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Is It Permissible for a Muslim Woman to Marry Without Parental Consent?

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: Is it permissible for a Muslim girl to marry without parental consent if she fears to commit fornication (Zina)?

Answer: In The Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate

May Allah bless you for your question and we ask Allah to ease your difficulty

It Being Valid Doesn’t Make It Right

If one fears committing fornication and is certain that there is no way to refrain from it except through marriage it is then obligatory for such a person to marry. (al-Durr al-Mukhtar) However, you should not take the matter into your own hands and get married without parental approval. Even though the marriage of a mature free Muslim woman without consent from her guardian is valid [al-Durr al-Mukhtar], it is not advisable.

In such a situation, you need to be very candid with your parents. Explain to them the difficulty which you find yourself in and your need to get married.

Lack of Familial Support

Even though you may see quickly getting married as a solution to your difficulty, marrying without parental consent may have life long repercussions that you may regret later. Marriage is not just a union between two individuals, rather it is a union of families. To have familial support throughout your marriage is central to having a happy household; this is especially true when children are involved.

The Prayer of Need

Whenever we find our selves in difficulty, we should train ourselves to turn to Allah, Most High for help. The prayer of need is a prayer that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) taught us. See the below link for the details.

https: How Does One Perform The Prayer Of Need (salat al-haja)?

Prevention

In the meantime, you should try to find and refrain from anything or situation which will increase any sexual desires. Refrain from places that exacerbate your feelings. Try to keep away from looking at anything that will increase your desires. If you find using the computer or the phone stirs up your desires then you should limit their usage and only use them in public spheres. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Whoever seeks chastity, Allah will grant it to them.” [al-Bukhari]

Speak to your parents and beseech Allah to help you. We pray that Allah blesses you with a righteous spouse and eases all your difficulties.

Ameen

Allah A’alam

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of the Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.

Masturbating With One’s Spouse

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Is masturbating during sex with husband permissible? What are the different schools of thought on this?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

Masturbating oneself even whilst in the presence of one’s spouse and whilst engaged in sexual intimacy would be impermissible. But it is certainly permissible for each spouse to mutually satisfy the other’s desire in such a manner with a limb or otherwise.

Allah Most High says, “Those who guard their chastity except with their spouses or their slaves––with these they are not to blame, but whoever seeks beyond that are the transgressors.” (Sura al-Mu’minun 23:5-7) The attainment of sexual pleasure requires the presence and contact of a lawful partner because intimacy regularly directed in such a way inevitably preserves honor and lineage, two of the aims of the Sacred Law (shari‘a).

Unfortunately, sexual dissatisfaction is a cause of many problems in marriages. Accordingly, I would highly encourage talking to your spouse to inform him of the difficulty you are facing, and subsequently see how you can reasonably resolve the issue in an amicable manner. Your sexual needs are just as important as his and he needs to work harder to ensure that they are being met.

I would also recommend benefitting from Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam’s beneficial work: Islamic Guide to Sexual Relations. Pray the Prayer of Need (salat al-hajah) regularly, and continue to ask Allah to make you both stronger and more concerned for each other’s well-being. (see: https://www.seekersguidance.org/answers/hanafi-fiqh/how-does-one-perform-the-prayer-of-need-salat-al-haja/)

(Ibn ‘Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar ‘ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar)

Please also see: Mutual Masturbation Between Spouses and: What Is the Legal Definition of Masturbation According to the Hanafi School? and: My Husband Does Not Satisfy Me During Marital Relations. What Can I Do?

And Allah Most High knows best.

Wassalam,

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorized the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan, and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based on his family.

What Is Considered Slander?

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: What is considered slander?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, The Most Merciful and Compassionate

Slander is to mention something false about someone and is strictly prohibited.

Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Do you know what backbiting is?” They said, “Allah and His Messenger know best.” He said, “To mention your brother in a way that he dislikes.” It was said, “What if what I said about my brother is true?” He said, “If he is as you’ve said, then you have backbitten him. If it is not true what you said, you have slandered him.” [Muslim]

Argumentation

Even though what you said is not slander, it is best to leave argumentation. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Whoever leaves dispute, while they are incorrect, a house will be built for them in the outskirts of Paradise. And whoever abandons it, while they are correct, a house will be built for them in the center of Paradise, and whoever’s character is made beautiful, one will be built for them in the highest part (of Paradise). [Tirmidhi]

May Allah bless us all with beautiful character

Allahu A’alam

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.

Is It Permissible to Sit at a Table or in a Restaurant Where Alcohol Is Served and Consumed?

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: Is it permissible to sit at a table or in a restaurant where alcohol is served and consumed? Also, how do we apply this ruling in the context of western countries?

Answer: It is sinful to accompany people of open sin and transgression unless one intends to prevent them or reproach them in that sin. [Hashiyah Ibn Abidin]

The Western Context

In the western context, though many things that the Muslims do not partake in are common, we find that there are many alternatives. It is not farfetched to meet friends and colleagues at a coffee shop or a restaurant that does not serve alcohol.

One must use wisdom in these matters. For example, being the first to suggest the meeting place or if necessary by excusing one’s self in a very tactful manner. If one is frank and straightforward, with a respectable and dignified approach, it is usually taken well and with respect. For example, “Sorry, but as a Muslim, I would prefer we go somewhere where alcohol is not served.”

May Allah bless you

Allahu A’alam

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Do Mistakes in Recitation Invalidate the Prayer?

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: Do mistakes in recitation invalidate the prayer?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful and Compassionate

Your mispronunciation or mistakes does not invalidate your prayer.

What Types of Mistakes Invalidate the Prayer

The scholars have discussed this issue in a great deal and have mentioned that any mistakes made in the pronunciation of the Arabic do not break the prayer unless the change of the meaning is drastic, such that the meaning is tantamount to disbelief. [Hashiyah Ibn Abidin]

Others have mentioned that no mistakes invalidate the prayer because many people are unlearned and would often make pronunciation mistakes.

There is expansiveness in the matter.

Allah, Most High has not placed any undue hardship in the religion. Sometimes we overburden ourselves with doubts that may lead to waswasa.

How To Deal With Waswasa

For the one who is constantly in doubt abandoning caution is sometimes the best cure.

“As for the one who is often inflicted with waswasa, it is necessary for them to sever the cause of the waswasa and not to give it any consideration. This is because it is the doing of Shaytan and we have been commanded to oppose him.” [Hashiyah Ibn Abidin]

Knowledge

The long-term cure for these constant doubts is to seek a deeper understanding of Islamic Knowledge. With knowledge, Shaytan can not deceive you with his whispers and plots. I would advise that you find authentic scholars in your area and study with them a basic text in Islamic Jurisprudence.

Please note that SeekersGuidance has classes available in Islamic Jurisprudence and many other subjects.

May Allah ease your affairs

Allahu A’alam

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.

The Qur’an As The Uncreated Speech Of Allah

Answer by Ustadh Mohammed Tayssir Safi

Question: Assalamu alaykum, I read recently that the Ahl Al-Sunnah believe that the Quran is the ‘uncreated’ speech of God. Can you please elaborate on what exactly this means as I find it difficult to understand because the Quran is a physical thing we hold in our hands and recite on our tongues. So how is it uncreated?

Answer: Wa ‘alaykum as-salaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakaatuh,

May Allah reward you for your courage to ask when you don’t know. To answer your question, yes, the creed of Ahl al-Sunna is that the Qur’an is the “uncreated speech,” of Allah. Similarly, you are right in asserting that the Qur’an is a physical thing that we hold in our hands and recite on our tongues. In fact, in the celebrated creed written by Imam al-Nasafi he says, “The Qur’an is the uncreated Speech of Allah, and it is written in our Masaahif, memorized in our hearts, recited on our tongues, heard with our ears, and He does not dwell within it.” So to rephrase your question for you, how can both of those things be true?

The answer is: The word, “Qur’an,” is used sometimes to refer to God’s Attribute of Speech which is uncreated and other times the word, “Qur’an,” is used to refer to the physical texts we read from, the words we recite on our tongues etc. Therefore, when we use the word, “Qur’an,” to refer to God’s Attribute of Speech, it is uncreated. When we are using the word, “Qur’an,” to refer to the physical text, or what we memorize and recite, those things are all created and they are not the attribute of speech. Therefore, to remove any confusion all one needs to understand is that the physical text as well as the memorized or recited words are not the actual attribute even if we use one word, “Qur’an,” to refer to both. [Sharh al-Aqa’id – Taftazani]

I pray that clarified matters for you.

I leave you in Allah’s care,

[Ustadh] Mohammed Tayssir Safi

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Mohammed Tayssir Safi was born in Dubai and moved to the United States six months after he was born. In 1994, the Safi family settled in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He graduated from the University of Michigan–Ann Arbor in 2006 as a double major in Political Science and Middle Eastern and North African Studies. He spent the next 3 years of his life traveling the Middle East, completing the Arabic program, CASA, in Egypt and pursuing private studies in Arabic linguistics and introductory Islamic sciences. His brief introduction to Islamic studies continued for another year at the Dar al-Mustafa Institute in Tarim, Yemen. He is currently enrolled in an MA program at the University of Michigan titled, Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language. He will be finishing the MA in April of 2013, God willing. Mohammed also teaches Arabic at the University of Michigan. Apart from classes at the University of Michigan, Mohammed studies at the hands of Muslim scholars privately in multiple sciences including linguistics, law, and theology.

Movements In Prayer

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: Salam Aleykum, Do movements in the prayer invalidate the prayer? Does lifting one’s hand or hands in the prostration invalidate the prayer?

Answer: Wa Aleykum Selam

Movements That Invalidate the Prayer

Movements in the prayer, if excessive, can invalidate the prayer. The definition of excessive is such a movement that if an onlooker saw you doing it, they would assume that you are not in prayer. [Maraqi al-Falah] The movement you described doesn’t seem to fit this definition.

Movements That Do Not Invalidate the Prayer

Movements that are not excessive may still be disliked if they is no benefit in doing so or no wisdom behind it. This disliked movement is call ‘Abath’ The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Verily Allah dislikes for you ‘Abath’ idle movements in the prayer….” [Maraqi al-Falah]

Lifting One’s Hands During the Prostration

The minimum requirement of the prostration, regarding the hands, is that at least one hand must be placed on the ground. “The prostration is realized by placing the forehead, not just the nose, along with one of the hands….” [Maraqi al-Falah] If the forehead, one of the hands, the feet, and the knees were to be on the ground together, for at least the amount of time it takes to say ‘SubhanAllah’ once, the prostration would be valid. Although to leave the proper method of prostrating is disliked.

Stillness in Prayer

One should strive to remain still during the prayer. If one could fix their clothing prior to the prayer so that it does not disturb them in the prayer, this is best. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) entered the Masjid and saw a man playing with his beard, while in prayer. The Messenger then said, “If his heart were still, his limbs would have been still.” [Tirmidhi]

May Allah bless you

Allahu A’alam

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.

Intention Of Fasting

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: If I begin a make-up fast, then change my intention to a voluntary fast, does that affect the type of fast?

Answer: Jazak Allah Khairan for your question.

Your change of intention, after having started a fast, will not harm or alter your fast, whatsoever. The original intention upon which the fast was started will remain.

“…the fasting person, who is making up an obligatory fast, if after having started the fast, he intends to start a different fast, it would not harm (the original fast).” [Maraqi al-Falah]

Allahu ‘Alam
Yusuf Weltch

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of the Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.

Dog´s Saliva

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalamu Alaykum, Is the wetness on the nose of a dog considered filthy in the Hanafi school?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

Yes, both the mucus which is present on a dog’s nose and its saliva is considered to be ritually filthy (najis). The reason for this is that the meat of predatory animals is impermissible to consume, and their saliva and nose mucus takes the same ruling, by extension, because of how such secretions are formed.

A dog is considered to be a predatory, carnivorous animal in its essential nature even if it has been domesticated and no longer actually hunts. This is because animals are generally dealt with on the basis of their biological taxonomy. Interestingly, a cat is a predatory animal, but it has an exceptional ruling according to the law.

Purifying the Affected Clothing

If you are affected by a dog’s mucus or saliva, you should wash the area thrice, or place it under a tap until the obvious traces of moisture disappear.

The Beloved Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “If a dog laps from the container of any one of you, let him wash it seven times, the first of them being with soil.” (Muslim) Accordingly, it’s good to use soil or the like mixed into the water for one of the washings, if reasonably able.

(Tahtawi, Hashiyat al-Tahtawi ‘ala Maraqi al-Falah)

Please also see: Dog’s Saliva [ Shafi’i ] and: Can I Get a Dog to Help My Son With Disabilities? [Video] and: Dog Saliva, Dog Hair, and How to Purify Impurities

And Allah Most High knows best.

Wassalam,

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorized the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan, and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based on his family.

Modes Of Reciting The Holy Qur’an

Answered by Ustadh Farid Dingle

Question: Salams, How it is possible that some traditional scholars have criticized some mass-narrated modes of reciting the Qur’an [qiraat mutawatira]?

Answer: Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Dear questioner,

Not everything that is mass-narrated [mutawatir] was necessarily known to all scholars at all stages of the Islamic tradition. A hadith or mode of recital [qiraa] can be mass-narrated from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give peace), and yet take time to reach every member of Ummah.

This was the case with certain modes of the recital. After they became well known, everyone accepted them. Before that, some scholars of the Arabic language or of other disciplines criticized certain pronunciations that seemed wrong to them.

This is the case with Imam Ahmad and the mode of the recital of Hamza al Zayyat.

What is the Basis for the Ten Modes of Recitation of the Qur’an?

The Cementing of Ideas

Before Ibn Mujahid

Although the Quran was recited in all corners of the Muslim World from the very beginning of the spread of Islam, the codifying of the modes of recital did not happen immediately. Indeed, it was not until the work of Quran specialist Ibn Mujahid (d. 324 AH), and the further work of his student Ibn Khalawayhi and then Ibn al Jazari (d. 833 AH) that the various modes of recital were completely codified, recorded, and distinguished from other modes of recital.

Before this time, and indeed as part of the very process of excluding incorrect modes of recital, criticisms were launched against certain modes of recital. Modes of recital that were later identified as non-mass narrated, and therefore incorrect, were frequently quoted alongside those which were mass-narrated, without any mention of which ones were “valid” or not. This is very clear in books of tafsir from, say, before 700 AH.

For example, the great early grammarian Akhfash (d. 215 AH) cites the non-mass-narrated, invalid recital ‘malika yawmi al din’ alongside the mass-narrated, valid mode ‘maliki yawmi al din’ with which we are all familiar in Sura al Fatiha. [Maani al Qur’an, Akhfash] He does not distinguish the mass-narrated, valid mode from the non-mass-narrated, invalid mode. This just goes to show that before Ibn Mujahid, this clarity was just not there.

At the same time, in the same sura he only mentions two ways of pronouncing the word ‘sirat’: with Seen or with a Sad. [Maani al Qur’an, Akhfash] The fact that he doesn’t mention the third mass-narrated pronunciation, namely reciting with a heavy Zed [al Sad al mushamma Zayan], tells that he was simply not aware of it.

All of this reiterates the fact that not all scholars were aware of all of the various ways of reciting the Quran, even if they were genuine scholars, and even it such modes of recital were indeed mass-narrated.

After Ibn Mujahid

Sometimes even after the work of Ibn Mujahid, criticisms still made due to the lack a universal recognition of authority and finality of his work.

By way of example, the great Qur’an exegete Zamakhshari (d. 538 AH) criticized a mass-narrated mode of recital ascribed to Abu Jafar [Yazid bin Qa’qaa’], of the imams of Qur’anic recitation.

According to this mode, the words in verse 34 of Baqarah ‘And when We told the angels: Prostrate …’ is pronounced ‘lil malaikatus judu’ (with a damma on the ta marbuta).

Concerning this, Zamakhshari says, ‘Abu Jafar [Yazid bin Qa’qaa’] recited it lil malaikatus judu with a damma on the ta in keeping [with the damma in usjudu], but you cannot just displace the signs of inflection for the sake of keeping the same sound except in a very weak dialect of Arabic. It is like those who say Al hamdi lillahi.’ [al Kashaf, Zamakhshari]

Zamakhshari says that this is weak Arabic and not valid, even though the mode of recital ascribed to Abu Jafar mass-narrated.

Why did he do this? Because the authority of the work of Ibn Mujahid was still not yet fully accepted by all Muslim scholars, even two hundred years or so later. This kind of thinking would be expected by a fortiori from those well before Ibn Mujahid, such as Imam Ahmad.

Hamza al Zayyat’s mode of recital

So what was wrong with his Hamza al Zayyat’s mode of the recital?

If you have a careful listen to his mode of recital (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sngQiOXMaWs), you might notice some oddities. Certain vowels are recited in a very acute fashion, there are some pauses, and merging of certain similar, but not identical letters. All of these would seem odd to the average listener.

In reality, the student of Arabic and of the Quran knows very well that there many different ways of pronouncing Arabic words, or of certain words in series. Many of these phonological possibilities are spread out among the various canonical modes of reciting the Qur’an. Hence, there is nothing actually “odd” about any of these sounds that we hear.

Regarding scholarly criticism of Hamza al Zayyat’s mode of the recital, Ibn Mujahid mentions the reason why some scholars did not like his mode of the recital.

One of Hamza’s students once attended a lesson of Abdullah ibn Idris (a reciter of the Qur’an and hadith narrator, d. 192 AH) and recited some verses with extremely long vowels and various other somewhat artificial characteristics. At this, Abdullah ibn Idris expressed his dislike of the recital and criticized it. [Kitab al Saba fi al Qiraat, Ibn Mujahid]

Imam al Dhahabi narrates in his short biography of Abdullah Ibn Idris that he actually directly rebuked Hamza al Zayyat. He said to him, ‘Fear Allah! You are a man who is trying to play God! This recitation is neither the recitation of Abdullah [Ibn Masud] nor of anyone else!’ He added later, ‘I do not hold it permissible for anyone to say that Hamza is on the Sunna.’ [Siyar Alam al Nubala, Dhahabi]

So it is clear that Ibn Idris, and probably Imam Ahmad following suit, felt that his model of the recital was not based on learning [talaqqi] but rather based on his own made-up style, a style that seemed very artificial.

However, Ibn Mujahid mentions that the scholars said that such artificial elongation was actually also disliked by Hamza al Zayyat himself, and not recited thus by his skilled students. [Kitab al Saba fi al Qiraat, Ibn Mujahid]

Commenting on this event, Dhahabi says, ‘Thus did Ibn Idris’ denunciation [of Hamza] spread. May Allah forgive him [Ibn Idris]: Muslims have wholeheartedly accepted every letter [of his mode of recital], and today there is consensus on it.’ [Siyar Alam al Nubala, Dhahabi]

Here Dhahabi clarifies that these objections, although sincere, were actually out of place and that as a mass-narrated mode of the recital, we all accept it as Qur’an.

Imam Ahmad’s View of Hamza al Zayyat

Imam Ahmad disliked the modes of recital [qiraah] of Hamza al Zayyat and that of his student Kisai, and he also disliked the idgham kabir [merging of two similar letters even if the first is not silent] of the Quran reciter Abu Amr. [Sharh Muntaha al Iradat, Bahuti]

That said, it is actually valid in Hanbali school to recite even a non-mass narrated mode of recital [qiraa shadha] as long as the chain for it is sound and it conforms to the Uthmanic mushaf. [Sharh Muntaha al Iradat, Bahuti] This is most definitely found in these aforementioned modes of the recital.

This tells us that one can actually recite these modes of the recital in the Hanbali school, as we shall explain later.

The View of Others

One of the many illustrious students of Hamza al Zayyat was the famous Sufyan al Thawri. He was once sitting in his circle of students, and Hamza came and then left. He said of him, ‘Do you see this man? He never recited a single letter of the Qur’an save that it was based on precedent [athar].’ [Kitab al Saba fi al Qiraat, Ibn Mujahid]

Clearly, his student (Thawri) knew that there was nothing “creative” about his mode of recital but it was all taken from his teachers, and from them back to the Followers and Prophetic Companions.

Ibn Mujahid also quotes the position of Ibn Dawud [hadith narrator, d. 213] regarding Hamza al Zayyat. He said, ‘Have you heard what the scholars of Basra say? Who is there that has more knowledge than Hamza of how it [the Qur’an] is recited and the subtleties thereof?’ [Kitab al Saba fi al Qiraat, Ibn Mujahid]

It is evident that Ibn Dawud, and in fact the scholars of Basra, held Hamza and his mode of the recital in high esteem.

And it is sufficient enough that Kisai, the actual founder of the Kufan school of Arabic grammar, was his student and narrator of his mode of the recital. If there was anything odd or linguistically invalid about it, Kisai would definitely be the first one to point it out.

You can hear a sample of Kisai’s recension from Hamza here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7aAit-6i20

Conclusion

Imam Ahmad, exercising his brilliant and valid Islamic scholarship in a period before the Ten Modes of Recital were properly known and codified, like many other scholars, criticized Hamza al Zayyat because of what was ascribed to him of his apparent unorthodox way of reciting the Quran.

After it became clear to the whole Umma that his recital was perfectly fine, and that it was mass-narrated and based on the recitals of the Early Muslims, the objection leveled no longer bore any weight.

I pray this helps.

[Ustadh] Farid Dingle

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies, he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to craft lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language.