Abrogation of the Recitation and Ruling in the Qur’an: a Defect?

Answered by Ustadh Shuaib Ally

Question: Assalamu alaykum,

I do not understand the concept of ‘naskh’, when naskh refers specifically to the concept of ‘deleted’ verses of the Qur’an.

Isn’t our belief as Muslims based on the idea that the Quran is a single perfect scripture sent down from God, and His word is unchanging, and the entire miracle of the Quran is that it is a single, unchanging, preserved text? How then, can God have ‘taken back’ parts of the Quran by ‘deleting’ them?

Answer: Assalamualaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray this finds you well.

Types of Qur’anic Abrogation

In the field of Qur’anic sciences, naskh (abrogation), with respect to the Qur’an, is recognized to refer to one of three scenarios:
(a) The recitation and the ruling are both abrogated
(b) The recitation abrogated; the ruling remains
(c) The recitation remains; the ruling abrogated

Abrogating the Ruling Alone

The third scenario, as you’ve mentioned, is the most obvious type of naskh; examples given for abrogation are usually of this nature. The reasons for this type of abrogation occurring vis a vis the Qur’an are also readily apparent. They include considerations of facilitating rulings for the fledgling community, giving rulings that fit circumstances, testing obedience, and others.

Abrogating Both the Recitation and Ruling

The first and second scenarios listed above, akin to withdrawal or omission, are not obvious forms of naskh, and the reasons for their occurrence might not be readily apparent. However, scholarship in the field has held that:
(a) its occurrence is not logically impossible; God can reveal as He deems fit, and then cause certain portions to be replaced by others, withdrawn, or outright forgotten; and
(b) there are sound narrations that indicate that this has occurred (such as the narration you have referenced regarding al-Ahzab).
Putting these two together, Qur’anic Sciences scholarship has largely been willing to confine itself to what it can establish – that it does appear to have occurred – and consign the rationale to God.

Consequences for the Divine Nature of the Text

They have, however, held that verses or sections being withdrawn in this manner does not impugn the perfect nature of the received text, as they were never intended to be part of the final scripture. For that reason, the Qur’an is not considered to be missing anything, incomplete, or lacking in any regard. They did not stake claims of the Qur’an’s divine origin on it never being changed by God; God had indicated that he would protect it from outside interference, but He remains free to do with it as He pleased.

Consequences for God’s Attributes

They also did not consider such changes to be in contradistinction to any of God’s perfect attributes. They rather saw it as a reflection of his omnipotence, in that He can do as He pleases with His revelation. They also did not see it as contravening his omniscience, because He had always been aware that these verses would be withdrawn or forgotten prior to its occurrence.

Sources: al-Itqan; al-Ziyada wa’l Ihsan; Manahil al-‘Irfan

Shuaib Ally

What Are the Scriptures of Ibrahim?

Answered by Sidi Wasim Shiliwala

Question: The Qur’an mentions the book of Abraham, but it doesn’t seem we know as much about it as the Bible and Torah.  Could you clarify this a bit?

Answer: Walaikum As-salaam wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu,

May Allah reward you for your concern with learning about the details of your religion.

The Scriptures of Abraham (upon him peace)

As you noted, the scriptures of Abraham (upon him peace) are mentioned twice in the Qur’an:

“Or has he not been informed of what is in the scriptures of Moses and Abraham…” [53:36-37]

“Verily, this is in the earlier scriptures, the scriptures of Abraham and Moses” [87:18-19]

The reason we do not hear as much about the scriptures of Abraham (upon him peace) as we do about the Bible, Torah, or Psalms is because, unlike the others, very little is known about them, nor does any major religious community claim to have a copy of them. So all we do know about them comes from the Qur’an itself as well as a few isolated reports.

One such report claims that these scriptures contained educational parables, such as one wherein a tyrant king is rebuked by God for his amassing wealth, as well as general pieces of advice, such as the encouragement for people to divide their time between worship, remembrance and reflection, and worldly matters such as the acquisition of livelihood and fulfilling one’s needs [Uthmani, Ma`ariful Quran] It is also reported that this scripture was revealed on the first day of Ramadan. [Musnad Ahmad]

Aside from this, not much else appears to be known about this scripture.

Abrogated Revelations

While it is lamentable that we do not have much knowledge about this scripture, we should also remember that it, like all other scriptures prior to the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him), were abrogated by the Qur’an. Furthermore, we believe that these other scriptures have been altered and distorted, so even the “surviving” and published copies of these scriptures cannot be taken to be reliable representations of the original scriptures brought by Jesus, Moses, and David (upon them peace).

However, what we do know is that all Prophets (upon them peace) come with a similar message, so we can imagine that the scripture that Abraham (upon him peace) brought was similar, at least in its messages, to the Qur’an. After all, this is what the Qur’an itself affirms when it says that these same messages are found in both the scriptures of Moses and Abraham (upon them peace). [87:18-19]

In other words, the messengers and scriptures may be different, but the central message – that of worshiping God and God alone – remains the same.

May Allah give us the tawfiq to follow the path of His Prophets, including Abraham, Moses, and our beloved messenger Muhammad, upon them be peace!

Jazakum Allahu Khairan,

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani