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Is my Friday Prayer Valid If I Am Late for It? [Shafi’i School]

Answered by Ustadh Shuaib Ally

Question: What is the Shafi’i view on arriving late for the Friday prayer? Is the prayer valid?
Can two Friday prayers take place in one mosque or do the followers of the second Friday prayer have to repeat it?

Answer: Assalam’aleykum

Arriving Late for Friday prayers

Arriving early for the Friday prayer and being present at the beginning of the khutbah are both highly recommended.

It is likewise obligatory for a person to leave on time such that they can attend the Friday prayer, and is impermissible to engage in anything unrelated to the Friday prayer after the second adhan (i.e. just before the khutbah is to begin).

Catching the Friday prayers

A person is considered to have caught the Friday prayer if he has performed at least one rak’ah of the prayer with the imam. This is accomplished by performing at the ruku’ of the second rak’ah with the Imam to the end of his prayer. The latecomer would then make up one rak’ah of prayer to complete the required two.This is considered a valid Friday prayer.

If he does not catch one rak’ah with the imam, he wil pray with the imam what remains of the Friday prayer, and complete it as Dhuhr, that is, four rak’ahs.

Multiple Friday prayers in one Mosque

Two Friday prayers can take place in one mosque due to the inability of all to congregate in one place at the same time due to overcrowding. Both are valid, and the followers of the second Friday prayer do not have to repeat the prayer as Dhuhr, so long as the general conditions for the Friday prayer are present in both congregations.

Source: al-Hawashi al-Madaniyyah

Shuaib Ally

The Language of the Friday Sermon (Khutba) in the Maliki School

Answered by Shaykh Rami Nsour

Question: As salamu ‘alaykum. It is valid in the Maliki school for the person giving the Friday khutba to translate passages from the Arabic khutba in the local language for the assembly, or is it forbidden to have any word in other language than Arabic in the khutba?

Answer:

Arabic in the Khutba

According to the Maliki school, the Khutba must be in Arabic for it to be valid. If one were to speak English for a short portion of the Khutba, it would not invalidate the Khutba. This is with the condition that the speech in a non-Arabic language was not very long.

When one speaks a non-Arabic language in the prayer, it is as if they are silent. This is based on the principle of “that which is not recognized by the Shariah is treated as if it does not exist” (al ma’dumu shar’an kal ma’dumi hissan) A pause in the Khutba is permissible if it is not long. So when someone speaks a non-Arabic language, it does not count and therefore is given the ruling of silence. This same rule applies to the Khutba of Eid.

Alternatives

If a person is in a non-Arabic speaking country, they can have a short lesson in language other than Arabic and then give an all-Arabic Khutba. The scholars mention that even if a people do not understand Arabic, the Khutba portion should still be in Arabic. They say that there is a secret in that Arabic language in that it can reach the hearts of those who cannot understand it.

The Wisdom of Arabic

Shaykh Muhammad Illish, in his footnotes on the marginal notes of Dusuqi on the Sharh al Kabir on Khalil mentions this. He says about the Khutba being in Arabic, “Even if the congregation are non-Arabic speakers, because the words of truth will reach and affect the heart, even if their meaning is not understood. This is the same as the recitation of the Quran.”

He then goes on to say, “The person giving the Khutba must understand the words, and so it is not sufficient for a non-Arabic speaker to merely say the words if he does not understand them.”

Advice

The platform of the Friday prayer is a crucial part of maintaining Islam among the community members. For a those living in a non-Arabic speaking land, all care should be taken in not cancelling or avoiding the Friday prayer. If the Maliki ruling cannot be maintained following the above guidelines (including having Arabic and interspersed English) then a community should seriously consider following the valid opinion of another school that allows a non-Arabic khutba. I have discussed a similar situation in the following answer:

Is Friday Prayer Valid in a Rented Space in the Maliki School?

And Allah knows best.

Friday Prayer When Traveling in the Maliki School

Answered by Shaykh Rami Nsour

Question: Assalaam alaykum,

I will be traveling on a Friday for a work conference. I will be leaving for the conference right after Fajr salah and will be coming back home from the conference the same day, around the time that Dhuhr comes in.

I wanted to know if I should go attend Jumah in the city I will be in at the time or if I should pray Dhuhr and then be on my way home.

Thank you.

Answer: If I understand it correctly, you will be outside your city of residence at time of Dhuhr on Friday. If that is the case, then you have the choice to pray Jumu’ah in the city of the conference or you could pray dhuhr there. You could also pray dhuhr when you return home.

If you return to your city limits in time for Jumua’h, then you are obligated to pray Jumu’ah. If you miss the Jumu’ah prayer, then you would pray Dhuhr.

General Rules About Traveling on Friday

If a person lives in a city where there is a valid Jumu’ah prayer, then it would be prohibited to travel after dhuhr time comes in, if the destination does not have a Jumu’ah prayer. If a person leaves their city after dawn but before dhuhr time, to an area with no Friday prayer, then this would be disliked. If the person traveled after fajr, but before dhuhr, it would not be obligatory to find a Friday prayer in the destination.

[Al-Sharh al Kabir, Mukhtasar Khalil]

What is Required for a Valid Friday Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: As-salamu alaykum

I have a question about organizing Jumu’ah prayers in the Hanafi school at a location such as a school hall.

At my school, students are unable to leave Friday to go to the Mosque, so for the last 2-3 years I have organized prayers in a school classroom with around 20 students joining. Because the school is closed off to the general public, is it still permissible to perform Jumu’ah in this way?

In addition to that, please can you give me the details of what makes a valid Jumu’ah, and any resources I could use for the Arabic Khutbah.

Jazak Allah Khayr.

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

I pray this message finds you well, insha’Allah.

[1] Yes, it would be permitted to pray the Friday Prayer in a school, as described, considering that it is permitted to pray it in multiple locations.

[2] The only integral of the Friday sermon is remembrance of Allah. Please also see: Merely Reciting al-Fatiha in the Friday Sermon (Khutba)

And Allah alone gives success.

Wassalam,

Tabraze

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Is Friday Prayer Valid in a Rented Space in the Maliki School?

Answered by Shaykh Rami Nsour

Question: According to the School of Imam Malik, is one’s Jumu’ah valid if prayed in a rented space as opposed to a Masjid?

Answer:

Conditions of a Mosque for Friday prayers

According to the Maliki school, one of the conditions for the Friday Prayer (jumu’ah) to be valid is that the building be owned and designated as a Mosque. The building also has to be equivalent to the dominant living structures of an area (Khalil, Mukhtasar).

Examples of Prayer places not sufficient for Friday Prayers

Thus, a rented space would not fulfill the condition of being a valid place to hold Friday Prayers according to the Maliki school. Similarly, a building not designated as a Mosque as an endowment until the Day of Judgment is not sufficient to hold Jumu’ah in. Lastly, a building such as a portable structure in an area where people have brick houses would not be sufficient to pray Jumu’ah in.

Community Cohesion

The Friday prayer is a integral part of maintaining community cohesion. Therefore, every community needs to facilitate the prayer and community members must attend. If one is in a community where the mosque does not fulfill the conditions according to the Maliki school, those following the Maliki opinion must strive not to make the issue an issue that causes division within the community.

I personally advise Muslims in prison not to leave the Friday Prayer if they are Malikis and to perform the prayer according to the Hanafi school of thought. This is because the Friday Prayer for Muslims in prison is especially essential to identity, inviting others to Islam and community cohesion.

Advice

A person following the Maliki opinion may choose to attend Friday Prayers that do not fulfill the conditions according to their school, and then they can make up four units of Dhuhr prayer privately without making it obvious. A Maliki may also choose to follow the valid opinion of another school, such as the Hanafis or Shafi’is that would allow for a Friday Prayer to be valid in a rented space.

And Allah knows best.

Why is Jumu`ah Prayer Held on Friday?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: as salamu `alaykum wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh

Do we know why Salah Jumu`a is on fridays? I mean, the jews believe that God created the universe in 6 days and rested on the seventh, so they also have to rest that day.

My religion-teacher (who don’t believe in any religion) told our class that the friday prayer is established on fridays because that was the day where people were gathered in the market anyway. Is this true?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that you are well, insha’Allah.

The Friday prayer (salat al-jumu`ah) is held on Fridays due to the explicit Qur’anic command to do so, ‘O ye who believe! When the call is heard for the prayer of the day of congregation, haste unto remembrance of Allah and leave your trading. That is better for you if ye did but know’ [62:9]

The ‘day of congregation’, here, refers to Friday.

The Prohibition of Trading at the time of the Friday Prayer

Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas mentions, in his commentary of the Mukhtasar al-Tahawi, trade, specifically, is not intended here, rather, anything else which busies one from attending the Friday prayer would also take the same ruling.

Moreover, trading was specifically mentioned here because of the fact that Friday noon was a busy time for traders; so it is as if they are being told, hasten to the trade of the hereafter (akhirah), leave the trading of this world (dunya) and hurry unto the remembrance of God. [Nasafi, Madarik al-Tanzil wa Haqa’iq al-Ta’wil]

The Virtue of Fridays

It is related from the Messenger of God (Allah bless him and give him peace), that he said: “Verily the most virtuous, of your days, is Friday. Send abundant blessings upon me on Fridays because they are presented to me on that day.” [Abu Dawud]

In summary, Fridays are singled out, more emphatically, as days for sending blessings upon the Messenger of God (Allah bless him and give him peace) specifically because the blessings (salawat) are presented to him, accepted. [Abadi, `Awn al-Ma`bud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud]

And Allah knows best.

Wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

The Rulings Related to Friday Prayer

Edited from: Heavenly Ornaments, by Imam Ashraf Ali al-Tahanawi

Question: What is the fiqh of Friday Prayer?

Answer:

Allah Most High does not like anything more than prayer.

It is for this reason that we do not find such great emphasis for any other form of worship in the pure Shariah. It is for this reason that Allah Most High has specified this worship five times daily as a form of gratitude for His endless bounties. These bounties which commence from birth right until death – in fact they continue after death and commence even before birth.

Since Friday has been accorded the most amount of merits as opposed to other days, so much so that the father of all mankind Hadrat Adam (peace be upon him) was created on this day, a special prayer was therefore ordered for this day. We have already mentioned the benefits and wisdom of congregation.

It has also been made clear that the bigger the congregation the more those benefits will become apparent. This will only be possible if the people of all the different areas and the residents of that place get together and offer their prayer collectively. This would have been extremely difficult if it were to be done five times daily. Because of all this, the Shariah has specified such a day in the week in which the people of all the different residential areas and villages can get together and fulfill this worship.

Since Friday is the most virtuous and noble of days, this worship has been specified for this day. Allah Most High had also specified this day as a day of worship for the previous nations. But because of their bad-luck, they disputed and differed with regards to it. The result of this dispute was that they were deprived of this great bounty and this ummah has been favoured with this bounty. The Jews set aside Saturday on the basis that Allah Most High had completed creating the entire creation on this day. The Christians set aside Sunday thinking that this is the day when Allah Most High commenced with the creation. Because of this, both these groups make numerous arrangements on both these days – leaving all work on these days and spending it in worship. It is because of this that all the offices are closed on Sundays in Christian countries.

The Virtues of Friday

  1. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “Friday is the best of days. It was on this day that Hadrat Adam (peace be upon him) was created, it was on this day that he was granted entry into Paradise, it was on this day that he was removed from Paradise (which became the cause for man’s existence in this universe, and which is a great blessing), and the day of resurrection will also take place on this day.” (Sahih Muslim)
  2. It is related from Imam Ahmad (Allah have mercy on him) that he said that in certain aspects the rank of the night of Friday is even higher than Laylatul Qadr. One of the reasons for this is that it was on this night that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) appeared in the womb of his mother. The Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) appearance in this world was a cause of so much good and blessings both in this world and in the hereafter that they cannot be enumerated. (Ash’atul Lama’aat)
  3. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “There is such an hour on Friday that if any Muslim makes dua in it, his dua will definitely be accepted.” (Bukhari, Muslim)
    The ulama have differed in specifying that hour which has been mentioned in the Hadith. Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlawi (Allah have mercy on him) has mentioned 40 different opinions in his book Sharh Sifrus Sa’adah. However, from among all these opinions he has given preference to two opinions:

    1. That time is from the commencement of the khutbah till the end of the prayer,
    2. That time is towards the end of the day.
    3. A big group of ulama have given preference to this second opinion and there are many Hadiths which support this opinion. Shaykh Dehlawi (Allah have mercy on him) says that this narration is correct that Hadrat Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her) used to order her maid on Fridays to inform her when the day is about to end so that she could occupy herself in making zikr and duas. (Ash’atul Lama’aat)
  4. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “Of all the days, Friday is the most virtuous. It is on this day that the trumpet will be blown. Send abundant blessings upon me on Fridays because they are presented to me on that day.” The Companions (Allah be pleased with them) asked: “O the Messenger of Allah! How will they be presented to you when even your bones will not be present after your death?” The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) replied: “Allah Most High has made the earth forbidden upon the prophets forever.” (Abu Dawud)
  5. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “The word witnesses refers to Friday. There is no day more virtuous than Friday. There is such an hour in this day that no Muslim will make dua in it except that his dua will be accepted. And he does not seek protection from anything except that Allah Most High will grant him protection.” (Tirmidhi) The word “shahid” appears in Surah Burooj. Allah Most High has taken an oath of that day. He says in the Quran:
    “By the sky in which there are constellations. By the promised day (of judgement). By the day that witnesses [Friday], and the day that is witnessed [day of Arafah].”
  6. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “Friday is the best of all days and the most virtuous in the sight of Allah Most High. In the sight of Allah Most High it has more greatness than Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Ad’haa.” (Ibn Majah)
  7. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “The Muslim who passes away on the night or during the day of Friday, Allah Most High saves him from the punishment of the grave.” (Tirmidhi)
  8. Once Hadrat Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) recited the following verse:”This day, I have completed your Deen for you.” A Jew was sitting near him. On hearing this verse being recited he remarked: “If this verse was revealed to us, we would have celebrated that day as a day of eid.” Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) replied: “This verse was revealed on two eids, i.e. on the day of Friday and the day of arafah.” In other words, what is the need for us to make that day into a day of eid when it was already a day of two eids?
  9. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to say that the night of Friday is a lustrous night, and the day of Friday is a lustrous day. (Mishkaat)
  10. After Resurrection, Allah Most High will send those who deserve paradise into paradise, and those who deserve hell into hell. The days that we have in this world will also be there. Although there will be no day and night, Allah Most High will show us the extent of days and nights and also the number of hours. So when Friday will come and that hour when the people used to go for Friday will approach, a person will call out saying: “O dwellers of Paradise! Go into the jungles of abundance, the length and breadth of which are not known to anyone besides Allah Most High. There will be mounds of musk which will be as high as the skies. The prophets (peace be upon them) will be made to sit on towers of light, and the believers on chairs of sapphires.Once everyone is seated in their respective places, Allah Most High will send a breeze which will carry that musk. That breeze will carry the musk and apply it to their clothing, faces and hair. That breeze will know how to apply that musk even better than that woman who is given all the different perfumes of the world. Allah Most High will then order the carriers of His throne to go and place His throne among all these people. He will then address them saying: “O my servants who have brought faith in the unseen despite not seeing Me, who have attested My Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace), and who have obeyed My laws! Ask Me whatever you wish for. This day is the day of giving abundantly.” they will all exclaim in one voice: “O Allah! We are pleased with You, You also be pleased with us.” Allah Most High will reply: “O dwellers of Paradise! If I were not pleased with you all, I would not have kept you in My Paradise. Ask for something because this is the day of giving in abundance.” they will all say in one voice: “O Allah! Show us Your beauty, that we may be able to look at Your noble being with our very eyes.” Allah Most High will lift the veil and will become apparent to these people and His beauty will engulf them from all sides. If this order was not given from before hand that the people of paradise will never get burnt, without doubt they would not have endured the heat of this light and they would all have got burnt.He will then ask them to go back to their respective places. Their beauty and attractiveness will double through the effects of that Real beauty. These people will then go to their wives. They will not be able to see their wives nor will their wives be able to see them. After a little while, the nur which was concealing them will be removed and they will now be able to see each other. Their wives will tell them that how is it that you do not have the same appearance which you had left with? That is, your appearance is a thousand times better now. They will reply that the reason for this is that the noble being of Allah Most High was made apparent to us and we saw His beauty with our very eyes. (Sharh Sifrus – Sa’aadah) See what a great bounty they received on the day of Friday.
  11. Every afternoon, the heat of hell is increased. However, through the blessings of Friday, this will not be done on Fridays. (Ihya’ `Ulum al-Din)
  12. On one Friday, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “O Muslims! Allah Most High has made this day a day of eid. So have a bath on this day, whoever has perfume should apply it, and use the miswaak.” (Ibn Majah)

The Adab of Friday

  1. Every Muslim should make preparations for Friday from Thursday. After the asr prayer of Thursday, he should make a lot of istighfaar. He should clean his clothes and keep them ready. If he does not have any perfume in his house, then if it is possible he should try and obtain some and keep it ready so that he will not get distracted with these things on Friday. The pious people of the past have stated that the person to receive the most benefit on Friday will be that person who waits for it and who makes preparations for it from Thursday. The most unfortunate person will be he who does not even know as to when Friday will fall, so much so that he will ask the people in the morning as to which day this is. Some pious people used to go and stay in the congregational mosque from the night of Friday in order to make full preparations for the following day. (Ihya’ `Ulum al-Din, vol. 1, page 161)
  2. On the day of Friday, ghusl should be made and the hair of the head and the rest of the body should be thoroughly washed. It is also very virtuous to use the miswaak on this day.
  3. After making ghusl, a person should wear the best clothing that he possesses, and if possible he should also apply some perfume. He should also clip his nails.
  4. He should try and go very early to the congregational mosque. The earlier a person goes, the more reward he will receive. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “On the day of Friday, the angels stand at the entrance of that mosque in which Friday prayer is to be offered. They write down the name of the person who enters the mosque first, and thereafter the name of the person who follows, and they continue doing this. The person who entered first will receive the reward of sacrificing a camel in the path of Allah, the one who followed him will get the reward of sacrificing a cow, thereafter a chicken, thereafter the reward of giving an egg as charity in the path of Allah. Once the khutbah commences, the angels close the register and begin listening to the khutbah.” (Bukhari and Muslim)In olden times, the roads and alleys used to be extremely busy in the mornings and at fajr time. All the people used to go so early to the congregational mosque and there used to be such a large crowd that it used to look like the days of eid. Later, when this habit was given up, people began saying that this is the first innovation in Islam. After writing this, Imam Ghazali (Allah have mercy on him) says: “Aren’t the Muslims ashamed of themselves that the Jews and Christians go so early in the morning to their synagogues and churches on Saturdays and Sundays. Those who are businessmen go so early to the bazaars in order to do their buying and selling. Why don’t the Muslims do the same?” the reality of the situation is that the Muslims have totally reduced the value of this blessed day. They do not even know what day this is, and what a high status it has. How sad it is that the day which was more valuable than eid in the eyes of Muslims of the past, which the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) was proud of and the day which was not granted to the previous nations has become so dishonoured at the hands of Muslims today and it is such a great ingratitude to the favour of Allah Most High that the consequence of all this can be seen with our very eyes.”
  5. By going walking for the Friday prayer, one gets the reward of fasting for one year for every step that he takes. (Tirmidhi)
  6. On Fridays, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to recite Surah Alif Laam Meem Prostration and Surah Hal Ataa, in the fajr prayer. These Surahs should therefore be occasionally recited in the fajr prayer on Fridays. Occasionally, they should be left out so that people do not regard their recitation as necessary.
  7. For the Friday prayer, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to recite the following Surahs: al-Friday and al-Munaafiqun, or al-A’la and al-Ghaashiyah.
  8. There is a lot of reward in reciting Surah Kahf either before the Friday prayer or after it. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “the person who recites Surah Kahf on Fridays, a nur will appear for him from below the arsh as high as the skies. This light will help him in the darkness of the day of resurrection. And all the sins which he may have committed from the last Friday till this Friday will be forgiven.” (Sharh Sifrus-Sa’aadah) the ulama have written that this Hadith refers to minor sins because major sins are not forgiven without making taubah.
  9. There is more reward in reciting blessings on Fridays than on other days. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that blessings should be recited abundantly on Fridays.

The Virtues and Importance of Friday Prayer

Friday prayer is personally obligatory. It has been established from the Quran, Hadith and the consensus of the ummah. It is one of the most salient features of Islam. The person who rejects Friday prayer is a kaafir. The one who misses it without any valid excuse is a faasiq.

  1. Allah Most High says in the Quran:
    “O you who believe! When the call for Friday prayer is made, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah Most High and leave all transactions. This is best for you if only you know.”
    In this verse, “remembrance” refers to the Friday prayer and khutbah. “Hasten” means that one should go with great concern and care.
  2. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “the person who has a bath on Friday, purifies himself as far as possible, applies oil to his hair, applies perfume, leaves for the mosque, when he arrives at the mosque he does not sit down by removing anyone from his place, offers as many nafl prayers as possible, when the imam delivers the khutbah he remains silent – then his sins from the previous Friday till now will be forgiven.” (Bukhari)
  3. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “the person who has a bath on Friday and goes early to the mosque on foot, and not by a vehicle, listens to the khutbah and does not do any foolish act while it is being delivered, will get the reward of one year’s worship, one year’s fasting, and one year’s prayer; for every step that he takes.” (Tirmidhi)
  4. Hadrat Ibn Umar and Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with them) a narrate that they heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) saying: “People should abstain from leaving out Friday prayer. If not, Allah Most High will put a seal over their hearts whereby they will fall into severe negligence.” (Muslim)
  5. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “the person who misses out three Friday’s without any valid reason, Allah Most High puts a seal over his heart.” (Tirmidhi) In another narration it is mentioned that Allah Most High becomes displeased with him.
  6. Taariq bin Shihaab (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “the Friday prayer with congregation is a duty which is necessary for every Muslim with the exception of the following four persons: (i) a slave, that is the one who is owned by someone according to the rules laid down by the Shariah, (ii) a woman, (iii) an immature boy, (iv) a sick person.” (Abu Dawud)
  7. Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said the following in regard to those who leave out Friday: “It is my earnest desire that I appoint someone as imam in my place while I go and burn the homes of those who do not attend the Friday prayer.” (Muslim) A similar Hadith has also been related with regard to leaving out congregation. We have mentioned this Hadith previously.
  8. Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “the person who leaves out Friday prayer without a valid reason is written down as a hypocrite in a book that is absolutely protected from any changes and modifications.” (Mishkaat) In other words, he will be labeled as a hypocrite forever. However, if he repents or Allah forgives him solely out of His mercy, then this is another matter.
  9. Hadrat Jaabir (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: “Friday prayer becomes obligatory on the person who believes in Allah Most High and the last day, except for the sick, musafir, woman, child, and a slave. If a person occupies himself in something unnecessary, or in some transaction, Allah Most High also turns away from him and does not worry about him and Allah is worthy of all praise.” (Mishkaat) In other words, He is not affected by anyone’s worship nor does He benefit in any way. His essence and being will remain the same irrespective of whether anyone praises Him and worships Him or not.
  10. Hadrat Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) says that the person who leaves out several Friday prayers consecutively has in fact turned away from Islam. (Ash’atul Lama’aat)
  11. A person asked Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) regarding a person who passed away and who should not join the Friday and congregation prayers: “What do you have to say regarding such a person?” He replied: “That person is in hell.” This person continued asking him this question for a full month and he gave him the same reply. (Ihya’ `Ulum al-Din)

Even by merely glancing at these Hadiths, one can come to the conclusion that the Shariah has laid great stress on Friday prayer and that severe warnings have been given to the one who leaves out Friday. Can a person who claims to be a Muslim still have the audacity of leaving out this fard duty?

The Method of Offering Friday Prayer

After the first adhan of Friday and before the second adhan, four rakats of sunnah prayer should be offered. This sunnah is confirmed sunnah (sunna mu’akkada). After the khutbah, two rakats fard Friday prayer should be offered with the imam. Thereafter, four rakats sunnah should be offered. These are also a confirmed sunnah (sunna mu’akkada). Thereafter, another two rakats should be offered. According to some ulama these two rakats are also confirmed sunnah (sunna mu’akkada).

Prerequisites which make Friday Prayer Necessary

  1. To be a muqeem. Friday prayer is not necessary for a musafir.
  2. To be sound and healthy. Friday is not necessary for a person who is sick. That sickness which prevents a person from going to the congregational mosque on foot will be considered. If a person is very weak due to old-age, is unable to go to the mosque or is blind, then all these people will fall under the category of the sick and Friday prayer will not be necessary for them.
  3. To be a free person. Friday prayer is not necessary for a slave.
  4. To be a male. Friday prayer is not necessary for a female.
  5. To be free from those excuses which allow one from leaving out the congregation. These have been mentioned previously. If any of these excuses are found, Friday prayer will not be necessary. Examples: (i) It is raining very heavily. (ii) One is taking care of a sick person. (iii) By going to the mosque there is a fear of a certain enemy. (iv) the prerequisites which we mentioned in order for prayer to be necessary are also considered here. That is, to be sane, mature, and to be a Muslim.

All these prerequisites which have been mentioned make Friday prayer necessary. If any of these prerequisites are not found in a person and he still offers Friday prayer, then his prayer will be valid. That is, the duty of offering Zuhr prayer will fall off. For example, a certain musafir or woman offers Friday prayer.

Prerequisites for the Friday Prayer to be Valid

  1. The place has to be a city or town. Friday prayer is not valid in a village or jungle. However, Friday will be valid in a village if its population is equal to that of a town. For example, if there is a population of three to four thousand, Friday prayer will be valid.
  2. It has to be at the time of Zuhr. Friday prayer is not valid before Zuhr time or after the expiry of Zuhr. So much so, that if the Zuhr time expires while Friday prayer is being offered, then that prayer will become invalid even if the last sitting equal to the tashahhud has been completed. It is for this reason that qada is not made for Friday prayer.
  3. The khutbah has to be delivered. That is, to face the people and remind them of Allah Most High even if it means merely saying Sub’haanallah or Alhamdo lillah. However, it is makruh to suffice with this alone because it is contrary to the sunnah.
  4. The khutbah has to be before the prayer. If the khutbah is delivered after the prayer, the prayer will not be valid.
  5. The khutbah has to be delivered within the time of Zuhr. If the khutbah is delivered before the time of Zuhr, the prayer will not be valid.
  6. Congregation. That is, there has to be at least three persons apart from the imam who are present from the beginning of the khutbah till the prostration of the first rakaat. This is irrespective of whether those who were present for the khutbah are different from those who are present for the prayer. But this is on the condition that these three persons are such that they are eligible for imamate. Therefore, if there are only women or immature children, the prayer will not be valid.
  7. If the people go away before the prostration and less than three persons remain or no one remains, the prayer will become invalid. However, if they go after the prostration, the prayer will not be invalid.
  8. To offer Friday prayer openly and with full permission. It will not be permissible to offer Friday prayer in any private and secluded place. If Friday prayer is offered at such a place where the general public is not allowed to come or the doors of the mosque are closed at the time of Friday, the prayer will not be valid.If a person offers Friday prayer despite any of the above-mentioned prerequisites not being met, his prayer will not be valid. He will have to offer Zuhr prayer. Since this prayer of his will become a nafl prayer, and since nafl prayer is not offered with such preparations, in such a case it will be prohibitively disliked (makruh tahriman) to offer Friday prayer.

Rules for the Friday Khutbah

  1. Once all the people have gathered together, the imam should sit on the minbar and the mu’azzin should call out the adhaan in front of him. Immediately after the adhan, the imam should stand up and deliver the khutbah.
  2. Twelve things are sunnah in the khutbah:
    1. the person delivering the khutbah should be standing,
    2. Two khutbahs should be delivered,
    3. He must sit in between both the khutbahs to such an extent that Sub’haanallah could be recited three times,
    4. He must be pure from major ritual impurity (hadath akbar) and minor ritual impurity (hadath asghar),
    5. While delivering the khutbah, he must face the people,
    6. He must recite A’udhu billahi minash shaytaanir rajeem in his heart before commencing with the khutbah,
    7. He must deliver the khutbah in such a way that all the people can hear his voice,
    8. the subject matter of the khutbah must comprise of the following eight things:
      1. gratitude to Allah Most High,
      2. praise to Allah Most High,
      3. testifying the Oneness of Allah Most High and the prophethood of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace),
      4. salutations to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace),
      5. admonition and advice,
      6. recitation of verses or a Surah from the Quran,
      7. to repeat all these things in the second khutbah as well,
      8. to make dua for the Muslims instead of giving advice and admonition in the second khutbah. This was a list of the subject matter.

      We will now go back to those factors which are sunnah for the khutbah itself.

    9. the khutbah should not be too lengthy. Instead, it should be shorter than the prayer.
    10. To deliver the khutbah from the minbar. If there is no minbar, one should stand up by taking support from a staff or rod. To take support from a staff or rod or to place one hand over the other while one is on the minbar, which is the habit of some people; has not been reported.
    11. Both the khutbahs have to be in Arabic. To deliver the khutbah in any other language or to add any poetry or idioms of another language as is prevalent today at some places is contrary to confirmed sunnah (sunna mu’akkada) and is in fact prohibitively disliked (makruh tahriman).
    12. Those listening to the khutbah should face the qiblah.
      In the second khutbah it is recommended (mustahabb) to make dua for the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) family, companions, wives, and specifically for the khulafaa-e-raashidin and Hadrat Hamzah and Abbas (Allah be pleased with them). It is also permissible to make dua for the leader of the Islamic state. But it is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahriman) to praise him for things which are not true.
  3. Once the imam stands up to deliver the khutbah, it is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahriman) to offer any prayer or to speak with each other. However, it is permissible for the saahib-e-tarteeb to offer his qada prayer at that time. In fact, it is necessary for him to offer his qada prayer. As long as the imam does not complete his khutbah, all these things will be prohibited.
  4. Once the khutbah commences, it is necessary for all those present to listen to the khutbah. This is irrespective of whether they are sitting near the imam or far away from him. It is also prohibitively disliked (makruh tahriman) to do such a thing which will distract one from listening. Just as eating, drinking, talking, walking, making salaam, answering to a salaam, reading some tasbeeh, showing someone a masa’ala of the Shariah is prohibited while one is in prayer, it is also prohibited while the khutbah is being delivered. However, it is permissible for the one who is delivering the khutbah to show a issue of the Shariah while he is delivering his khutbah.
  5. If the khutbah commences while one is offering one’s prayer, it is better to complete it if it is confirmed sunnah (sunna mu’akkada). If it is a nafl prayer, one should make salaam after two rakaats.
  6. It is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahriman) for the muqtadis as well as the imam to raise their hands and make dua in-between the two khutbahs when the imam is sitting. However, it is permissible to make dua in one’s heart without raising one’s hands as long as one does not say anything with one’s tongue – neither silently nor loudly.Nothing has been related from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) and his companions with regard to delivering khutbahs on the last Friday of Ramadan which contain matters related to the departure of Ramadan. Nor is there any mention of this in the books of Islamic jurisprudence. In doing so, there is the danger of the masses thinking that this is necessary. It is therefore a bid’ah. Note: these days undue attention is given to this sort of khutbahs. If anyone does not deliver such khutbahs, he is accused and mocked at. Special preparations are made in listening to such khutbahs.
  7. It is permissible to deliver a khutbah while looking into a book.
  8. If the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) name is mentioned in the khutbah, it is permissible for the muqtadis to send blessings to him in their hearts.

The Friday Khutbah of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace)

By quoting the Friday khutbah of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) it is not intended that people should start restricting themselves to this khutbah. This khutbah should be delivered occasionally as a source of barakah and with the intention of following the sunnah. It was the habit of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) that once all the people had gathered, he used to enter the mosque and make salaam to all those present. Hadrat Bilal (Allah be pleased with him) used to call out the adhaan. On the completion of the adhaan, he used to immediately stand up and deliver his khutbah. Until the minbar was not constructed, he used to take support from a staff. Occasionally, he used to place the staff against a pillar which was near the prayer niche (mihrab) from where he used to deliver his khutbah, and then lean against it. After the construction of the minbar, there is no evidence that he used to take support from a staff.

He used to deliver two khutbahs and sit down for a little while in-between the two khutbahs. When sitting down, he did not engage in any conversation nor should he make any dua. On completing the second khutbah, Hadrat Bilal (Allah be pleased with him) used to call out the iqaamah and the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to commence the prayer.

While delivering the khutbah, the Messenger of Allah’s (Allah bless him and give him peace) voice used to get loud and his blessed eyes used to get red. It is mentioned in Sahih Muslim that when the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to deliver the khutbah his condition used to be as if he is warning the people of an invasion of an enemy that is very nearby. In most of the khutbahs he used to say: “Resurrection and I have been sent just as these two fingers are!” And he used to join his middle and forefinger together. ….
A Sahabi says that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to recite Surah Qaaf very regularly in his khutbahs so much so that I learnt Surah Qaaf merely by listening to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) reciting it on the minbar. At times he used to recite Surah al-Asr, …

Rules Related to Friday Prayer

  1. It is preferable that the person who delivers the khutbah also performs the prayer. However, it is permissible for someone else to perform the prayer.
  2. It is sunnah to call out the iqaamah and commence with the prayer immediately after the completion of the khutbah. It is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahriman) to engage in any worldly activity between the khutbah and the prayer. If there is a very lengthy gap between the khutbah and the prayer, it will be necessary to repeat the khutbah. However, if the delay is caused because of a Deeni reason, e.g. To show someone a issue, or the wudu of the imam broke and he went to make wudu, or after delivering the khutbah he realized that he had to have a bath, so he went to have a bath – in all these cases it will not be makruh nor will it be necessary to repeat the khutbah.
  3. Friday prayer should be offered with the following intention: “I intend offering two rakaats fard of Friday prayer.”
  4. It is preferable for all the people to get together and offer Friday prayer in one mosque. However, it is permissible for the people of one place to offer their Friday prayer in several mosques.
  5. If a person joins the prayer in the last sitting at the time of reciting the at-tahiyyaat or after prostration-e-sahw, his joining the congregation will be correct and he will have to complete his Friday prayer. He will not have to offer Zuhr prayer.
  6. Some people offer Zuhr prayer after the Friday prayer as a precaution. Since the belief of the masses has become corrupted in this regard, they should be strictly stopped from this. However, if a knowledgeable person wishes to offer the Zuhr prayer due to some doubt, he should do so without letting anyone come to know of it.

Is the Friday Prayer Prayer Fard or Sunnah?

Answered by Sidi Tabraze Azam

Question: Is jumah prayer fard or sunnah?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I hope you are in the best of health and spirits insha’Allah.

According to the Hanafi school, the Friday prayer is decisively established (qati`) and personally obligatory (fard al-`ayn) for men who fulfil its conditions. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah/Mawsili, al-Ikhtiyar li Ta`lil al-Mukhtar/Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

The Established Obligation

The obligation is established from the words of Allah, Most High, “O believers, when proclamation is made for prayer on the Day of Congregation, hasten to God’s remembrance and leave your trading” [62:9]. The remembrance here refers to the prayer itself. Some said that it refers to the sermon (khutba) and some said it refers to both; either way, it establishes the obligation.

It is also established from the words of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) from a longer narration, “Know that Allah, Most High, has made the Friday prayer obligatory upon you” [Ibn Majah] and “Whosoever misses three Friday prayers by taking the matter lightly, Allah will seal his heart”. [Tirmidhi]

Therefore, as the texts state, it is explicitly even more emphasised than the Noon (Dhuhr) prayer and it is what is called for on Fridays. The Muslims have concurred from the time of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) until this day of ours that the Friday prayer is obligatory. [Tahtawi, Hashiyat al-Tahtawi]

A Note on Women attending the Friday Prayer

In our school, attending the Friday prayer is not obligatory for women; however, if she does attend, it fulfils her obligation. [Mawsili, al-Ikhtiyar li Ta`lil al-Mukhtar]

Actions are only by their intentions, therefore she does not lose out on any reward by not attending the Friday prayer, rather, her reward will be greater if it is done out of following the Divine command, the sunna of the beloved Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) and being grateful for being able to worship Allah in the way that is most pleasing to Him.

And Allah knows best.

wassalaam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Missing Three Jumu’ahs

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam

Question:  What should one do if he misses three jumu’ah prayers in a row due to lunch time meetings at work? Has he lost his shahadah? He is not chronically negligent of jumuah but it just so happened that he did miss three in a row out this once.

 Answer :  Friday prayer is personally obligatory (Fard Ayn) upon every Muslim. It has been established from the Qur’an, Sunnah and the consensus of the Ummah. It is one of the most important features of Islam. The one who rejects it is a Kafir and the one who misses it without a valid excuse is a Fasiq.

 

Allah Almighty says:

 

“O, you who believe! When the call for Friday prayer is made, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah (Prayer and Khutba) and leave all transactions. This is best for you if you know.” (Surah al-Jumu’ah, V.9)

 

Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar and Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with them both) narrate that they heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say on the planks of his pulpit: “People must cease from abandoning the Friday prayers or Allah will seal their hearts and then they will be among the negligent.” (Sahih Muslim, no. 865)

 

Abu Ja’d al-Dhamri (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Whosoever misses three Jumu’ah prayers by taking the matter lightly, Allah will seal his heart.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Tirmidhi, Sunan Nasa’i, Sunan Ibn Majah and al-Darami)

 

The importance of the Friday prayer is evident from the abovementioned. A Muslim should, therefore, never attempt to miss it. To miss even one Jumu’ah prayer without a legally valid excuse is highly sinful, and to miss three is totally unacceptable, with Allah Most High sealing the heart of the transgressor due to which no good enters his heart.

 

However, missing the Jumu’ah prayer does not entail one leaving Islam, as is the case with all unlawful and sinful acts. According to the scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah, a sin does not take one out of the fold of Islam, rather one becomes sinful.

 

Thus, leaving three Jumu’ahs will not be considered disbelief (kufr), in that one will not have to repeat the Shahadah and renew one’s Iman. However, if one rejects the obligation of the Friday prayer (Mustaheel) or takes the matter lightly in a mocking way (istikhfaf), then one will come out of the fold of Islam. (See the major books on Islamic Creed and the commentaries of the major Hadith collections)

 

 

And Allah knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK

             

Is It Permissible to Miss the Friday Prayer in the West Because of Work?

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam

Question : I have a brother who is contemplating a career change primarily because he would not be able to hold a teaching position at the elementary school level if he had to leave every week for Jumu’a. I have apparently been told that the Syrian Hanafi position is that Jumu’a is not mandatory in the West because there is no Muslim ruler or established Islamic authority.

Answer : The position of the mainstream and majority of scholars, both from the Subcontinent and the Arab world, is that the condition of having a Muslim ruler (sultan) in order to establish the Friday prayer is not a condition in of itself; rather, a means to ensure that there is no dispute regarding the establishment of the Friday prayer.

The renowned Hanafi Jurist (faqih), Imam al-Kasani (Allah have mercy on him) explains in his Bada’i al-Sana’i that the condition of having the Sultan’s permission is to avoid any possible disputes and arguments, because the Friday (jumu’a) prayer is offered in a large congregating and to lead such a massive congregation in prayer is indeed a great privilege; hence, it may lead those who like to be in the limelight into competing and arguing with one another to acquire the post of leading the Friday prayer. For this reason, appointing the right person to lead the Friday prayer was left to the discretion of the Sultan, so that he may appoint whomever he feels fit for this esteemed position. As a result, there would be no dispute, for others would be forced into obeying the Sultan and may even fear his punishment. (Bada’i al-Sana’i, 1/261)

He further states that the above is when the Sultan or his representative is present. However, if the Sultan was not able to attend for one reason or another and the time of Jumu’a Salat came in, then there is nothing wrong in the congregation uniting in the appointment of an Imam and praying behind him. This is supported by what Imam Muhammad has narrated that when Sayyiduna Uthman (Allah be pleased with him) was surrounded by the enemies, people appointed Sayyiduna Ali (Allah be pleased with him) to lead them in the Friday prayer. (ibid)

In light of the above explanation and in light of the explanation given by many other jurists, it is not a condition of the Friday prayer that it be performed in a Muslim land. In the absence of a Sultan or a Muslim ruler, it is completely permissible for the Muslims to choose someone to lead the Friday prayer and such a Friday prayer would be considered valid.

When the Friday prayer is considered valid, it becomes obligatory upon each and every Muslim male to attend the prayer unless there is a dire and genuine excuse. Missing the Friday prayer without a legally accepted excuse would be extremely sinful.

Allah Most High says:

“O you who believe! When the call for Friday prayer is made, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah (Prayer and Khutba) and leave all transactions. This is best for you if you know.” (Sura al-Jumu’a, V: 9)

The above is the position of most contemporary Ulama. What you have been told regarding the Syrian Hanafi position, it is incorrect; rather, many top Syrian Ulama concur with the position of the Subcontinent Fuqaha, in that the Friday prayer is obligatory even in the West. I myself once heard Shaykh Muhammad Sa’id Ramadhan al-Buti (Allah preserve him) refuting quite vigorously the isolated position of Jumu’a not being obligatory in the West.

Hence, your brother will be doing the right thing by looking for an alternative job if he is unable to offer his Jumu’a prayer at his current post. It will not be permitted to take up a career where one is regularly unable to offer one’s Friday prayer, even in the West.

And Allah knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester, UK

www.daruliftaa.com