via following a Companion. There is no harm in this whatsoever, for the reason we described above, and this connection to a Companion is a gift from Allah.

In these cases, one should follow the Companion(s) one feels their heart resonates with most, and who inspires them to be a better person and Muslim.

The Importance of being You

Finally, don’t forget, every individual, whether among the Companions or others, is a unique individual that Allah has created. The Companions emulated the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, but were at the same time very different from him, Allah bless him and given him peace, and from each other. Each had their virtue and role. This is the beauty and wisdom of Allah’s creation.

Likewise, you are your own person, and will grow in your own unique way in the religion. Therefore, take the Prophet, Allah bless him and given him peace, the Companions, and the pious, as your exemplars, all the while nourishing your own qualities and strengths. Be comfortable with who you are as an individual servant of Allah, and in this way you would have fulfilled your potential in life.

Warmest salams,

[Shaykh] Jamir Meah

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. In 2007, he traveled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years studying the Islamic sciences on a one-to-one basis under the foremost scholars of the Ribaat, Tarim, with a main specialization and focus on Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies in a range of Islamic sciences, as well as teaching. Jamir is a qualified homeopath.

Did Imam ‘Ali Say “If the Eyes of a Female Cry Over a Man That Oppressed Her, Angels Will Curse Him With Every Step He Walks”?

Answered by Shaykh Shuaib Ally

Question: Assalam alaykum,

Did Imam ‘Ali – God be pleased with him – say “If the eyes of a female cry over a man that oppressed her, angels will curse him with every step he walks”?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

I have not found this quote, authentic or otherwise, in any of the available Sunni sources. It is possible that the quote has been attributed to Imam ‘Ali – God be pleased with him – in Shi’i sources.

Because the quote does not appear to be authentically traced back in Sunni sources to Imam ‘Ali – God be pleased with him – it is better to not attribute it to him. There are many other similar verses of the Qur’an, authentic narrations of the Prophet – peace and blessings of God be upon him – or statements attributed to the companions or later scholars that carry a similar meaning of dealing well with one’s spouse, specifically female, and prohibiting oppression in all its forms.

The Qur’an commands us to “Live with them kindly; if you hate them, it might be that you hate something and God has placed in them a lot of good” [Qur’an; 4.19].

The Prophet – peace and blessings of God be upon him – said, “The best of you are the best to their families; I am the best of you towards his family” [Tirmidhi; Ibn Majah]. He also said, “The elect among you are the best to your women” [Ahmad].
He also is reported to have said, “Fear the prayer of the oppressed, for it is answered!” [Abu Dawud]. In the same vein, he is reported to have warned Mu’adh b. Jabal – God be pleased with him – to “fear the prayer of the oppressed, for there is no barrier between it and God!” [Bukhari; Muslim].

God knows best.

Shuaib Ally

Should We Refer to Ali Ibn Abi Talib as "Imam Ali"?

Answered by Shaykh Gibril Haddad
Question: I often refer to ’Alī b. Abī Ṭālib as Imām ’Alī , may Allāh ennoble his countenance. I’m sure there is no harm in referring to him as Imām,
however I understand that our Shi’ah brethren refer to him as such too, but with differing connotations. Taking this into consideration, is it better not to refer to him as Imām ’Alī?
Answer: Alaykum Salam,
There is nothing wrong in itself to call any of the Rightly-Guided or subsequent caliphs “Imam” but the expressions Imam Ali and Imamal-Husayn have tended to single it out in a way that is in imitation(even unconscious) of Shi`is. It would be more correct usage, therefore,to say Sayyidina in both cases, and this is what we have always witnessed our teachers do. And Allah knows best.
GF Haddad