Why Someone Performing the Pilgrimage Has to Perform a Sacrifice?

Answered by Ustadh Farid Dingle

Question: Why is it that someone performing Hajj has to perform a sacrifice? Why does this not apply to the residents of Mecca?

Answer: Performing the sacrifice on Hajj in the Shafi’i school is only when expiating, or if one performs a Tamattu or qiran hajj. Otherwise, it would simply be a recommended [sunna] sacrifice of Eid. (al Muqaddima al Hadramiyya, Ba Fadl)

The idea is that one is still expiating for some form of shortcoming. (Mahasin al-Sharia, al Qaffal al Shashi)

This does not apply to the people of Mecca because they enter pilgrim sanctity [ihram] from Mecca itself. (al Muqaddima al Hadramiyya, Ba Fadl)

Tamattu from Mecca

Allah Most High says, ‘If in peacetime anyone among you combines the Visit with the Pilgrimage, he must offer such gifts as he can afford; but if he lacks the means let him fast three days during the Pilgrimage and seven when he has returned; that is, ten days in all. That is incumbent on him whose family is not present at the Holy Mosque. Have fear of God, and know that God is stern in retribution.’ (Qur’an, 2:196)

This verse tells us that there is an expiation for combining or merging Hajj with Umra [tamattu]. It also tells us that this does not apply to people in Mecca itself. (al Iklil, Suyuti)

Also, the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) appointed Mecca itself the Miqat of the people of Mecca. (Bukhari) In view of this, there is no expiation for someone who merges Hajj and Umra from Mecca. (al Muqaddima al Hadramiyya, Ba Fadl)

The Spirit of Sacrifice

Al Qafal al Shashi (291-365 AH), one of the greatest Shafi’i scholars of Central Asia, explains the spirit of the sacrifice in the following way:

‘When one worships Allah by sacrificing an animal, it may be interpreted as [the slave saying], ‘I have done something wrong, and I feel that the only possible way to amend the wrong is to take my own life. But in the spite of that, You [Allah], in Your infinite mercy have forbidden me to take my own life, so I have slaughtered this animal as You have ordered in lieu of taking my own life.’

‘Now if this sacrifice happens … after leaving pilgrim sanctity by stoning the pillars, then the sacrifice has the sense of gratitude, in the sense that a slave may well revere his master so much that he expresses his gratitude by offering to take his own life as a sacrifice dedicated to him…

‘That said, Allah in His mercy has forbidden people to worship Him in such a way, and has placed animal sacrifices in place of human self-sacrifice …

‘As for the sacrifice offered for having had performed a Tamattu or qiran Hajj, even though it is not done by way of amending a sin, it is more closely related to the idea that the sacrifice is offered out of gratitude, and that the default assumption is that one performs the rites of Hajj and Umra properly, i.e. individually.

‘So when such a person merges the two, and then thereby does not make an independent entrance into pilgrim sanctity [ihram] … this takes the form of a dispensation and ease from Allah, while also being tinged by the hew of a shortcoming in that it constitutes merging two acts of worship [in one].

‘[In this case,] the wisdom in offering a sacrifice should be understood as an expression of gratitude for the dispensation, and as penance for the bad choice of not keeping each act of worship independent … This is because someone who chooses to do the lesser of two good deeds have fallen short, even though he has not sinned.’ (Mahasin al-Sharia, al Qaffal al Shashi)

I pray this helps.

[Ustadh] Farid Dingle

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies,he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to craft lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language

A Hajj Reader

Revised 20th September, 2013

Dhul Hijja, the month of Hajj, is fast approaching. Hundreds and thousands of blessed Muslims are packing their bags, checking their travel documents and flocking to airports around the world, to make the journey to Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

This brief document is a resource for those travelling for Hajj this year, or any year. It provides links to questions that have been answered by SeekersGuidance scholars, blog posts written about the pilgrimage, and relevant information pertaining to Hajj.

Videos and Blog Posts:
Video: Preparing for Hajj – Habib Faisal-Alkaff – Radical Middle Way

Hajj Handbook – Shaykh Husain Abdul Sattar …

Video: Hajj Reflections – Radical Middle Way …

The Hajj Collection – Shaykh Abdal Hakim …

Ten Good Manners for Hajj by Imam al-Ghazali …

The Gifts of Hajj – Radical Middle Way – Blog

Imam al-Haddad’s Counsels on Hajj and `Umrah – Muwasala

Video: Fast the 9th (‘Arafa) and Live for Another Year – Mufti Abdur Rahman ibn Yusuf

On the Path to a Sacred Journey: The Courtesies (Adab) of Hajj – Nur Sacred Sciences

From Our Answers Page:
Removing Hair and Wearing Scents: Expiations for Accidental Violations of Ihram during Hajj

Does Allah Forgive Marital Infidelity When You Make Hajj?

Missing the Farewell Tawaf Due to Menstruation

Calculating Zakat and Going on Hajj with a Student Loan

Is It Valid to Make Hajj or Umrah Before One’s Parents?

Seeking Forgiveness from Others Before Hajj

Hajj Tamattu`: Does an Invalid Umra Affect the Hajj?

What is the Wisdom Behind Doing Certain Hajj and Umrah Rituals 7 Times?

Reciting Sura al-Baraqara for Protection and Cutting One’s Hair for Hajj and Umrah

What Are the Rulings of Performing Tawaf, Sa’y, and Prayer While Carrying a Baby With Dirty Diapers (Nappies)?

Question on Hajj Violations

Going On Hajj While in Debt

Can a Man Perform Hajj on Behalf of a Non-Mahram Woman?

Is Foreplay a Violation On Hajj?

Wearing Stitched Clothing in Ihram: What Kind of Expiation is Due?

Should I Delay Hajj to Help Fund a Sibling’s Wedding?

Doubts About Having Committed a Contravention at Hajj

Chronic Excuse: Can I Combine Prayers with a Single Ablution?

What is the Minimum Amount of Hair that Must Be Cut to Exit the State of Ihram After Hajj or Umrah?

The Day of `Arafah: The 9th of Dhu’l Hijjah and the Takbirs of Eid

Removing Hair and Wearing Scents: Expiations for Accidental Violations of Ihram during Hajj

Appointing Someone to Perform Hajj on Someone’s Behalf

Can I Wear Stitched Footgear, Belts, or a Backpack While in Ihram?

Can Women Wear Ornaments While Performing Umrah?

How Long Must One Stay at Arafat During Hajj?

The Tawafs of Hajj

Recommended Viewing:

Imam Tahir’s DVD / CD set on Hajj

Hajj Tamattu`: Does an Invalid Umra Affect the Hajj?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan

Question: I have a question regarding Hajj tamattu’ in the Hanafi school.   If one performs Hajj tamattu’ and later finds out that their Umrah was invalid or corrupt, does this have any effect on the Hajj. In other words, would the Hajj still be considered valid?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and states.

No, an invalid or corrupt umra would not affect the validity of the hajj itself. The person doing tamattu` enters a new ihram state for hajj after the umra.

However, a completely invalid umra (which is rare) would invalidate one’s “tamattu` status”: one would then be doing a “hajj ifrad”.

Expiation would be needed for the violation[s] done while on umra; the particular expiation would depend on what violation was committed.

[Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; Zada; Majma` al-Anhur; Shurunbulali, Imdad al-Fattah; Ascent to Felicity]

And Allah knows best.


Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani