Have We Really Progressed? – Shaykh Sadullah Khan

* Originally published on the 19/07/2019 (Masjid al -Furqaan)

In this Pre Khutba talk delivered at at Masjid al – Furqaan in Cape Town (South Africa), Shaykh Sadullah Khan reflects on mankind’s progression and advancement in the scientific and technological domains. He asks us to ponder on the fact that the majority of human beings still live in poverty and under oppression despite the wonderful advancements that man has made. Our preoccupation with material progression has caused us to forget our moral and social responsibilities to humanity and our surroundings.

* Courtesy of Masjid al – Furqaan’s Youtube page



The Ethical Treatment of Animals

Cori Mancuso reflects on the Islamic moral and theological approach towards the treatment of animals, the controversial practices of industrial animal farming, and provides practical advice and recommendations on ethical consumerism in the Muslim community.


What are the Rights of Animals in the Modern World?  

Animals are part of our everyday lives and environment; whether one owns a pet, keeps livestock, or eats meat. Yet few Muslims today are aware of Islam’s rulings regarding ethical animal treatment and consumption, or the centuries’ worth of scholarly literature on the topic. This literature reflects our scholars’ profound understanding of the rights and responsibilities that come with our relationship with animals. Modern agricultural and farming practices such as intensive animal farming, machine slaughtering, and animal experimentation, are among a few of the most controversial trends which directly oppose the Islamic moral and ethical treatment of animals.

As consumers and participants in the global world, it is essential that Muslims make every effort in aligning their actions and attitude towards a greater awareness of the proper treatment of animals in their everyday lives.


What Does the Qur’an Say About Our Relationship With Animals?

The Qur’an and Hadith outline the moral and theological significance of animals and their relationship with mankind. Allah Most High says in the Qu’ran “It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth.” (Surah al Baqarah 2:29) Human beings were given permission to make use of animals in terms of transportation, clothing, shelter, warfare, hunting, food, and drink. (Musa Furber; Rights and Duties Pertaining to Kept Animals) The Qu’ran honors several types of animals, including livestock, camels, birds, cows, sheep, and fish. There are three chapters of the Qur’an named after specific animals, such as The Bee (Surah an Nahl 16), The Ant (Surah an Naml 27), The Spider (Surah al Ankabut 29) and The Elephant (Surah al Fil 105). We are encouraged to reflect upon animals and created beings as a means of gratefulness and appreciation towards The Creator. One’s treatment towards animals reflects one’s state of guidance; ethical treatment of animals is a sign of guidance and appreciation, while one’s mistreatment of animals is a sign of misguidance and ungratefulness towards the Creator and His creation. (Musa Furber; Rights and Duties Pertaining to Kept Animals) Our state of guidance is reflected in our behavior towards animals, making it of utmost priority to realign our behavior towards that which we were commanded and created to uphold.


Treatment of Animals in the Hadith Literature

As the Qur’an clearly outlines the proper moral and theological approach towards animals, the Hadith specifies how one should properly interact with and keep animals. The Hadith collections emphasize the overall necessity of mercy, avoidance of harm, and proper care towards animals. For those who mistreat animals, this is a major sin worthy of Allah’s punishment (Musa Furber; Rights and Duties Pertaining to Kept Animals). In a well-known hadith, reported from Ibn Umar, Allah be pleased with him, says “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘A woman was tormented because of a cat she had confined until it died and for this she entered Hellfire. She did not provide it with food or drink as it was confined, nor did she free it so that is might eat the vermin of the earth.’” (Muslim ibn al-hajjaj; al-Musnad al-sahih) For those who treat animals with mercy and compassion, there is a great reward with Allah Most High. The companions of the Prophet, Allah be pleased with them, asked the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace “O Messenger of Allah, is there a reward for us even for serving these animals?” He said ‘Yes, there is a reward for rendering service to every living animal.’” (Bukhari; al-Sahih)


Injunction of Eating Halal and Tayyib

In the modern global economy, there is a veil between humans and animals in terms of meat and dairy production. Although there is a growing movement towards farm to table, organic, and humane certified products, the vast majority of people participate in the industrialized agricultural system of slaughter, production, and consumption. Animals living under these conditions have little to no movement, are raised in inappropriate housing without sunlight or air, and face regular trauma and injury (Musa Furber; Intensive Animal Farming). All of these practices violate Islamic law and our religious principles. Animals cannot be raised under these conditions for the mere purpose of economic gain or efficiency. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, warned the believers that committing unlawful acts affects the acceptance of our deeds.

Allah has enjoined us to avoid the doubtful and unlawful matters. This alone should be enough to concern us regarding our direct and indirect involvement in industrial animal farming production and consumption. As individuals and as a community, we must strive to prevent, alleviate, and offer alternatives to industrial animal farming.


Practical Advice on Ethical Consumerism  

Muslims are commanded to eat of the halal and tayyib, “O mankind, eat from whatever is on earth [that is] lawful and good and do not follow the footsteps of Satan.” (Surah al Baqarah 2:168) We are reminded to do all things in the most excellent manner and with ihsan. This includes making conscious decisions surrounding our purchases and consumption of animal products and goods. How does one go about acquiring halal and tayyib products?

For starters, Muslims should purchase halal-certified meat products, preferably from local farmers and butchers. When inquiring about the farming and production practices of a halal farmer or business, one should be asking the following questions “Is the animal raised in a wholesome and humane environment? Is the animal distressed or mishandled during transportation? Are the animals slaughtered in an ethical and merciful manner? Are the animals killed away from the view of other animals?” (Ezra Ereckson; Animals in Islam).

This is easier to recognize when one purchases locally or as a group from a local halal butcher. In cases where this is not applicable or accessible, there are other options such as inquiring into the specific halal certification on the label and purchasing meat and animal products online. There is no standard government sanctioned or internationally recognized halal certification, so we must be cautious about this labelling. Most halal certifications regulate the slaughter of the animal, not the conditions in which they are kept or how they are raised. In terms of halal and tayyib meat and dairy products, Beyond offers an online directory of farmers and businesses around the world which are providing quality halal meats and dairy products.

Mufti Musa Furber, offers several recommendations for individuals, communities, and scholars to address the inhumane production and consumption of animals. (Musa Furber; Intensive Animal Farming) Although Vegetarianism and Veganism are on the rise, these are not viable options for most of the Muslim community given that Islam still requires animal sacrifice for specific religious rites. Also, they do not address or counteract the mainstream practice of industrial animal farming. It is among the sunnah of our Prophet, and all the Prophets, Allah bless and give peace on all of them, to eat meat in moderation. It would be beneficial to reduce the amount of meat in one’s diet, or to adopt more healthy alternatives to meat products.

As a Muslim community, we must create alternative farming initiatives which raise animals in a lawful manner and provide permissible and nourishing products to the community. As consumers, we must strive to find lawful sources of meat and dairy, even at the expense of paying higher prices. Lastly, many animal products can be substituted by alternative materials and consumable goods. Furber challenges the scholars and religious leaders of our time to address many of these controversial legal issues related to industrial animal farming and halal certification standards. (Musa Furber; Intensive Animal Farming)


As believers, we are called to be an example to humanity and stewards on this earth. This is a great honor and responsibility. We must be willing to start with ourselves and address our own individual lifestyles. Then we can begin to work as a community to adopt and promote the ethical treatment of animals according to our tradition. We have been commanded to be stewards of the earth, to eat of lawful and nourishing bounty, to perfect our character and actions, and to treat all animals with compassion and mercy.

Cori Mancuso is a graduate in Religious Studies at Lycoming College. While seeking sacred knowledge, she develops content for SeekersGuidance and Sabeel Community.


The Prophet Muhammad’s Ethics of War

At a time when extremist Muslim groups and movements commit crimes and murders in the name of Islam it is a duty for us to return back to the pure guidance of the Prophet ‎Muhammad ﷺ as it has reached us through unbroken chains of scholarly transmission.

Read more about the Prophet Muhammad’s ‎ﷺ ethics of war in the latest Sanad Network publication available as an online PDF.

“…But The Prophet ﷺ Never Did it”, Bid’ah Hasanah and Living In Times Of Fitna – Shaykh Yahya Rhodus

Shaykh Yahya RhodusThe Virtues Tour has over the years become a highlight in the calendar of British Islamic events. It’s led by Shaykh Ibrahim Osi-Efa, who is joined by Shaykh Yahya Rhodus, Shaykh Abdul Karim Yahya, Sidi Amir Sulaiman and Sidi Nader Khan.

In 2015, the tour was focused on the ethics and moral practice of prophecy. Particular focus was placed on the spheres of intellect; anger and desire, in order to promote the manners in which the modern condition of man can be healed.

In the above recording, Shaykh Yahya Rhodus of Al-Maqasid spoke in London, on living in an age of fitna (strife) but first, he dispelled some misunderstandings around the concept of bid’ah (innovations in religious matters) and using “the Prophet never did it” as a standard for deriving legal rulings.

Do You Want to Learn More?

Consider taking an online course with SeekersHub. It’s free to anyone, anywhere in the world. There are over 30 titles to choose from, including Meccan Dawn: The Life of the Beloved Prophet Muhammad ﷺ (Part I), Medinan Nights: The Life of the Beloved Prophet Muhammad ﷺ (Part II) and Understanding the Prophetic Way: Imam Nawawi’s 40 Hadith Explained. Shaykh Yahya Rhodus himself teaches Principles of Islamic Spirituality, The Marvels of the Heart and Essentials of Spirituality: Ghazali’s Beginning of Guidance Explained.

Resources for seekers:

VIDEO: How to Make Career Choices – Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

What is the best of work? It is the work by which the heart can say ‘I am content that I am doing in life that which is most likely to be most pleasing to Allah’.

Choosing A Career Path

How should a Muslim make career choices?

What does the “ideal job” look like for a Believer?

This video is an excerpt from the SeekersHub Toronto class ‘The Ethics of Trade Explained’.

In it, Shaykh Faraz Rabbani elucidates the importance of purpose, and concern for one’s community, for the Umma, and for humanity at large when choosing one’s work.

At each of these levels, people are in need of sincere service.

So, it is incumbent that one ask oneself: What are the unfulfilled needs of the Muslim community? How can I be of greatest benefit to Allah’s creation?

About ‘The Ethics of Trade Explained’

In this course, Shaykh Faraz comments on Imam Ghazali’s magnum opus ‘The Revival of The Religious Sciences’ (Ihya Ulum al Deen).

It is a rare opportunity to read the greatest and most comprehensive work ever authored about Islam in Arabic with English translation.

Currently, he is covering “The Book of Etiquettes of Earning and Living” (Kitab Adab al Kasbi wa’l Ma’ash), which focuses on how to conduct oneself in earning a living with excellence.

Alongside a traditional commentary of the text, Shaykh Faraz discusses its contemporary applications using real-life examples and issues.

Want more?

Sign up for Shaykh Faraz Rabbani’s FREE class here, whether you’re in Toronto, Canada or an online learner.

Are We Beyond Slavery? Not even close.

In the first of a series of articles, Qanit Takmeel puts forth the proposition that slavery, contrary to popular opinion, is very much alive. Rasoolullah’s (upon whom be peace) time in this duniya was limited, however, his ummah is expected to inherit the mission, and see it through, to fruition. Allah Most High says, “And we have not sent you [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds.” So, it only behooves us as Muslims today, who claim that we love a man, whom we never met in person, more that our mothers, that we manifest our love for him (upon whom be peace) by establishing what he (upon whom be peace) sought to do, even before that fateful hug from Gabriel (upon whom be peace) – fight for social justice.

“Since when did you enslave people though they were born free of their mothers in freedom” – Amir al Mu’mineen Abu Hafs Umar ibn al-Khattab

lisa_kristine_human_slavery_14As I sat in the mosque with two Muslim brothers, waiting for Isha, I noticed that one of them referred to the other as Bilal. Upon enquiry, I was told, “Because he is black and Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) was black”. This hurt me, because a little more than half a decade ago, when I was flirting with the idea of Islam, it was Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) who was shown to me in my dream… I don’t remember his skin colour, but I do remember beautiful eyes and an even more beautiful voice proclaiming Allahu Akbar (God is great).

And here I was sitting in a company that had reduced the great companion of Rasoolullah (saw) to a mere skin colour. His struggles in the burning sands of Arabia, with a rock on his chest, with every whip taking part of his skin and exposing his flesh to the dry desert sand, his cries of Ahadun Ahad that reverberated through the streets of Makkah, that were to eventually become the battle cry in Badr, had been forgotten. To me, that distinguishment based on skin colour are remnants of slavery.

Merely chattel slavery is a thing of the past

However, the idea that one person is inferior to another, based on his or her birth, over which he or she had no choice over, is far more pervasive than the mere personal conversation that I recorded above. Among the greatest misconceptions of today in every society is that slavery is a thing of the past. What people mean by that, however, is that chattel slavery is a thing of the past. Slavery, in its core, warrants the belief that a person is inferior to the other, and therefore, partial or complete ownership over the person can be exercised by the “superior” person. In the 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery of the United Nations, forced or compulsory labour, debt bondage, serfdom, servile marriage, child servitude, and trafficking were included in the definition of slavery.

I have heard firsthand accounts of farmers in India, taking loans from moneylenders at abnormally high interest rates (at times, 400%) who have been forced to sell their daughters or wives to the moneylenders, so that the moneylenders could make money off them. The issue of farmers committing suicide to escape money lenders, and at times the trauma of having to sell their daughters and wives to settle debts is not uncommon (1).

HumansOfNewYork-Pakistan-SlaveryHumans of New York in August ran a series of posts about brick kilns in Pakistan, and how men and women, for generations are forced into debt slavery. Forced marriages is common across many societies, developing and developed. The developing world is replete with stories of children being forced into bonded labour. Perhaps, the most pitiable of these situations is human trafficking, which according to the US State Department’s 2010 Human Trafficking Report, contributes to the disruption of 12.3 million lives each year. More than half the victims are women, followed by children, who are eventually forced into bonded labour or prostitution.

The situation worsens if one looks at some of the regions of the world torn up by civil strife or war. For example, close to 50,000 women who fled Iraq and entered Syria, were forced to become prostitutes to sustain themselves. In my personal conversations with Ahmed Elkhaldy, Director of Community Development at Mercy Without Limits, many Syrian widows, in desperation to feed their children have taken up prostitution in Jordan and Lebanon.

Ubiquitous in the Muslim world

While these social issues, which fall under the definition of slavery, exist worldwide, their presence in the Muslim world seems to be ubiquitous. For example, in Saudi Arabia, the kidnapping and sexual exploitation of women from Pakistan, Yemen, Nigeria, and other countries is commonplace. The inability of Muslim societies in a post-colonial era to have conversations in an academic manner, the taboo associated with such conversations in our societies, and social stigma (ref: 2 to 5) which prevents victims from speaking up are among the main reasons that have made these social injustices ubiquitous in the Muslim world.

This situation is ironical since among the maqasid of Islam is the elimination of slavery, and Rasoolullah (saw), via divine guidance had sought to eliminate each of the categories of slavery mentioned in the 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery. The hadiths about the rewards of foregoing a debt, about helping another to pay off his debt, about freeing a slave, and the like are many.

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “A man would give loans to the people and he would say to his servant: If the debtor is in hardship you should forgive the debt that perhaps Allah will relieve us. So when he met Allah, then Allah relieved him.” Sahih Bukhari.

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Whoever alleviates [the situation of] one in dire straits who cannot repay his debt, Allah will alleviate his lot in both this world and the Hereafter.” Sahih Muslim

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “Whoever frees a Muslim slave, Allah will save all the parts of his body from the (Hell) Fire as he has freed the body-parts of the slave.” Sahih Bukhari

Salman al-Farsi (ra) and Zaid ibn Haritha (ra) were, in effect, victims of human trafficking. Saffiyyah bin Huyyay (ra) and Juwayriyyah bint al-Harith (ra) could have ended up in the situation of the thousands of refugee women, but instead, Rasoolullah (saw) gave them the ultimate honour.

Allah Most High says, “Righteousness is in… giving wealth… for freeing slaves” in Sūrat al-Baqarah. Perhaps discussions among the ulema on the freeing of slaves in modern times, and whether freeing each one of these slaves would be considered a kaffara needs to be held. But on a more personal level, since slavery and consumerism have been undeniably linked (ref: 6 to 8), next time someone has the urge to throw away a plate of food, it would do well to remember that a farmer somewhere spent four months in growing that. Or before disposing off a perfectly fine electronic gadget, one should remember the factory worker in China. Or before buying clothes that we don’t need, we should remember our brothers and sisters in Bangladesh, working in inhumane conditions, to make that bit of clothing.


1. R. Schurman, Journal of Peasant Studies 2013, 40, 597.
2. R. Weitzer, Politics & Society 2007, 35, 447.
3. J. Doezema, Gender Issues 1999, 18, 23.
4. S. Huda, International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2006, 94, 374.
5. J. Chuang, Harvard Human Rights Journal 1998,
6. B. Heath, African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter 1997, 4, 1.
7. Z. Bauman, Work, Consumerism and the New Poor, Open University Press, Maidenhead, Berkshire, England, 2005.
8. C. Parfait, The Publishing History of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852-2002, Ashgate, Aldershot, Hampshire, England, 2007.

Resources for Seekers:

Study Questions for Understanding Works of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas – Adi Setia

Study Questions for Understanding Works of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas – Adi Setia

The following questions are taken from a midterm examination of an ethics course taught by Professor Adi Setia at the International Islamic University, Malaysia. They provide a useful companion to the books of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas and have been cr0ss-posted here for those who wish to explore a deeper study of the ideas of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas.

Part 1: Textual Understanding

This part tests your comprehension of selected sentences/passages from Professor al-Attas’s text, “Islam: The Concept of Religion and the Foundations of Ethics and Morality.” Give concise answers with one or two concrete, real-life examples to illustrate your point, and support your point by relevant quotations from Professor al-Attas’s text.

1. What is the nature of man’s indebtedness to God and how it is related to gratitude?

2. How does Professor al-Attas understand the verse “Verily man is in loss (khusr)…”?

3. What is the meaning of “real submission” and how is it related to ibadah, ikhtiyar and sense of purpose in life?

4. Explain the meaning of the statement: “The trust (amanah) refers to responsibility and freedom of the self to do justice to itself.”

5. How do man attain to freedom, and what is the difference between real freedom and pseudo-freedom?

6. What do change, development and progress refer to according to the Islamic viewpoint, and constrast it with the western secular viewpoint?

7. What is the physical and spiritual significance of trade (bartering, buying and selling)?

8. Why is the external structure or pattern of Muslim society not divided by the gap of generations such as we find prevalent in Western society?

9. How do individuals in Islamic society establish their identity and establish their ultimate destiny, and thus ariive at a correct understanding and experience of true happiness?

10. “Knowledge is not neutral, and can indeed be infused with a nature and content which masquerades as knowledge.” Elaborate on this statement.

Part 2: Intellectual Quiz

This part tests your creative, critical and analytical understanding certain key ethical ideas and concepts discussed so far in class. Again, give concise answers with at least one personal real-life examples.

1. Can an educated person be “ignorant”?

2. How do you differentiate between “normal” and “abnormal” conduct?

3. Clarify the statement: “Progress has meaning only when the goal is clear.”

4. What do you mean when you say, “I trust you”?

5. What is “responsibility”?

Part 3: Research Assignment

This part is to encourage to research into ethical issues so that you can clarify them and articulate your own stand in regard thereof. Choose only one research topic, preferably the one most related to your academic major. Write up your findings in essay form in not more than two or three pages.

1. Write a short critical, ethical analysis of the mainstream, western definition of economics as “the science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to meet unlimited human wants.”

2. Write a short critical essay to explore to what extent the University’s slogan “Garden of Knowledge and Virtue” is an accurate or inaccurate description of the reality of campus life.

3. The purpose of law is to serve justice. Write a short critical essay to highlight aspects of the Malaysian legal system and/or administration that fail to serve justice. Provide at least three real-life cases in point, and if possible provide solutions.

4. Write a short ethical critique of the concept of “economic growth,” from both the Islamic and Western perspectives.

5. Write a short ethical critique of the notion of “knowledge economy,” from both the Islamic and Western perspectives.

6. Write a short ethical critique of the proposition that the Government should be “pro business,” from both the Islamic and Western perspectives.

