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Is Euthanasia Permissible?

Shaykh Jamir Meah answers a question related to Euthanasia and its ruling in Islamic law.

Question:

My question is regarding the medically assisted death option which patients in hospitals are choosing. I’m completing a clinical pastoral education unit in a hospital and was recently asked if I would assist patients who have chosen medically assisted death and without any confusion or hesitation I said yes. However, I’m wondering if as a Muslim that is problematic or not. I don’t think so but I just need to speak to someone who is in the field and is a Muslim to provide some kind of comments, feedback or advise. Please let me know your thoughts.

Thank you

Answer:

Assalam ‘alaykum, thank you for your question.

Euthanasia is of two types, active and passive. Active euthanasia is deliberately performing an act that will cause the person to die, such as administering a fatal injection. Passive euthanasia entails leaving a person to die without any action being taken to preserve life.

Active Euthanasia, Suicide, and Assisted Suicide

Active Euthanasia, the direct and deliberate act performed to kill the patient maybe involuntary, such as when the patient is unconscious and the decision to end their lives is taken by the family or physician, or voluntary, in which case it is termed suicide, or assisted suicide if a third party assists the person in the act.

Active Euthanasia, suicide, and assisted suicide, are unlawful in Islamic Law, even if the person is suffering.

This is based on the words of God, ‘And take not life, which Allah has made sacred, except by way of justice and law’[6: 151], and, ‘Do not kill yourselves. Verily, Allah is ever Merciful unto you’. [4:29].

Alongside the prohibition, the person who deliberately caused death would have committed homicide.

Vegetable States

The ‘exception’ to the prohibition on involuntary euthanasia is when the patient is in a severe vegetable state, such that the medication, feeding (i.e. hydration), or life support machine, is the only thing keeping the person breathing, and without it, it has been concluded that the person would be dead or will not function. In these cases, it would be permissible to stop treatment if qualified physicians state that this is the case and there is no hope of recovery.

Passive Euthanasia

Passive euthanasia, where no action is taken, entails stopping medical treatment. The vast majority of scholars have held that it is recommended for a person to seek medical treatment but it is not obligatory. Therefore, if a person chooses to stop treatment, and they are left to die naturally, then this would be permissible. However, it would not be permitted to starve the person to death (or self-starvation). And Allah knows best.

Do Not Desire Death

It is disliked for a person to desire death, as the Prophet ﷺ said, ‘Let none of you wish for death on account of an affliction that befalls him. If he has no alternative, let him pray, O Allah! Give my life so long as the life is good for me, and take away my life if death is good for me.’ [Al Bukhari and Muslim]

Role of the Muslim physician

The Muslim physician holds a very important yet precarious role. It is essential that any person wishing to treat or care for patients first learn the rulings of sacred law (fiqh) that apply to their job, as well as study some central tenants of Islamic belief (‘aqida).

Though it can be very difficult, Muslim physicians should always encourage patients, Muslims and non-Muslim, to have hope in something greater than their suffering, for hope is often far greater a cure than any medicine can afford.

[al Majmu’, Tuhfatul Muhtaj, Mughni al Muhtaj, Tarshih al Mustarshidin]

 

Please also refer to the following answer:

I wish you all the best in your affairs.

Warmest salams,

Jamir

 

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabanni


 

Baby Stopped Drinking Milk

Ustadha Raidah Shah Idil eases concerns regarding a baby who won’t eat or drink.

My eight-month-old daughter has been ill for the past three months and has not been drinking milk. She refuses food and milk and has been in hospital three times to be fed via an NG tube.

The doctors don’t know what’s wrong with her and keep saying it might be viral. She gets well in the hospital then starts getting ill when she comes home. She used to be such a happy baby who slept and ate well. My mother thinks there may be a jinn with her or me or in the house. I really do not know what to do.

I pray this finds you well. May Allah reward you for reaching out to us.

Ruqya

O you who believe, seek help through patience and prayer. Surely, Allah is with those who are patient. (Sura al-Baqara 2:153)

I am so sorry to hear about your baby, and cannot imagine the heartbreak you are enduring. Please continue to make dua for your baby’s shifa. Dunya is a place of tribulation, and our children bring about our greatest tests.

Please ask your mother to ask around for a reputable shaykh or shaykha who can perform ruqya on your baby. Be careful not to let just anyone read over baby – please trust your intuition and Perform the Prayer of Guidance to help you ascertain if he/she is trustworthy.

Some signs of a charlatan would be someone asking you to do strange things like working with blood, odd sacrifices, or burial.

Prayer of Need

Please perform the Prayer of Need in the last third of the night, as often as you need to.

Other acts you can do: Give in charity, ask for pious people to make dua for you, make copious istighfar.

Using a Ta‘wiz

Please consider using a ta‘wiz on your baby for protection. Please write or print out the Ayat al-Kursi and three Quls. Put it in a locket or a soft cover of some sort, and pin it on your baby’s clothes. Do not hang it around your baby’s neck as it isn’t safe.

Possibility of Allergens

Is there something else in your home that could be harming your baby? Any mold? Pet fur? Any kind of allergen? Could you get an allergy test done on your baby?

Emotional Stress

What is the emotional climate at home? Babies are deeply sensitive and are very connected to their mothers. I do not know the circumstances of your home, but if there is trouble in your marriage, perhaps that may be upsetting your baby. I do not say this to cast any blame on you. Allah knows how hard you are trying.

May Allah heal your baby, and make her the coolness of your eyes.

Please see: Selected Prophetic Prayers for Spiritual, Physical and Emotional Wellbeing by Chaplain Ibrahim Long and A Reader on Patience and Reliance on Allah.

Raidah

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Are There Any Supplications for My Health Issues?

Answered by Shaykh Jamir Meah

Question: Assalamu alaykum

Is there any specific dua that can be read for the curing of one’s eyesight, constipation, or psoriasis?

Answer: Wa’alaykum assalam. I am sorry to hear that you have health issues. I pray they are not causing you too much distress.

There are general supplications that one may recite for each condition. At the same time, I would strongly suggest seeking out medical treatment for your health issues.

Supplications

It is narrated that A’isha (peace and blessings be upon her) said that when anyone among them had an illness, the Prophet ﷺ used to rub the area of the pain and recite the following du’a,

أَذْهِبِ الْبَأْسَ رَبَّ النَّاسِ وَاشْفِ أَنْتَ الشَّافِي لَا شِفَاءَ إِلَّا شِفَاؤُكَ شِفَاءٌ لَا يُغَادِرُ سَقَمَاً

‘O Lord of the people, remove this pain and cure it, You are the one who cures and there is no one besides You who can cure, grant such a cure that no illness remains’ [al Bukhari , Muslim]

Abu Darda (may Allah be pleased with him) is said to have narrated that he heard the Prophet ﷺ say, ‘If any of you is suffering from anything or his brother is suffering, he should say:

رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ تَقَدَّسَ اسْمُكَ أَمْرُكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ كَمَا رَحْمَتُكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ فَاجْعَلْ رَحْمَتَكَ فِي الأَرْضِ اغْفِرْ لَنَا حُوبَنَا وَخَطَايَانَا أَنْتَ رَبُّ الطَّيِّبِينَ أَنْزِلْ رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَحْمَتِكَ وَشِفَاءً مِنْ شِفَائِكَ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَجَعِ فَيَبْرَأُ

Our Lord is Allah Who is in the heaven, holy is Thy name, Thy command reigns supreme in the heaven and the earth, as Thy mercy in the heaven, make Thy mercy in the earth; forgive us our sins, and our errors; Thou art the Lord of good men; send down mercy from Thy mercy, and remedy, and remedy from Thy remedy on this pain so that it is healed up.
[Abu Dawud]

And A’isha also informed us that ‘When Prophet Mohammad (SAW.) was in final illness, he used to recite the Mu’auwidhat (Surat An-Nas and Surat Al- Falaq) and then blow his breath over his body. When his illness was aggravated, I used to recite those two Suras and blow my breath over him and make him rub his body with his own hand for its blessings’ [al Bukhari].

Medicine

It is generally recommended to take medicines that are available to you. Please see a reliable doctor, allopathic or alternative, who may help you find the right course of treatment for your conditions. Holistic medicine may be worth looking into, as they take into account the whole person rather just individual symptoms, treating both underlying issues and the apparent symptoms.

I wish you the best of health insha’Allah. Please keep us in your duas.

Warmest salams,
[Shaykh] Jamir Meah

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. In 2007, he traveled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years studying the Islamic sciences on a one-to-one basis under the foremost scholars of the Ribaat, Tarim, with a main specialization and focus on Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies in a range of Islamic sciences, as well as teaching. Jamir is a qualified homeopath.

Am I Exempted From Fasting If I Have a Medical Condition? (Shafi’i)

Answered by Shaykh Jamir Meah

Question: Assalamu alaykum

If I have to take a medication twice a day, which dehydrates me, am I exempted from fasting?

Also, if we are afflicted with a mental health disorder, do we fall under those whom are exempted from fasting?

Answer: Wa‘alaykum assalam. Jazakum Allah khayr for your question. I pray this finds you in the best of states.

Physical and mental conditions can exempt one from fasting in Ramadan. However, due to the individuality of each case, you would need to consult a reliable local physician and scholar who is familiar with the details of your condition to fully assess if you would be exempted from fasting.

The general rulings which apply to persons on medication are that one should:

1. Discuss alternative posology schedules with your physician to see if it can be worked around the fasting day.

2. Discuss alternative medication or therapies which do not have the same side-effects, such as severe dehydration.

3. If it is established that one must take the medication during the fast, or the necessary medication produces side effects that make fasting too much of hardship, then one should see if they can make up the fasts during the shorter/colder days of the year. If that is not possible, but one recovers at a later point in time, then one would be obliged to make up the fasts then.

4. If there is no hope of recovery, and they are unable to ever make up the fasts in the year due to the condition, then they would not be obligated to make the fasts up, though they would have to pay a fidia. A fidia is an expiation, and consists of one mudd of the main staple food (a dry measure consisting of a medium handful, amounting to approximately 0.51 litres) of one’s locality. One mudd must be paid for each fast day missed.

[Bushra al Karim]

Please also refer to the following answer:

Long-Term Illness that Prevents Fasting

I wish you the best of health and iman.

Warmest salams,
[Shaykh] Jamir Meah

Shaykh Jamir Meah grew up in Hampstead, London. In 2007, he traveled to Tarim, Yemen, where he spent nine years studying the Islamic sciences on a one-to-one basis under the foremost scholars of the Ribaat, Tarim, with a main specialization and focus on Shafi’i fiqh. In early 2016, he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continues advanced studies in a range of Islamic sciences, as well as teaching. Jamir is a qualified homeopath.

Can Holistic Medicines Practically Help Someone In The Religion? by Shaykh Jamir Meah

In his last article, Shaykh Jamir Meah discussed the concepts of health and disease within an Islamic framework. He also looked at the law of vibration. In the final article of this series, Shaykh Jamir looks at how holistic treatment and its principles practically benefits the believer and can help in their relationship with Allah Most High.

As we’ve mentioned previously, true health occurs when the whole person is functioning harmoniously on all levels, and is able to fulfil his or herself socially and spiritually. The goal of every true physician should be to guide each patient to this point as much as is possible through medicine.

How can holistic medicines help someone in their religion?

Holistic therapies such as homeopathy and traditional Chinese acupuncture reach the dynamic level of the human being, the level of pure energy, the Vital Force or Qi in Chinese Medicine. The Vital Force or Qi is where the real disturbance is, and when healing takes place on this level, the curative effect ripples throughout the whole organism, from centre outwards.

Given the above, it is natural to ask, how can holistic medicines practically help someone in the religion?

There is a strong connection between medicine and religious practice, and both are obviously invaluable in our lives. Just as we need this world in order to succeed in the next, we need medicine to grant us the ability to have mental and physical health to be able to fulfil our religious objectives.

This is why Imam al Shafi’i (May Allah be pleased with him) said, ‘Indeed, knowledge is of two types: knowledge of the religion and knowledge of the world. The knowledge of religion is to achieve understanding (fiqh) and the knowledge of the world is medicine.’ [Adab al Shafi’i].

Holistic medicine can greatly assist someone in the religion and in spirituality, or even someone who may not be particularly spiritual, but seeking more profound or alternative meanings in an overwhelmingly materialistic world.

A basic example from a real life case

Mr Ahmad comes for treatment for multiple sclerosis. During the consultation we find that since childhood he has always had a fear of poverty. During his twenties, he developed a tendency to buy useless items and hoard them. He has a fear of the dark and is terrified of death. He describes himself as religious though very materialistic. He finds it a struggle to progress in the religion in the way he feels he should. He finds faults with others very easily, has a very suspicious nature, and admits that he backbites people all the time. At the same time, he never desires to be alone and needs company. He feels an inner restlessness but doesn’t know why. This has caused many difficulties his personal and work.

After the 5 weeks of treatment, the patient reports in the first month an inner sense of calm as opposed to his restlessness. Over the course of treatment, the improvement steadily continues and Mr. Ahmad doesn’t feel the fear of poverty so intensely, though it is still there and can be quite crippling. The MS is still there but not as intense. At the eight month follow up he declares that he has started to get rid of some of his hoarded goods, and genuinely feels much more energetic and positive. Others have also noticed a change in his character, describing him as more affable and cynical.

Just over a year later, he states that he no longer senses a fear of poverty, and any thoughts of darkness and death are few and far between, and almost negligible. This has made a big difference in his whole outlook to life, work and his relationships, and most importantly his religious aspirations. He states that whereas reading the Qu’ran previously felt like a chore, he now was eager to read it daily, and he has started feeling some of the old zeal for the religion slowly coming back. His MS has disappeared completely.

These types of cases are very common. What happened is that the treatment affected the patient’s deepest being, and this in turn created an awareness within him of his diseased state. By becoming inwardly aware that his fears, delusions, and reactions, were disproportionate to real life, he was able to subconsciously let go, so that he no longer feared poverty, and was no longer terrified of the dark and of death, which was no doubt in this case a fear of losing material wealth, after all what is death but a step into the unknown, the dark, and a parting from the worldly possessions?

The treatment had an effect on all levels of his being, healing the physical manifestation of the inner disease (MS in this case), and changed his whole perception and dealings with everything and everyone around him.

One may view the role of such treatment as a ‘clearing out,’ ‘getting rid of unwanted baggage’ and ‘putting things in order.’ This is usually very difficult for people to do on their own. You can tell a person to get over an abnormal fear, to snap out of depression, or find ways to deal with chronic anxiety, but more often than not, they simply can’t. They just don’t have the will power or creativity to move forward, and so they remain stuck.

Because correct treatment reaches the higher planes of a person, it instigates the person to rouse up from the rut they find themselves in and see the reality of their situation. The person’s perceptions and reactions change, and they find themselves with a new inner strength and self-confidence, which enables them to think and decide with new found clarity, far-sightedness and purpose. When his takes place, the person starts to make the necessary changes in life they need in order to move towards their goal, productively and creatively.

In summary, it frees up the person to be open to, as Samuel Hahnemann said, ‘the higher purpose of our existence’.

Hering’s Law

Hering’s Law, named after Constantine Hering, the physician who observed and formulated the law, refers to the direction in which the symptoms of the patient will disappear during a cure under natural treatment. It is indispensable in practice. The Law states that real cure takes place:

From within outwards.
From above downwards.
From a more important organ to a less important one.
In the reverse order of their coming.

There’s a lot that can be said in regards this Law and how it aligns one’s natural vibration (discussed previously), however what is worth deducing from it for our benefit here is that it is applicable in the cure of us as individual believers and as an Ummah.

Allah Most High tells us in the oft quoted verse, ‘God changes not what is in a people, until they change what is in themselves’ [13:11]. In order for change to occur, it has to start within. As individuals and as a nation, we have to look at the ills that we have as a community and work towards improving and finding solutions to those issues. When we change as individuals, as communities, and as an ummah, then this will have an effect on everything around us. Inner order leads to outward order, healing is from within outwards.

Likewise, a just leader who takes himself into account and sets a good example, instils goodness into his subjects and guides them to goodness in both worlds, and in this way, whole nations are healed and guided. Like a father and mother guiding their children, from above downwards, the more senior figures set the standard in their own lives and through their own behaviour, and this has a rippling effect on those under their care. Such were the leaderships and guidance of the Prophets, the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and the pious leaders of our communities.

Why can families, communities and nations grow so strong when pulling together in the same direction? Because everyone’s vibration is in tandem. And when this harmony occurs, ‘The similitude of believers, in their love, mercy, and compassion for each other, are like one body.’ [Muslim]

Allah is the Healer

Finally, we should end this series with the reminder that while discussing the many benefits and wonders of natural holistic medicine, it is ultimately Allah alone that heals, and not through any power of the medicine, nor any ability of the physician.

Just like fire does not have the intrinsic power to burn, nor the knife the inherent ability to cut, it is our belief that no substance has healing properties in of themselves, but rather, it is Allah who creates the relationship between the medicine and the healing effect through his Will and Power.

O Lord of the people! Remove the difficulty and bring about healing as You are the Healer. There is no healing but Your Healing, a healing that will leave no ailment.’ [Sahih al Bukhari]

[cwa id=’cta’]

Should I Perform an Expiation Because of an Illness During Ramadan?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum

I couldn’t do my fasting after 12 days last year and I am still on medication. A doctor has told me that I can restart my fasting in one month. Should I fast the remaining fasts after a month or do I need to perform the expiation for those remaining 18 days?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

No, you do not need to perform the expiation (kaffara) for fasts missed due to illness. Expiations are only due for deliberately invalidating Ramadan fasts without a legally acceptable excuse.

Nevertheless, you do need to make up (qada’) those missed fasts. Don’t take on too much at once, but aim for something consistent and manageable.

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah]

Please see: When Is Expiation Required For A Fast?

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

My Grandmother Is Required to Take a Drug Everyday. Does She Have to Fast During Ramadan?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum,

My grandmother is required to take a drug twice a day. One time is around midnight and the other time is around noon. What should she do during Ramadan, when she has to take it during the day? Does she have to fast during Ramadan?

She has to take this drug everyday for the rest of her life, so she can’t make up any fasts later.

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

May Allah Most High grant her steadfastness and a tremendous reward for facing the trials in her life with such religious concern.

The general principle is that all sane, adult, resident Muslims of sound health must fast the month of Ramadan unless they have a genuine excuse not to do so. The condition of the validity of such an excuse is that it has been established by (1) an upright, expert Muslim doctor or (2) clear, undeniable signs, or (3) based on past, relevant experience. If the doctor, however, is not Muslim, or he does not know the limits of the Sacred Law, you should make a reasonable judgement, or, ideally, verify the conclusions made with a legal expert (faqih).

Allah Most High says, “Fast for a specific number of days, but if one of you is ill, or on a journey, on other days later. For those who can fast only with extreme difficulty, there is a way to compensate– feed a needy person. But if anyone does good of his own accord, it is better for him, and fasting is better for you, if only you knew.” [2.184]

As such, you should consult her physician and see if there is a way she can move her medicine to outside the fasting hours. Note that you should ask him for his medical opinion, namely, whether it is possible to reschedule and take the medicine before sunrise and after sunset, and not for a legal verdict (fatwa) on whether or not she should fast.

If this is not possible or it is unreasonably difficult, she would ask for the same change in schedule at some other time of year, such as during winter when the fasting hours are short, and fast then instead as makeups (qada’) for the missed Ramadan.

If that too is not possible, and there is nothing that can be done, she would be considered exempt from fasting with a chronic excuse, and would need to make the expiatory payments (fidya) for each missed day of fasting. However, you should confirm this final judgement with Muslim legal experts (fuqaha) before going ahead with it.

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah (2.292/358)]

Please also see: Paying Expiation and Not Fasting Due to a Chronic Illness and: Too Sick to Fast in Ramadan, Too Poor to Pay the Expiatory Payment (Fidya) and: Long-Term Illness that Prevents Fasting

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Photo: Helgi Halldórsson

Visit the Sick (30 Deeds, 30 Days), by Shaykh Walead Mosaad

Visit the Sick, by Shaykh Walead Mosaad

30 Days, 30 Deeds
Sacred Acts to Transform the Heart

Every night, our scholars in residence explore one simple deed that could have far reaching spiritual impact on our lives – and the lives of others. Every day we’ll make the intention to put that teaching into practice. Whether it’s forgiving someone who’s wronged us or putting service to others at the top of our list of priorities, these powerful lessons will remind us of the great gift the Prophet ﷺ‎  gave us: the best of character.

Daily at 8:10 pm EST. Attend in person at SeekersHub Toronto or watch live.

 

Let’s #GiveLight to Millions More

We envision a world in which no one is cut off from the beauty, mercy and light of the Prophetic ﷺ example. A world where the dark ideology of a few is dwarfed by radiant example of the many who follow the way of the Prophet ﷺ. But we can’t do it alone. We need your support. This Ramadan, we need you to help us #GiveLight to millions more. Here’s how.

What Dua To Recite When Sick, from Habib Muhammad bin Ali al-Junayd

Shaykh Yahya Rhodus mentioned what he described as a “prayer for healing” that was given to him by Habib Muhammad bin Ali al-Junayd. With his permission, we produce it here for all to benefit.

BISMILLAH AL-RAHMAN AL-RAHIM

Dua To Recite When Sick
Allahumma Salli wa sallim ‘ala Sayyidina Muhammadin al-Hadi ila tariq al-milla. Allahumma salli wa sallim ‘ala Sayyidina Muhammad wa bi jahihi isrif ‘anni kulla maradin wa alamin wa waja’in wa ‘illa (then, mention the particular sickness), wa ‘ala alihi wa sahbih.
Oh Allah bless and bestow peace upon Sayyiduna Muhammad, the Guide to the path of religion. Oh Allah bless and bestow peace upon Sayyiduna Muhammad, and through his rank, remove from me every illness, pain, ailment, and disease, and upon his Family and Companions.

Dua To Recite When Sick and Other Resources for Seekers:

How Should I Repair Missed Fast Due to Illness?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum,

The previous ramadan I have missed 26 fasts due to abdominal pain so I was advised to feed 26 poor people. Should I do this or is there an expiation to perform?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

I pray that you are well, insha’Allah.

No, if it established that you are unable to fast by clear signs, relevant past experience, or the advice of an upright, reliable Muslim doctor, you can miss the fasts and make them up at a later date. There is no expiation (fidya) due in such a case. [al-Haskafi, al-Durr al-Mukhtar]

However, if the doctor is unaware of the relevant rulings and limits of the law, you should take his word and then make a reliable judgement on your own. If you are able to fast, by taking any required medicines and eating sensibly around the fasting hours, for example, it would not be permitted to miss the fasts.

Please also see: When Does An Illness Allow One To Break The Fast?

And Allah alone knows best.

في الدر المختار: (أو مريض خاف الزيادة) لمرضه، وصحيح خاف المرض، وخادمة خافت الضعف بغلبة الظن بأمارة أو تجربة أو بإخبار طبيب حاذق مسلم مستور.

في رد المحتار: قوله: (مسلم) أما الكافر فلا يعتمد على قوله لاحتمال أن غرضه إفساد العبادة كمسلم شرع في الصلاة بالتيمم فوعده بإعطاء الماء فإنه لا يقطع الصلاة لما قلنا. بحر. قوله: (مستور) وقيل عدالته شرط، وجزم به الزيلعي، وظاهر ما في البحر والنهر ضعفه ط. قلت: وإذا أخذ بقول طبيب ليس فيه هذه الشروط وأفطر فالظاهر لزوم الكفارة

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani