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Handling of Pigs

Ustadh Tabraze Azam is asked if any limitations are placed on veterinarians handling pigs and other impure animals in connection with research or treatment.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Respected Shaykh,

My question is regarding the handling of pigs and other impure animals by a veterinarian.

I would like to know if Islam places any limitations upon veterinarians to study or treat pigs and dogs. The work includes, but is not limited to

  • Handling
  • Treating
  • Surgically operating
  • Dissecting
  • Performing tests
  • Performing Post Mortems, and
  • Studying the animals in general.

As a veterinarian, at times I am asked if it is acceptable in Islam, and I barely have an adequate response. I am a Hanafi, but I request the rulings of other madhabs as well, if possible.

Jazakum Allah ahsan al jaza.

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Undertaking important medical research on pigs would be acceptable if you cannot reasonably use another animal or doing so would not fulfill the intended purpose. But many contemporary scholars are wary of permitting the treatment of pigs unless there is a clear need or benefit therein.

Of course, keep in mind that pigs are legally deemed to be essentially filthy, so you would need to avoid getting anything of the pig, including any moisture or hairs, on your body as much as possible. If affected by such matter, you can simply wash it away thoroughly afterwards.

Please note that dogs are not akin to pigs.

Please read the following: Can I Use Pig Parts and Is It Permissible to Use Boar for Any Purpose?

And Allah Most High knows best.

Tabraze Azam.

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Can I Use Parts of a Pig?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: Assalamu alaykum

Does the prohibition of swine in the Qur’an extend to general usage? For example a wallet that was made from a cow which was unlawfully slaughtered?

Answer:  Wa’leykum Salam,

Walaikum assalam,

I hope you’re doing well, insha’Allah.

Just as it is impermissible to consume the meat of pigs, due to their ritual impurity (najasa), it is also impermissible to use any part of the pig. [Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; Nawawi, al-Majmu` Sharh al-Muhadhdhab; other]

This is because Allah Most High ascribed the impermissibility of pigs to their entirety, not only to their meat: “He has only forbidden you ˹to eat˺ carrion, blood, swine, and what is slaughtered in the name of any other than Allah. But if someone is compelled by necessity—neither driven by desire nor exceeding immediate need—they will not be sinful. Surely Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [2:173]

This is also clearly established from numerous hadiths of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

[Shaykh] Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Faraz Rabbani is a scholar and researcher of Islamic law and Executive Director of SeekersHub Global After ten years overseas, Shaykh Faraz returned to Canada in the Summer of 2007. In May 2008 he founded SeekersHub Global to deal with the urgent need to spread Islamic knowledge—both online and on the ground—in a reliable, relevant, inspiring, and accessible manner. He has been repeatedly listed as one of the world’s 500 most influential Muslims (The Muslim500).

Is It Permissible to Use a Dry Body Brush Made From Boar Bristles?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum

I purchased a dry body brush that is supposedly made from boar bristles. I use it dry on my skin to exfoliate. I never wet the brush. Is it permissible for me to use it? Will it invalidate my prayers if I use it? Do I need to repeat wudu or make ghusl after using it?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

No, it would not be permissible to use a brush made of boar hair, even if you don’t moisten the bristles at any point. This is because the pig is considered to be essentially filthy, and thus, impermissible to benefit from in any manner.

Consider getting a brush which is made from another material or a different type of animal hair. And your prayers and ablutions are unaffected, so you need not worry about them.

Please also see: Is It Permitted to Use a Brush Made From Boar Bristles? and: Is It Permissible to Use Brushes that Are Made of Animal Hair Other than Pig? and: Is It Permissible to Use Boar for Any Purpose?

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

Is It Permitted to Use a Brush Made From Boar Bristles?

Answered by Ustadh Salman Younas

Question: Assalam aleykum

I have purchased and used a shoe brush to clean my shoe and found out that it’s made of boar bristles. I have touched it with my hand. Is my prayer? Is wearing my washed shoe permissible?

Answer: assalamu alaykum

The pig is considered essentially filthy (najas al-ayn), which means that every part of it is considered impure – it’s bones, hair, skin, and so forth. Consequently, a brush made from boar bristles would not be permitted to use.

As for the issue of filth then using a dry hair brush made from boar bristles would not entail a transfer of impurity to one’s body or clothing. As such, your prayers would not be deemed invalid because your hand touched this dry brush.

However, using a wet brush or putting it in contact with a wet surface would entail a transfer of impurity. In this case, the effected area should be washed to remove the ruling of impurity. Similarly, if some of the bristles fell off and remained on your clothing or body, this would also be considered a scenario where you would be considered to have been carrying something impure. It should be noted that this does not necessarily entail that one’s prayer is invalid since there are amounts of filth that are excusable in prayer. You do not need to worry about this too much for your past practice unless you are absolutely certain that you prayed with an inexcusable amount of filth in for a specific prayer which case you should repeat such a prayer.

For more see:

Can I Use Paintbrushes Made of Pig Hair?

Is It Permissible to Use Boar for Any Purpose?

[Ustadh] Salman Younas

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Salman Younas graduated from Stony Brook University with a degree in Political Science and Religious Studies. After studying the Islamic sciences online and with local scholars in New York, Ustadh Salman moved to Amman. There he studies Islamic law, legal methodology, belief, hadith methodology, logic, Arabic, and tafsir.

Would You Clarify What Is Impure Regarding Leather and Alcohol in the Hanafi School?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum

1. Is wearing pig leather haram in the hanafi school?

2. Could you expand on the four conditions of the permissibility of using alcohol derived from sources other than Raisins, grapes or dates?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

Pig Leather

1. Yes, it is impermissible to wear leather sourced from pigs because the Qur’an states that they are intrinsically filthy [6:45]. Hence, the pig cannot be consumed, nor can we derive benefit from any part of it.

Alcohol

2. With respect to the permitting conditions for non-wine alcohol, the first point refers to the alcohol in question actually being used as an intoxicant. The second refers to its being drunk in a manner in which alcohol is drunk, as this is an impermissible form of imitation. The third point is plain. And the fourth means to use it as corrupt people do, or for sinful purposes.

Please also see: Can We Use Deodorants, Creams, and Perfumes That Contain Alcohol?

wassalam,

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

Is Pigskin Permissible as Clothing?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: As Salaam Alaikum,

Is it permissible to wear clothing made from pig’s skin such as jeans, jackets, or to carry a pigskin handbag?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that this finds you in the best of health and spirits, insha’Allah.

No, it is not permissible to wear anything made of pig skin.

This is because the pig is considered to be essentially filthy in the Hanafi school. The basis for this is the words of Allah Most High, “for verily it is filthy” [6.145].

Please see related answers in the archives at www.SeekersGuidance.org

And Allah alone gives success.

wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Is It Permissible to Use Boar for Any Purpose?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Is it permissible to use the boar for any purpose, including its hair?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.

A boar takes the ruling of a pig in that it is essentially filthy (najis al-`ayn). [Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

This is affirmed by numerous explicit Qur’anic texts, such as, “You are forbidden to eat carrion; blood; pig’s meat; any animal over which any name other than God’s has been invoked.” [5.3]

Thus it would not be lawful to use its hairs.

And Allah alone gives success.

wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

What Animals Are Halal and Haram to Eat in the Hanafi School?

Answered by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari

Question: Can you give me a list of animals that are Halal and Haram according to the Hanafi School?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Islam is a religion of mercy and compassion. It only commands and prohibits that which is in the best interests of the human being. The human mind however, due to it being very limited and restricted, may not be able to understand the logic behind every ruling. It may not be able to comprehend properly why a particular ruling is given, but Allah Most High- the Merciful and All-Knowing- is the best to decide what is beneficial and harmful for us, for He is the one who created us.

Allah Most High blessed humanity with His beloved Messenger (Allah bless him & give him peace), as a light and light-giving. The Sacred Law (Shariah) of Islam that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) came with from Allah differentiated between a living and a dead animal. Dead animals were declared unlawful (haram). Certain animals that were harmful to the welfare of humans were also prohibited, such as pigs, dogs, cats and wild animals. Thus, the animals that have been prohibited for consumption by Shariah is due to the fact that they are harmful for human consumption, whether we realize this or otherwise.

After understanding the above, it should be noted that each of the four Sunni Schools of Islamic law (madhhabs) have their own principles (based on the guidelines of the Qur’an & Sunnah) with regards to which animals are lawful (halal) and which are unlawful (haram) for consumption.

Below are the basic principles of permissibility and impermissibility in the Hanafi School with regards to animal consumption, as mentioned in the classical books of Hanafi jurisprudence. (Culled from: al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/289-291, Bada’i al-Sana’i, 5/35-39 and Radd al-Muhtar, 304-308)

1. Animals that have been clearly and explicitly prohibited in the Qur’an or Sunnah are without doubt Haram, such as a swine, donkey, etc.

2. Animals that are born and live in water are all Haram with the exception of fish. All types of fishes are Halal, with the exception of that which dies naturally in the sea without any external cause. However, if a fish was to die due to some external cause such as cold, heat, being thrown to the shore by the water, colliding with a stone, etc, then it would be Halal.

Allah Most High says:

“Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine…” (Surah al-Ma’idah, V: 53)

In the above verse, Allah Almighty forbade the meat of all dead animals without differentiating between sea-animals and land-animals. Thus, all sea-animals would also be included in this general prohibition. However, fish has been exempted from this general ruling due to the explicit mention of its permissibility by the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace).

Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him eternal peace) said: “Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for our consumption: The two dead meats are: fish and locust, and the two types of blood are: liver and spleen.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Ahmad and Sunan Ibn Majah)

Moreover, there is no mention in the Sunnah literature that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) or his Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) ever consumed the meat of a sea-animal besides the fish, hence if it was permitted, it would have at least been consumed once in order to show its permissibility. (Dars Tirmidhi, 1/280)

As far as the fish which dies naturally in the sea without an external cause (samak al-tafi) is concerned, Sayyiduna Jabir ibn Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “What the sea throws up and is left by the tide you may eat, but what dies in the sea and floats you must not eat.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3809 & Sunan Ibn Majah)

Sayyiduna Ali (Allah be pleased with him) forbade the selling of naturally dead fish (floating fish) in the markets. (Bada’i al-Sana’i, 5/36 and al-Ikhtiyar)

In light of the above, all sea-animals are Haram except for fish. It will be permitted to eat a fish even without slaughtering it according to the rules of Shariah. However, a fish that dies naturally without an external cause and begins to float on the surface of the water (Samak al-Tafi) is also considered Haram.

3. The third principle is that, amongst the land-animals, those that have no blood in them are considered Haram, such as a hornet, fly, spider, beetle, scorpion, ant, etc.

Allah Most High says:

“for he (the Prophet) commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure).” (Surah al-A’raf, V: 157)

Thus, animals that don’t contain blood such as spiders and others are considered to be from what is impure because a sound natured person would detest their consumption.

The only exception is that of a locust, for the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) clearly permitted its consumption, in the Hadith of Sunan Abu Dawud and Musnad Ahmad quoted earlier.

Similarly, Ibn Abi Awfa (Allah be pleased with him) was asked concerning the consuming of a locust and he said: “I fought with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) in six or seven battles, and we used to eat it (locust) with him.”  (Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3806)

4. The forth principle is that those land-animals who have blood in them but the blood does not flow, in other words animals that do not have flowing blood, are also considered Haram, such as a snake, lizard, chameleon, etc.

5. The fifth principle is that all types of pests (hasharat al-Ardh) are also considered Haram, such as a mouse, hedgehog, jerboa, etc.

The reasoning behind the prohibition of these animals is the same verse of Surah al-A’raf quoted above, in that they are considered impure (khabith) for consumption.

6. The sixth principle is, land-animals who have flowing blood in them and they survive on grass and leaves, and do not prey on other animals (i.e. non-predatory terrestrial animals) are all considered Halal, such as a camel, cow, goat, buffalo, sheep, deer, etc, although there is a slight difference of opinion within the Hanafi School with regards to the consumption of horse-meat, as will be discussed later. Also, a donkey is exempted from this general ruling, in that its meat in considered Haram for consumption.

Allah Most High says:

“And cattle (an’am), He has created for you, from them you derive warmth, and numerous benefits, and of their (meat) you eat.” (Surah al-Nahl)

And:

“It is Allah Who made cattle for you, that you may use some for riding and some for food.” (Surah al-Mu’min, V: 79)

In the above two verses, Allah Most High uses the term “al-An’am” (cattle) which refers to non-predatory animals, according to the unanimous agreement of all the linguistics.

As far as the consumption of horse-meat is concerned, Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) considers is somewhat disliked (makruh tanzihan) due to its honour and due to the fact that a horse is needed in Jihad. Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad (Allah have mercy on them both) consider it Halal, and it is said that Imam Abu Hanifa also retreated to this opinion. Thus, it would be permitted to consume horse-meat, although better to avoid.

With regards to the meat of a donkey and mule, Allah Most High says:

“And (He has created) horses, mules, and donkeys, for you to ride and use for show; and He has created (other) things of which you have no knowledge.” (Surah al-Nahl, V: 8)

So, in regards to all other non-predatory animals, Allah Almighty mentions that He has created them for consumption (as we have seen in the verses mention earlier). However, with regards to donkeys and mules, He mentions that they are for riding and adornment (zeenah). Had consumption of these animals been Halal, Allah Almighty would surely have mentioned it.

Moreover, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the meat of donkeys on the day of the battle of Khaybar. (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5202)

Sayyiduna Abu Tha’laba (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of donkey’s meat. (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5205)

Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and said: “The donkeys have been (slaughtered and) eaten. Another man came and said: ‘The donkeys have been destroyed.’ The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) ordered a caller to announce to the people: ‘Allah and His Messenger forbid you to eat the meat of donkeys, for it is impure.’ Thus the pots were turned upside down while the (donkey’s) meat was boiling in them.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5208)

With regards to the mules, Sayyiduna Khalid ibn al-Walid (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the meat of horses, mules and donkeys. (Musnad Ahmad, 4/89, Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3790, Sunan Nasa’i and Sunan Ibn Majah)

However, the fuqaha mention that the ruling on a mule would be that of its mother. If the mother is a donkey, then it would be definitely Haram. If the mother is some Halal animal such as a cow, it would be completely Halal, and if the mother is a horse, then the rules of eating horse-meat would apply. (See: Radd al-muhtar)

7. The seventh principle is that all terrestrial predatory animals and beasts, i.e. animals that hunt with their teeth, are considered Haram, such as a lion, cheetah, tiger, leopard, wolf, fox, dog, cat, etc.

8. The eighth principle is that all birds of prey, i.e. those that hunt with their claws/talons, are considered Haram, such as a falcon, eagle, kite, hawk, bat, etc.

The proof for both these principles (seven and eight) is the famous Hadith of Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons. (Sahih Muslim, no: 1934)

Hence, all beasts and birds of prey, beasts that hunt with their teeth and birds who hunt with their talons/claws, are unanimously considered Haram.

9. The ninth principle is that birds who do not hunt with their claws and do not prey on other animals, rather they merely eat grains and crop, are all considered Halal, such as a chicken, duck, pigeon, dove, sparrow, crow, etc.

Sayyiduna Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) says: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) consuming (the meat of) chicken.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5198)

10. The tenth principle is that if a Halal animal only consumes impure things to the extent that it creates bad odour in its meat and milk, then it will be Makruh to consume its meat and drink its milk. However, if it consumes other things along with the impure, or if it does not create bad smell in its meat and milk, then the meat and milk will be totally Halal. (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/340)

It is stated in al-Fatwa al-Hindiya:

“A chicken will only be considered a jallalah (hence makruh) if the majority of what it eats is impure, and that it penetrates into the meat in such a way that it creates a bad smell.” (See: al-fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/289)

11. The last principle is that if one parent of an animal is Halal and the other Haram, consideration will be taken of the mother. Thus, if the mother is a Halal animal, the offspring would also be Halal, such as a mule whose mother is a cow. If however, the mother is a Haram animal, the offspring would also be Haram, such as a mule whose mother is a donkey.

The above were eleven general and broad principles with regards to the consumption of animal meat, according to the Hanafi School of thought. It should be noted here that the meaning of Halal is merely that one may eat of the animal, but there are separate rules with regards to slaughtering and hunting these animals, for which one may refer to previously posted articles or the books of Fiqh. Failure to comply with these rules may well render a Halal animal Haram.

In light of the above general principles, the following is a list of Halal and Haram animals in the Hanafi School: (Both these lists of animals are not exclusive)

Animals whose meat is Halal:

1. Camel
2. Goat
3. Sheep
4. Buffalo
5. Stag
6. Rabbit
7. Cow (including mountain cow)
8. Wild-ass (The prohibition in the Hadith is of domesticated donkeys)
9. Fish (of all types, including prawns according to those who consider prawns to be a form of fish. Others however, don’t permit its consumption, for they don’t consider prawns to be from the fish family. For details, see an earlier post).
10. Deer/Antelope/Gazelle
11. Duck
12. Heron (grey or white wading bird with long neck and long legs and (usually) long bill).
13. Nightingale
14. Quail
15. Parrot
16. Francolin
17. Locust
18. Partridge (heavy-bodied small-winged South American game bird)
19. Lark (North American yellow-breasted songbirds)
20. Sparrow
21. Goose
22. Ostrich
23. Dove
24. Pigeon
25. Stork
26. Rooster
27. Chicken
28. Peacock
29. Starling
30. Hoopoe (any of several crested Old World birds with a slender down-curving bill, known in Arabic as Hudhud- that was sent by Sayyiduna Suleyman (peace be upon him).

Animals whose meat is Haram:

1. Wolf
2. Hyena
3. Cat
4. Monkey
5. Scorpion
6. Leopard
7. Tiger
8. Cheetah
9. Lion
10. Jerboa
11. Bear
12. Swine/pig
13. Squirrel
14. Hedgehog
15. Snake
16. Tortoise/Turtle
17. Dog
18. Crab
19. Jackal
20. Donkey (domesticated)
21. Lizard (The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the eating of a Lizard. Recorded by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan from Abd al-Rahman ibn Shibl (Allah be pleased with him. Hadith no: 3790)
22. Fox
23. Crocodile
24. Weasel
25. Elephant (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/306)
26. Falcon
27. Hawk
28. Kite
29. Bat
30. Vulture
31. Mouse
32. Rat
33. All insects, such as a Mosquito, Fly, Wasp, Spider, Beetle, etc.

And Allah knows best.

Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari
Darul Iftaa, Leicester, UK
www.daruliftaa.com

Pork Gelatin: Permissible or Not?

Answered by Sidi Salman Younas

Question: There seems to be a debate nowadays about the issue of pork gelatin. Since it is not the meat of the pig some say it is halal. Others, say it is part of the pig therefore it is impure. Can you please settle this and provide me with factual evidence like from a hadith or Quran?

Answer: assalamu `alaykum

I pray you are well.

It would not be permissible to consume something that contains pork-gelatin based on the reasoning given in the question.

The pig is considered “essentially filthy” (najas al-`ayn) according to the Hanafi scholars. This means that every part of the pig is impure, whether its meat, hair, bones, or tendons.

This opinion is derived from the verse, “Say: I do not find in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden for an eater to eat of except that it be what has died of itself, or blood poured forth, or flesh of swine – for verily it is filthy (fa innahu rijsun)-…” [6: 145] Here, the attached particle “it” (hu) refers back to the word “swine”, not merely the word “flesh”. This is based not only on precautionary practice (ihtiyat) but also the fact that the prohibition of the flesh of a pig is already indicated by the category of “what has died of itself”, since the pig is not capable of being slaughtered.

Ibn Nujaym, commenting on this verse, adds that the statement “verily it is filth” is a legal cause for the prohibition of the flesh of swine. Stating that the attached particle “it” refers back to “flesh” would lead to deeming the legal cause as being the very filth of the flesh itself, adding nothing of substantial value. This is because the prohibition of something that can be eaten, which is the flesh of the pig in this case, already indicates its filthy nature. The legal cause, as such, must be something other than the flesh itself being filthy since this is already known. Therefore, the scholars stated that the particle refers back to “swine” as a whole, which would stipulate the legal cause of prohibition being the fact that the flesh is a part of the swine, and since the whole swine is filthy so is the part. [Ibn Nujaym, Bahr al-Ra’iq]

As such, according to the Hanafi school, it would not be permitted to consume gelatin made from any part of the pig. The only time it would be permissible is when the pig undergoes an essential transformation. However, since gelatin does not undergo such an essential transformation it will remain prohibited to consume if made of pig or any other unslaughtered animal.

Wassalam
Salman

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani