What Are the Rulings of Performing Tawaf, Sa’y, and Prayer While Carrying a Baby With Dirty Diapers (Nappies)?

Answered by Ustadh Faraz A. Khan

Question: Assalamu Alaikum,

I have a question regarding Umrah/Hajj. My husband and I are planning on performing Umrah this year inshAllah. we intend to take our 8 month year old baby as well. What I’d like to know is, is ones umrah valid if they’re carrying a baby on the tawaf/sai since obviously the babies nappy will contain impurity?

( I would like the Hanafi position please)

JazakAllah Khair

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and faith.

The following is based on the Hanafi school:

(1) For tawaf, it is wajib that an area of one’s garment of the size that covers the awra to be free of filth (najasa). Regarding the rest of one’s clothing, it is sunna for it to be free of filth. [Ibn Nujaym, Bahr al-Ra’iq; Fatawa Hindiyya; Qari, Sharh Lubab al-Manasik]

Hence, performing tawaf while carrying a baby whose diaper/nappy contains filth would be valid, although preferable to avoid.

(2) For sa’y, it is preferable (mustahabb) for the garment to be free of filth. [Qari, Sharh Lubab al-Manasik]

Hence, carrying such a baby is fine during sa’y as well.

(3) For any prayer, one cannot carry a baby whose diaper/nappy contains filth [i.e., more than the excused amount]. Doing so would invalidate the prayer. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi ‘l-Falah]

Hence, for all prayers, including the two rakats of tawaf performed after tawaf, one may not hold a baby with a dirty diaper. Perhaps you and your spouse could take turns holding the baby while the other prays.

And Allah alone gives success.


Faraz A. Khan

Removing Hair and Wearing Scents: Expiations for Accidental Violations of Ihram during Hajj

Answered by Sidi Faraz A. Khan

Question: Asalamu Alaikum,

I recently came back from Hajj, Alhumdulilah, and had a few questions on Ihram violations. In each of the three scenarios mentioned, do I owe a dam or charity? Also, when and where do I owe them. JazakAllah khair for your help!

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray this reaches you in the best of health and faith.

1) My wife had to scratch her head knowing that her hair might come off while she was doing so, but because the itch was bothering her, she scratched her head and a hair was removed. Does she owe a Dam? Also, should this Dam have been given during the Hajj time or can I have someone in Mecca that we know pay for a Dam to be sacrificed in the Haram?

With respect to prohibitions, accidental violations are not sinful but still require expiation. Yet a sacrifice of a sheep [dam] is due only for removing a fourth or more of one’s hair. Hence she only owes donation, namely, about 2.2 kg of wheat or its equivalent monetary value to a poor person. This donation is not specific to any place, as opposed to the sacrifice [dam] which if necessary, must be performed within the Sacred Precinct [haram]. If a sacrifice were necessary yet one had already returned home, one could have someone else over there do it on his/her behalf, even after the time of hajj.

But again, the answer to your question is that a donation is due, not a sacrifice.

2) I had a money pouch around me during Ihram. Before I put my Ihram on, that pouch had a bottle of perfume in it. While I was in Ihram, I put my hand in the pouch and touched the perfume and realized it was there. I picked it up and threw it out, but in the process of doing so, my fingers got the perfume scent on them. Also, scent was coming from the perfume bottle that was located in my pouch probably for about 3 or 4 hours while I was in Ihram before I discovered it.

It is unlikely that your entire hand got scent on it, so because it was less then an entire limb, only a donation is due [as detailed above], not a sacrifice. The perfume in the bottle/pouch is of no consequence.

3) I accidentally used liquid soap in a public restroom on my hand but quickly washed it off as soon as I put it on when I realized I wasn’t supposed to.

If it were scented and was applied on your whole hand [i.e., one entire limb] or more, then one sacrifice [dam] would be due. As outlined above, this is not time specific but is place specific. So if you know anyone in the Sacred Precinct, or the next time you know someone going for hajj or umra, just ask that person to do a sacrifice of a sheep on your behalf.

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi l-Sa`adat, “Ascent to Felicity” with footnotes]

And Allah knows best.


Faraz A. Khan

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Pilgrims with a Purpose: Turtles Make Hajj Too – Shaykh Hamza Yusuf Blog at Sandala Productions


Sandala Productions

There is no animal on earth, nor yet a bird on the wing, but forms communities like you. We have not neglected anything in the Book; and they will ultimately be gathered to their Lord. Those who repudiate Our signs are deaf and dumb, in the dark. God confuses whomever God wills, and places whomever God wills on a straight path.

Qur’an, Sura 6, Cattle, (38-39)

Pilgrimage is one of the profound manifestations of humanity, a materialization of our spiritual nature. The word pilgrim is from a Latin term, peregrinatio, which means “to journey about.” An early English word peregrine meant “a falcon.” Like our feathered friends, human beings also tend to flock, driven by an inner force towards a specific destination. Historically, people have always flocked to places of devotion for spiritual rebirth.

The word Hajj means “to intend a journey,” which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions. In his Mufradat, Raghib says that Hajj became associated in the sacred text with visiting the House of God. From the same root, we get the derivative hujjah, which means “a proof,” and also a mahajjah, which is “a clear path that is straight.” Related to this word through the greater derivation is the word hajab, which means “to be prevented from arriving at one’s destination.” This is important in relation to those who are spiritually veiled (mahjub) by a material hijab from arriving at their true destination.

Read more:


Pilgrims with a Purpose: Turtles Make Hajj Too – Shaykh Hamza Yusuf Blog at Sandala Productions

See also: Eid Mubarak: Eid Message from SeekersGuidance

Dhul-Qa’da Reflections: Preparing for the Blessed Month of Dhul-Hijja – Interpreter’s Path

Dhul-Qa’da Reflections: Preparing for the Blessed Month of Dhul-Hijja  – Interpreter’s Path

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The following is a summary of some of the points mentioned by Sayyidi al-Habib `Umar bin Hafiz (may Allah preserve him) on 17th Dhu’l-Qa`ida with some additions for extra clarity and benefit:

He reminded us of the greatness of attaining the knowledge of Allah, knowledge of the Creator. What knowledge is more noble or more pure than this? Where will other knowledge take you? Does other knowledge inform you of your own creation and of your Creator? Does other knowledge bring you to closer to Allah?

He mentioned the fast approaching time of Hajj, when the delegations come to Allah and His House, to the places made sacred by their connection to Him and His Beloved; Allah bless him and grant him peace, Allah made the Ka`ba, the Sacred House, and the Sacred Months as a source of support for people[1] – through it people’s affairs are rectified.

In spite of the great oppression and disbelief prevalent in the world the existence of hearts that realise the greatness of Allah prevents punishment from descending. These sacred symbols are in place “so that you may know that Allah knows all that is in the heavens and the earth and has knowledge of every thing“.[2]But the greatest of things sacred is Muhammad; Allah bless him and grant him peace, the Messenger of Allah, the one whom Allah sent for us to be guided, for us to be saved. Those visiting Tayba (Medina) would witness the effects of the light and love of the Prophet; Allah bless him and grant him peace, even upon animals and inanimate objects. He said; Allah bless him and grant him peace, of Uhud: “It is a mountain which loves us and we love it.” Because of its love, this rocky mountain will be one of the mountains of Paradise.

How hard are our hearts in comparison to this mountain! May Allah soften and purify our hearts! Feed our hearts and let them taste the sweetness of faith. “All of you are hungry except the one I feed, so ask Me and I will feed you.”[3]

His Hawd (pool); Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the widest and purest of the pools of the Prophets and we can drink from it in this life before drinking  from it in the next by following his example and strengthening our connection to Allah, our witnessing of Allah, our humility and presence of heart in front of Allah, and by remembering and seeking to honour the covenant that we took with Allah in the spiritual realm[4] especially at these blessed times.

Protect us all from the tribulations of this Dunya; the only ones protected are those You have given to drink from la ilaha ill’Allah Muhammad Rasulullah; don’t give those with darkness in their hearts power over us!

In spite of the lowliness of our state Allah shows compassion to those who seek and ask Him: Say: “My Lord would not have cared about you had it not been for your supplication.”[5]

If the Hajj has not been made possible for you, join with those making Hajj and share in their reward: by spending your wealth for the sake of Allah on your relatives, on the needy, by turning to Allah with your whole being. Make numerous your footsteps to the places of good, especially at the time of Fajr, and you will receive glad tidings from him; Allah bless him and grant him peace: “Give glad tidings of complete light on the Day of Judgement to those who walk constantly to the mosque in the darkness.” Those whose light is complete will no doubt be in his company; Allah bless him and grant him peace,  “on the day on which Allah does not disgrace the Prophet and those who believe along with him. Their light stretches out in front of them and upon their right sides”.[6]

Share in their reward by worshipping and remembering Allah between Maghrib and Isha, and from Fajr until sunrise.[7] Attend the prayer in congregation, attend the gatherings of knowledge. He said; Allah bless him and grant him peace: “The one who goes out to the mosque wanting only to learn good or teach it has the reward of a complete Hajj.”[8] Just as those performing Hajj respond to the call of Allah by saying “labbayk” we must be swift to respond to the call of Allah in performing that which is obligatory and avoiding that which is prohibited. Ask to be present with them, and thank Allah for allowing our spirits to be with them. So many hearts whether they be in the far East or the far West receive the gifts of Arafat and Mina because of their truthfulness with Allah.

The first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijja are approaching. He informed us; Allah bless him and grant him peace, that there are no days in which righteous actions are more beloved to Allah than these days. Fasting one day is equal to fasting for a year and praying on one night is equal to praying on Laylat al-Qadr. Fasting on the Day of Arafat is equal to fasting a thousand days and it wipes out the sins of the previous year and the year to come.

Let us end this month with tawba so we enter those sacred times and places in a state of purity.

[1] See Surat al-Ma’ida 5:97 [2] See Surat al-Ma’ida 5:97 [3] Hadith Qudsi narrated by [4] Where every soul bore witness to the lordship of Allah. See Al-A`raf 7.172 [5] Al-Furqan 25.77 [6]Al-Tahrim 66.8 [7] The hadith mention that the one who prays Fajr in congregation and then sits remembering Allah until sunrise and then prays two rakats will receive the complete reward of a hajj and an umra and all his sins will be forgiven (Tirmidhi, Tabarani, Ahmad and others). [8] Narrated by Tabarani on the authority of Abu Umama

– Transcribed and translated by Ustadh Amin Buxton (Allah preserve and increase him and his teachers)

Detailed information on Dhul Hijja: Merits & Striving in Spiritual works

Hajj Handbook – Shaykh Husain Abdul Sattar

Hajj Handbook – Shaykh Husain Abdul Sattar
Hajj is around the corner so let’s start thinking about the significance of this pivotal journey. Shaykh Husain Abdul Sattar has compiled a quick reference guide on the legal aspects of the Hajj with spiritual insights from Shaykh Zulfiqar Ahmad. Sacred Learning also offers excellent lecture recordings on Hajj for free download as well as regular lectures on Seerah, Tafsir, Tazkiya, Arabic and Hadith.

Shaykh Husain’s Hajj Handbook entitled “Perfecting the Journey” is now available for download. The Hajj Handbook is a manual intended as a quick reference guide to Hajj and Umrah.


Excerpt: Scholars have suggested a variety of duas that should be made when one first sees the Kabah. For example, some have suggested asking for the Love of Allah (Glorious and Exalted), others suggest asking for success in this life and the next, while others have suggested asking for direct entry into Jannah without account. Each of these has their place and the reality is that you should ask for everything that you can. However, technically speaking, the time of your ‘first glance’ is limited. Hence, one particularly noteworthy dua, as recommended by Imam Abu Hanifa (may the mercy of Allah be upon him), is to ask that all future duas, wherever and whenever they might be made, be accepted.

A True Hajj – Amazing Explanation by Imam Junaid al-Baghdadi

It is said that the one who performs Hajj, or the ritual pilgrimage, comes back free of sins. But are mere actions enough? This story illustrates what makes a true Hajj.

A man, whose life reflected no change after having performed Hajj, came to visit Imam Junaid al-Bagdadi.
Junaid asked him: “Where are you coming from?”

“Sir, I have returned after performing Hajj of the House of Allah,” was the reply.

“So, have you actually performed Hajj?”

“Yes, Sir, I have performed Hajj “, said the man.

“Did you pledge that you would give up sins when you left your home for Hajj?” asked Junaid.

“No, Sir, I never thought of that”, said the man.

“Then, in fact, you did not even step out for Hajj. While you were on the sacred journey and making halts at places during the nights, did you ever think of attaining nearness to Allah?”

“Sir, I had no such idea.”

“Then you did not at all travel to the Ka’bah, nor did ever visit it. When you put on the Ihram garments, and discarded your ordinary dress, did you make up your mind to abandon your evil ways and attitudes in life as well ?”

“No, Sir, I had no idea of that.”

“Then, you did not even don the Ihram garments!” said Junaid ruefully. Then he asked; “When you stood in the Plain of Arafat and were imploring Allah Almighty, did you have the feeling that you were standing in Divine Presence and having a vision of Him?”

“No, Sir, I had no such experience.

Junaid then became a liltle upset and asked: “Well, when you came to Muzdalifah, did you promise that you would give up vain desires of the flesh?”

“Sir, I paid no heed to this.”

“You did not then come to Muzdalifah at all.” Then he asked: “Tell me, did you happen to catch glimpses of Divine Beauty when you moved around the House of Allah?”

“No, Sir, I caught no such glimpses.”

“Then, you did not move around the Ka’bah at all.” Then he said: “When you made Sa’i (running) between the Safa and the Marwa, did you realize the wisdom, significance and objective of your effort?”

“Sir, I was not at all conscious of this.”

“Then you did not make any Sa’i!” Then he asked: “When you slaughtered an animal at the place of sacrifice, did you sacrifice your selfish desires as well in the way of Allah?”

“Sir, I failed to give any attention to that!”

“Then, in fact you offered no sacrifice whatever.”

“Then when you cast stones at the Jamarahs, did you make a resolve to get rid of your evil companions and friends and desires?”

“No, Sir, I didn’t do that.”

“Then, you did not cast stones at all”, remarked Junaid regretfully, and said:

“Go back and perform Hajj once again, giving due thought and attention to all the requirements, so that your Hajj may bear some resemblance with Prophet Ibrahim’s Hajj, whose faith and sincerity has been confirmed by the Qur’an :

“Ibrahim who carried out most faithfully the Commands (of his Lord).” (53:37)

With gratitude to the Islamic Studies Research Academy.

Resources for Seekers

Can I Go on Hajj If My Wife Is Financing It?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question : Can I go on Hajj if my wife is financing it?

Answer : If your wife is willingly financing the trip, then:(1) It would fulfill your obligation to perform Hajj–as having the means to pay for the trip is a condition for Hajj being obligatory upon one, not a condition of validity; and
(2) Your wife would have the reward of both her Hajj and of facilitating your Hajj.
[ref: Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

And Allah alone gives success.
Faraz Rabbani

Wearing Sandals on Hajj

Answered by Ustadha Shaista Maqbool

Question: Wearing Sandals on Hajj

In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful, Most Kind.

Answer : The upper part of the foot (around the cuneiform bones of the foot) must be uncovered during ihram. The sandals that you wore have a strap on top of this very part of the foot, and therefore, yes, there was a violation in your ihram. Hence, you need to determine what type of expiation you owe.

The Ruling

A Muslim pilgrim prays on Mount Mercy on the plains of Arafat outside the holy city of Mecca December 7, 2008. More than two million Muslims began the haj pilgrimage on Saturday, heading to a tent camp outside Mecca to follow the route Prophet Mohammad took 14 centuries ago. REUTERS/Ahmed Jadallah (SAUDI ARABIA)


If a man* wore something stitched or covered his foot, or head continuously for the entire day or the entire night, or the equivalent of either of them, he must make a sacrifice. If he did so for less than this time, he must give charity. (see: Ibn Abideen, Hashiyah)

[*The rulings of clothing are specific to men as women are exempt from these considerations; The only exception is in the covering of the face, in which women are also accountable for.]


  • “Continuously” meaning without interruption. Removing the item even momentarily e.g. for wudu, is considered an interruption.
  • The “entire day” here means the Islamic day: from dawn or Fajr prayer to sunset or the Maghrib prayer; and “night” meaning from sunset/Maghrib prayer to dawn/Fajr prayer.
  • “The equivalent of either of them” meaning if he had worn the item for an equivalent of either the day or night, he owes a sacrifice. So, if the day was 10 hours long and the night was 14 hours, one would have to determine whether or not he was wearing the item for 10 hours continuously, using the shorter of the two. Therefore, if he put on the item in the middle of the day or night, rather than at the beginning, he must calculate the time he was wearing it.

One should note that in most cases the continuity of the wearing is interrupted, and when there has been an interruption, the timing starts all over, ie. intervals are not added together. Therefore, in most cases charity would be obligatory, not sacrifice.

It should also be noted that unlike sacrifice, there isn’t a minimum period of time for charity, such that one must pay charity even if he wore any of these items for only a moment. Additionally, he pays charity for each “wearing” of the item, as long it is less than a day/night. For example, if he wore the item for 10 hours but would remove it each hour, he must pay 10 times of the obligatory amount of charity.

Nevertheless, in the cases where one did wear an item for more than an entire day or night, the following details should be paid attention to:

If he wore the item for more than a day or night, he still owes only one sacrifice, (i.e. he doesn’t owe 2 sacrifices for wearing it for longer than one day). The latter is also the case even if he removed the item [after having worn it continuously for a day or night] at night, for example, with an intention to wear it again during the day. However, if he removed it with the intention to discontinue wearing it, and thereafter did wear it again, he must give two sacrifices. (Hashiyah, Ibn ‘Abideen). Hence, the intention plays a major role in determining the number of sacrifices one owes.

A sacrifice is fulfilled by the slaughtering of a sheep, goat or having a share of a seventh in the sacrifice of a cow or camel. The slaughter must take place in the sacred territory in Mekkah. When one is outside Mekkah, he may authorize someone there to do the sacrifice on his behalf.

For charity, it is obligatory to give approximately 2 kg of wheat for every violation or its value in money. Charity may be given anywhere and is not restricted to the sacred territory.

And all praise if for Allah, Lord of the Worlds.