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Mistake in Sajda al-Sahw

Ustadh Tabraze Azam is asked if making mistakes in the forgetfulness prostration invalidates the prayer.

 

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

What do I do when I make a mistake in sajda al-sahw [forgetfulness prostration]? And I mean the sajda al-sahw that you do by giving salam to the right and then do two sajdas. Is my prayer valid if I make a mistake? And is it a mistake to pronounce words incorrectly in tashahhud? Is it still a mistake when I correct myself?

 

Answer:

Wa alaykum assaalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Unfortunately, your question isn’t entirely clear.

1. If you mean that you omitted the prostrations of forgetfulness (sujud al-sahw) accidentally, and instead, ended the prayer entirely, you may still perform them at this point as long as you didn’t do anything which would otherwise affect the validity of the prayer, such as talking or eating. If they were omitted and you remembered later within the prayer time, you should make up the prayer.

2. Making a mistake in the recitation of tashahhud is normally going to be excusable. Work on perfecting its recitation, pronunciation and the like (tajwid) outside of the prayer, and focus on doing your best and directing yourself and attention to the one whom you are addressing in the prayer. Ask Allah Most High to facilitate the matter for you.

Please also see Is My Prayer Still Valid If I Fail to Recite the Tashahud Correctly?

And Allah Most High knows best.

Wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

 

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


 

What Should We Do If the Imam Recites the Surah Aloud in Asr Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalamualaikum

If the imam unintentionally recites the surah aloud during asr prayer, what should we do?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

Generally, the Hanafi jurists stipulated that the prostrations of forgetfulness (sajda al-sahw) are due when necessary (wajib) actions are forgetfully omitted. Amongst these is the necessity of reciting quietly during the quiet prayers, namely, Zuhr and `Asr.

Consequently, if the imam recites an amount which would normally validate the prayer, usually a verse, aloud during a quiet prayer, then he would need to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness. The same applies if the opposite occurs.

Imam Bukhari recorded in his Chapter on Silent Recitation in Zuhr and `Asr on the authority of Abu Ma`mar, “We said to Khabbab, ‘Did the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) use to recite in Zuhr and `Asr?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ We said, ‘How did you know that?’ He said, ‘By the movement of his beard.’”

[Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar (1.498)]

Please also see: Reciting Aloud in Quiet Prayers and: Loud and Quiet Recitation in Prayer and Qur’anic Recitation and: What Are the Rulings Related to Loud Recitation, and Being Joined By Someone If I Pray Alone?

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

wassalam,

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam.

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam was born and raised in Ipswich, England, a quiet town close to the east coast of England. His journey for seeking sacred knowledge began when he privately memorized the entire Qur’an in his hometown at the age of 16. He also had his first experience in leading the tarawih (nightly-Ramadan) prayers at his local mosque. Year after year he would continue this unique return to reciting the entire Quran in one blessed month both in his homeland, the UK, and also in the blessed lands of Shaam, where he now lives, studies and teaches.

How Does One Recite the Tashahhud Correctly?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: As salam alaykum,

(1) How does one recite the tashahhud correctly?

(2) Is it true that in hanafi fiqh missing out sending blessings on the Prophet does not require performing prostrations of forgetfulness?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray that this message finds you well, insha’Allah.

(1) The wording of the tashahhud is as follows: “al-Tahiyatu li’ Llahi was-salawatu wat-tayyibat, as-salamu `alayka ayyuha’n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu’ Llahi wa barakatuh, as-salamu `alayna wa `ala `ibad’ Llahi’s-salihin, ashhadu al la ilaha illa’ Llahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa rasuluh.”

(2) Sending blessings on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) during the final sitting of the prayer is a sunna, and missing a sunna does not necessitate performing prostrations of forgetfulness (said al-sahw).

Consider taking the following free class at SeekersHub: Absolute Essentials of Islam: Basic Hanafi Jurisprudence (STEP)

And Allah alone knows best.

wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Women’s `Awra in Prayer and Rectifying Mistakes in the Prayer

Answered by Ustadha Sulma Badrudduja

Question: Assalamu alaikum,

1.When reading the Qura’an sometimes I come across parts where one should make sujud, I am a female so, do I have to cover my hair and body before I make this sajdah?

2. When praying sunnah or fard sometimes I forget to do a few things or get mixed up so please inform me what I should do when:

a. I forget to make tashahod after 2 raqa’as.
b. I make an extra tashahod between raqa’as.
c.I forget so say ‘subhanallaho ala’la’ in sujood (because I keep making duaah instead)
d. I say alfatiha and forget to recite another surah and realise I did that when I am in ruquu’a

Is my prayer still valid?

 

 

 

 

Obviously this doesn’t happen in every prayer, but somehow i get mixed up even when I am trying my best to concentrate.

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I hope you are doing well inshaAllah.

1. The conditions for making a prostration of recital (sajda al-tilawa) are almost like the conditions for prayer. One needs to be in a state of wudu, face the qibla, and cover the `awra (nakedness). For the woman, the `awra for prayer is everything except the face, hands, and feet. [Al-Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah]

2. How to rectify a prayer with mistakes or forgotten actions depends on the type of mistake. If one forgets a fard (obligatory) action, the prayer is not valid and needs to be repeated. None of the scenarios you mentioned involves leaving a fard action.

If one leaves a wajib (necessary) action forgetfully, then a prostration of forgetfulness is made at the end of the prayer and the prayer doesn’t need to be repeated. This would be cases a, b, and d that you mentioned. However, if the forgetfulness prostration is not done, then it is wajib to repeat the prayer.

If you leave a sunna, you do not need to do anything to rectify the prayer and your prayer remains valid. Case c that you mentioned is an example of this.

Please see see these answers which include important related information:

The Rulings of the Sacred Law

How to Perform the Forgetfulness Prostration

Is the Prayer Valid If You Don’t Recite the Tashahhud?

Can I Perform the Forgetfulness Prostrations in Every Prayer?

I highly recommend studying the fiqh of prayer for more about the rulings (fard, wajib, sunna, etc) of the different actions in the prayer.

May Allah increase you and us.

Wassalam,
Sulma

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Is the Forgetfulness Prostration Necessary If You Don’t Immediately Rise After the Tashahhud in the First Sitting of a Four Cycle Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Salman Younas

Question: Is the forgetfulness prostration necessary when a person is doing at-tahiyat in the second rak’ah and then begins to read durood shareef but stops and rises before it is finished?

Answer
: assalamu `alaykum

The forgetfulness prostration would be necessary for one who recited blessings upon the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) after the tashahhud in the first sitting of a four cycle prayer if the recitation was the extent of “allahuma salli `ala muhammad wa ` ala aali muhammad.”

The same would be the case if one simply sat after completing the tashahhud in the first sitting of a four cycle prayer for a period wherein the above could have been said. [Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

This is because standing up after the first sitting without undue delay is considered necessary (wajib), and leaving something that is necessary (wajib) forgetfully requires the forgetfulness prostration in the Hanafi school. Thus, if one did the above action intentionally, it would be necessary for him to repeat his prayer within that prayer time, and would remain recommended to do so after its exiting.

Wassalam
Salman

What Are the Proofs for the Hanafi Method of Performing the Forgetful Prostration?

Answered by Sidi Tabraze Azam

Question:What are the proofs for the forgetful prostration in the Hanafi madhab?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I hope you are in the best of health and spirits insha’Allah.

According to the Hanafi school, it is a sunna to give one greeting (salam), to one’s right, before performing the two forgetfulness prostrations; after which, one recites the complete tashahud, once again, and finally, performs the final greetings (salams) to end the prayer.

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; `Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-`Ala’iyya]

The Narrations supporting the Method of performing the Forgetfulness Prostration
s

The narrations (hadiths) on this topic are numerous; however, it suffices to mention the following:

[1] Sayyiduna `Abdullah Ibn Mas`ud narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “If one of you doubts in his prayer, let him make a reasonable judgement about the correct (number of cycles) and complete it upon that; then, let him perform a greeting (salam), then let him perform two prostrations” [Sahih al-Bukhari; Sahih Muslim]

[2] On the authority of Sayyiduna Abu Huraira, “Verily the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) performed a greeting (salam), then he performed the two prostrations of forgetfulness (sahw) whilst he was sitting, then he performed the (t: final) greetings (salams)” [al-Mujtaba; Sunan al-Nasa’i al-Kubra]

[3] Sayyiduna Thawban narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “For every forgetfulness, there are two prostrations after the greeting (salam)” [Musnad Imam Ahmad; Sunan Abi Dawud]

[4] Sayyiduna `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas said, “The two prostrations of forgetfulness are after the greeting (salam)” [Tahawi]

[5] Sayyiduna `Imran Ibn Husain said, regarding the two prostrations of forgetfulness, “One gives the greeting (salam), then prostrates, then gives the (t: final) greetings (salams)” [ibid.]

We have over a thousand years of scholarship that have worked, generation after generation, on the positions, proofs and legal details of the school. May Allah accept all of their efforts and benefit us through them. Amin.

And Allah knows best.

Wassalaam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Is the Prayer Valid If You Don’t Recite the Tashahhud?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: One of my friends doesn’t know how to recite the tashahhud. What can she do in her prayer as she doesn’t want to leave prayer? She is trying to memorize it.

Answer: Walaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and spirits.

Reciting the tashahhud is necessary (wajib), both in the first sitting (after two rakats) and in the final sitting (at the end of the prayer)–but not obligatory (fard). Omitting it doesn’t invalidate the prayer, but does make it deficient.

When a necessary (wajib) action is left forgetfully, forgetfulness prostrations are necessary–but not when a necessary action is left deliberately. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ala’ al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-`Ala’iyya]

In your friend’s case, she needs to:

[1] Take the immediate, reasonable means of memorizing the tashahhud;

[2] Sit for the extent of the tashahhud, repeating some invocations (such as Subhan Allah, Alhamdulillah, La ilaha illa’l Llah, wa’l Llahu Akbar).

No forgetfulness prostrations are required, nor does she have to make up or repeat such prayers.

Related Answers:

The Rulings of the Sacred Law

Reciting the Tashahhud Before the Forgetfulness Prostration & Forgetting a Necessary (wajib) Act Behind the Imam

How to Perform the Forgetfulness Prostration

Can I Perform The Forgetfulness Prostrations In Every Prayer?

Can New Muslims Recite from a Copy of the Qur’an During Prayer?

And Allah alone gives success.

Faraz Rabbani

Reciting the Tashahhud Before the Forgetfulness Prostration & Forgetting a Necessary (wajib) Act Behind the Imam

Answered by Ustadh Faraz A. Khan

Question: 1. According to the Hanafi school, how far do we need to recite in the final sitting if we intend on performing the forgetfulness prostration? 2. When behind an imam, what must one do if he leaves out a wajib? Is his prayer still valid if it was him and not the imam who committed the mistake?


Answer
: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray this reaches you in the best of health and faith.

(1) Actually, there are two opinions in the Hanafi school, as there was some disagreement on the matter among Hanafi jurists. The stronger opinion is to recite only the tashahhud in the final sitting before performing the forgetfulness prostration. The other opinion is to recite the tashahhud as well as the blessings upon the Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) and closing supplication (du’a) in the final sitting before performing the forgetfulness prostration. [Shurunbulali, Imdad al-Fattah; Haskafi, Durr al-Mukhtar]

According to both opinions though, after the final sitting, one says one salam to the right; performs the forgetfulness prostration, which consists of two prostrations with their sunnas; sits and repeats the final sitting, in full, with the tashahhud, sending blessings, and supplication; and then ends with two closing salams as usual.

(2) If a follower omits a mandatory requisite (wajib), then the prayer is still valid. Had he done so by accident or out of forgetfulness, it is excused and there is no sin. He would not perform a forgetfulness prostration though, since the follower in congregation never does so for his own mistake, but rather only with the imam if the imam leaves out a mandatory requisite (wajib). If, however, the follower had omitted the mandatory requisite (wajib) on purpose, it would be sinful and his prayer would be valid yet deficient, due to which he would have to repeat the prayer to fix the deficiency. An exception would be if he had done so for months or years, for example, in which case he would not have to make those prayers up, as they were after all valid. [Tahtawi, Hashiyat al-Tahtawi ala Maraqi al-Falah; Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

And Allah alone gives success.

wassalam
Faraz A. Khan

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Faraz A. Khan has lived in Amman, Jordan, for several years studying and teaching traditional Islamic sciences, with a focus on Hanafi jurisprudence, hadith studies, theology, logic, and Arabic grammar. He translated and annotated the classical Hanafi primer “Ascent to Felicity” (Maraqi ‘l-Sa`adat) by Imam Shurunbulali, recently published by White Thread Press.

How to Perform the Forgetfulness Prostration

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: How does one perform the forgetfulness prostration?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, the Benevolent, the Merciful

Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and spirits.

For the forgetfulness prostration (which is necessary if a necessary [wajib] action was left forgetfully, and for nothing else):

1. In the final sitting, recite the tashahhud;

2. Give one salam, to the right;

3. Perform two prostrations, with their sunnas;

4. Sit and repeat the final sitting, in full–reciting the tashahhud, sending blessings, and making supplication (dua); and then

5. End with two salams.

And Allah alone gives success.

Faraz Rabbani

Can I Perform The Forgetfulness Prostrations In Every Prayer?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: Can i make the forgetfulness prostration in every prayer, just in case I made a mistake that I didnt realize? Also, do i have to make up these prayers, since they could have been invalid?

Answer: Walaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

It would be prohibitively disliked, sinful, and a reprehensible innovation to perform the forgetfulness prostrations for every prayer without need.

Forgetfulness prostrations are only required when one forgetfully leaves a necessary (wajib) action in prayer. It is not required nor permitted for any other action. [Shurunbulali, Nur al-Idah] The basic assumption, too, is that your actions are valid and sound until proven otherwise.

Note that there is a difference between leaving an obligatory (fard) action in prayer and leaving a necessary (wajib) action–the former invalidates prayer; the latter renders it deficient (though valid). Past prayers in which wajib actions were omitted do not have to be repeated. However, it is obligatory to make up prayers in which obligatory actions–conditions or integrals–of the prayer were omitted.

You should find out what the necessary (wajib) actions of prayer are. Any reliable manual of Hanafi fiqh–whether The Absolute Essentials or Taleemul Haq or another text–lists these.

Wasalam
Faraz Rabbani