7. Write a short ethical critique of the use of children in commercial advertisements, from both the Islamic and Western perspectives.

8. Write a short ethical critique of western style “sex education,” from both the Islamic and Western perspectives.

9. Write a short ethical critique of long distance learning by means of information and computer technology, from both the Islamic and Western perspectives.

10. Write a short ethical critique of mobile phone companies’ advertisements that promote a lifestyle of endless chatter (“bual tanpa had”), from both the Islamic and Western perspectives.

11. Do a library and/or internet research on the concept and practice of “green architecture” and evaluate it from both the Islamic and western ethical viewpoints.

12. Do a library and/or internet research on the concept and practice of “green engineering” and “green chemistry” evaluate them from both the Islamic and western ethical viewpoints.

13. Do a library and/or internet research on the concept and practice of “organic agriculture” and evaluate it from both the Islamic and western ethical viewpoints.

14. Write a short essay exploring the extent to which “change, development and progress” in Malaysia or China or Dubai conforms or not conform to the Islamic understanding of “change, development and progress” as outlined by Professor al-Attas.

15. Malaysian law does not generally grants legal recognition for the customary land rights of the Orang Asli and the indigenous peoples of Sabah and Sarawak. Explore this issue from both the Islamic and secular ethico-legal perspectives.

16. Among the five fundamental objectives of the Shari‘ah (Maqasid al-Shari‘ah), the objective of preservation of wealth (hifz al-mal) is placed last in fifth place. Why is that?

17. Do a library and/or internet research on the theme of “Islam & Ecology” or “Islam & the Environment” or “Animals in Islam,” and then write a short summary of the Islamic ethical attitude towards nature, and thereby determine to what extent this attitude is or is not reflected at IIUM campus.

18. Do a ethical analysis of the meaning of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) from both the Islamic and secular perspectives, and evaluate to what extent Malaysian do or do not realise in practce the principle of CSR.

19. Analyze and explore the concept of “intellectual integrity” from both the Islamic and secular perspectives, and evaluate to what extent this concept is or is not realized in practice at IIUM.

20. Do a library and/or internet research to determine to what extent Confucian ethics is or is not compatible with Islamic ethics.

21. Do a library and/or internet research to determine to what extent utilitarian ethics is or is not compatible with Islamic ethics.

Video: Ethics of Advancement: Understanding Islamic Economics – Shaykh Faraz at UTM’s IAW

Ethics of Advancement: Understanding Islamic Economics – Shaykh Faraz at UTM’s IAW

Shaykh Faraz Rabbani explains the ethics and values underlying Islamic economics–going beyond the “minimums” that are the concern of much of “Islamic finance” to the higher purpose and transformative good that underlies Qur’anic teachings and Prophetic guidance related to matters of money and financial activity.

Topics of discussion included the ethics of interaction, self-reform, and mindfulness of others.

“Adab al-Ikhtilaf: Ethics of Disagreement” – Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari

“Adab al-Ikhtilaf: Ethics of Disagreement” – Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari

An extended, higher quality version of a previous lecture we posted.

In it he addresses the perennial problem of the lack of respect for others with different opinions. He explains the nature of the unity of ahl al-sunnah wa-l-jama’ah and the proper adab (manners) for engaging in debate and respectful disagreement.

Below is a highlight from the lecture:

Earl Lectures 2011 – Keynote Lecture – Shaykh Hamza Yusuf

Earl Lectures 2011 – Keynote Lecture – Shaykh Hamza Yusuf

January 26, 2011

Shaykh Hamza Yusuf delivers his keynote lecture: “Lenders, Leopards, and Lions: The Violence of Avarice – Muslim Musings from Dante’s Six, Seventh, and Eighth Circles of Hell”

Shaykh Hamza Yusuf is “the most influential Islamic scholar in the West” and the 38th most influential Muslim scholar worldwide, according to Georgetown University’s study The 500 Most Influential Muslims (2009). Hamza Yusuf is a cofounder of Zaytuna College, located in Berkeley, California. He is an advisor to Stanford University’s Program in Islamic Studies and the Center for Islamic Studies at Berkeley’s Graduate Theological Union.