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Is Verse 8:61 Abrogated?

Question: In Quran 8:61, the verse calls for peace to be established. But in Quran 9:29, it says that only jizya is acceptable. So is 8:61 abrogated? What did Ibn Abbas say about 8:61?

Answer:

Wa ‘alaykum assalam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh

I pray you are well.

Abrogation in the Qur’an

The concept of abrogation has been overemphasized historically. Not many verses were abrogated. Less than twenty according to Imam Suyuti. Others held this number to be too high. Please refer to our ‘Ulum al Qur’an course for more information.

Most of the time there are other ways to reconcile the meanings of seemingly conflicting verses. This is the case for the verses you mentioned.

Qur’an, 8:61 Is Not Abrogated

There is a position that states this verse is abrogated. It is narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas, Mujahid, and Qatada. However, according to many scholars, it is not abrogated. Tabari, Ibn Kathir, Zamakhshari, Alusi, and others held this position. Tabari held that it referred to Bani Qurayza, based on the contextual factors.

The others said that it refers to people from whom accepting jizya was permissible. The Muslim ruler has a choice in certain situations to make treaties or not. The details are in the books of fiqh.

For the pagan Arabs, however, Jizya was not an option. This is due to the case against them being so strong – owing to their recognition of the miracle of the Qur’an and the truthfulness of the Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace). They had also shown time and time again that they would be treacherous in the case of any treaty being made (Ruh al Ma’ani, Alusi, al-Tafsir al Wasit, Tantawi).

Insha’Allah, we’ll cover this point in detail in our complete Qur’an tafsir. I pray that helps.
May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.

[Shaykh] Abdul-Rahim

 

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat began his studies in Arabic Grammar and Morphology in 2005. After graduating with a degree in English and History he moved to Damascus in 2007 where, for 18 months, he studied with many erudite scholars. In late 2008 he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continued his studies for the next six years in Sacred Law (fiqh), legal theory (Usul al-fiqh), theology, hadith methodology, hadith commentary, and Logic. He was also given licenses of mastery in the science of Quranic recital and he was able to study an extensive curriculum of Quranic sciences, tafsir, Arabic grammar, and Arabic eloquence.

Reading the Qur’an Without Tafsir

Question: Can one read the Qur’an without using a tafsir? Is it necessary to use a tafsir? Do you have a recommended tafsir to use as a layman?

Answer:

Assalamu alaykum,

Thank you for your question. It is utterly key that Muslims read the Qur’an and understand its meaning. Otherwise, how can it be the guidance that can be applied in word, deed, and state? You should start off with reading a translation and then move on to a tafsir from there.

Translations/Interpretations

You can try reading one of the translations by the following translators. I recommend the first, as it was the first one I ever read:

  • Abdullah Yusuf Ali- this includes some commentary
  • Marmaduke Pickthall
  • Saheeh International
  • Muhammad Asad
  • Maulana Muhammad Ali
  • Arthur Arberry

Tafsir

Once you have read a full translation/interpretation, I recommend the Seekersguidance tafsir podcasts:
https://seekersguidance.org/names/quran-tafsir-understanding-the-word-of-allah/

You should also consider the full tafsir of Mawlana Mawdudi which you can access from the following link, or get a hard copy of multiple volumes: https://www.englishtafsir.com/

Reading without tafsir

There is much baraka in reading the Qur’an without the tafsir as well, and I recommend that Muslims, old and young, read some of the Qur’an every day, even if they don’t have time to read the meaning. However, one must never be satisfied with only reading Arabic; it must be accompanied by some effort of understanding it. Either start with the above tips or sign up to learn Arabic.

May Allah allow us to grasp the meanings of the Qur’an at all its levels, and allow us to attain illumination by it and the success of the ummah.

Shazia Ahmad

 

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadha Shazia Ahmad lived in Damascus, Syria for two years where she studied aqidah, fiqh, tajweed, tafseer, and Arabic. She then attended the University of Texas at Austin, where she completed her Masters’s in Arabic. Afterward, she moved to Amman, Jordan where she studied fiqh, Arabic, and other sciences. She recently moved back to Mississauga, Canada, where she lives with her family.

Missing Prostrations in Quran Recitation

Question: How do I calculate and make up missed prostrations of the recital?

Answer: 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful and Compassionate

Making an exact calculation of your years of missed prostrations of the recital will be difficult and nearly impossible. For this reason, take the following steps:

(1) Come up with an estimate that you are reasonably sure covers the amount of missed prostrations
(2) Add a little more to that number for certainty
(3) Take a practical amount of prostrations to do daily in order to slowly chip away at the number owed
(4) Start making up your determined amount daily while having the strong resolve to eventually, even if in the distant future, make them all up.

Note that if you recite new verses of prostration, you should do the prostration immediately and strive not to put it off as this will only add to your prostrations.

Hope this helps.

Allah knows best
[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of the Qur’an and the Islamic sciences

Are the Qira’at Based on Ijtihadi Recitations of the Companions?

Question:
Assalamu ‘Alaikum,

There are some who say:

“Not all which is recited from the Ten Qira’at today was taught by angel Jibril  to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Rather, some of the words in the Qira’at originate from the Ijtihadi-based recitations of some of the Sahabah for ease of facilitation. These recitations were not taught by the angel Jibrl to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), nor did the Prophet himself teach the companions these words. Rather, the Prophet gave his companions an open concession (rukhsa) to recite the Qur’an in a manner that conforms to their dialect as long as the meaning of the Qur’an remains intact.

The angel Jibril only taught the Prophet one harf of the Qur’an. Regarding the other six ahruf, they represent a concession (rukhsa) from Allah for the companions to substitute words from the first harf with words in conformity with their own dialects as long as the meaning remains intact. Some of what was permitted from this concession has made its way to our Ten Qira’at in conformity with the Uthmanic rasm. These recitations are still considered “Qur’an” because Allah gave the companions permission to substitute the words with their own. This is despite the fact that they weren’t actually taught by and revealed through angel Jibril to the Prophet.

This is the true meaning of the hadith: “The Qur’an has been revealed in seven ahruf.” We should not understand this hadith based on its apparent meaning which suggests that the angel Jibril literally taught the Prophet seven ahruf himself.

Rather, the angel Jibril only revealed to the Prophet one harf with a single set of words, while the remaining recitations originated from the Ijtihad of the companions (e.g. Maaliki yawm al-din and Maliki yawm al-din were not both taught by the angel Jibreel to the Prophet).”

What is the ruling on this opinion?

Answer: 

Wa ‘alaykum assalam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh,

I pray you are well.

Every Word in the Qira’at Is Directly Revealed By Allah

This opinion is incorrect. The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) did not allow the Companions to freely switch words of the Qur’an. This would negate the promise of the preservation of the Qur’an and the i’jaz of the Qur’an, because the word choice is a big part of this.

Please watch this lesson for an explanation of the Seven Ahruf. Over the next few weeks, we will be covering the topic of the Qira’at in the Essentials of Qur’anic Understanding Certificate in detail, and your question will be answered in the course of those lessons.

Please see SeekersGuidance Essentials of Qur’anic Certificate: quran-studies-stream

I pray that helps.
May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.

[Shaykh] Abdul-Rahim

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat began his studies in Arabic Grammar and Morphology in 2005. After graduating with a degree in English and History he moved to Damascus in 2007 where, for 18 months, he studied with many erudite scholars. In late 2008 he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continued his studies for the next six years in Sacred Law (fiqh), legal theory (Usul al-fiqh), theology, hadith methodology, hadith commentary, and Logic. He was also given licenses of mastery in the science of Quranic recital and he was able to study an extensive curriculum of Quranic sciences, tafsir, Arabic grammar, and Arabic eloquence.

 

Does Incorrect Pronunciation of Recitation Break The Prayer?

Question: Does the incorrect pronunciation of letters or errors in the rules of recitation break the prayer?

Answer: 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful and Compassionate

Although some scholars took a very strict stance regarding mistakes in recitation, others deemed that unintentional errors in recitation do not invalidate the prayer [Ibn ‘Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar citing the Khulasa].

For this reason, consider your prayers to be valid, and do not worry. However, you should still strive to perfect your recitation. Seek out a teacher with an authorized chain of transmission in the recitation of Qur’an and have them correct you.

Allah Most High says, “..and recite the Quran ˹properly˺ in a measured way” [Qur’an; 73:04].

Note that perfecting your recitation will take hard work. You should work hard and ask Allah Most High to grant you this blessing. Do not become despondent, strive for excellence whilst relying only on Allah Most High.

You will be rewarded for your efforts not merely for results.

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “The one who recites the Qur’an with skill will be with the noble scribes and the one who recites while stammering and it is difficult for them – has two rewards” [Muslim].

Hope this helps
Allah knows best
[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of the Qur’an and the Islamic sciences

 

Forgotten Bygone Prophets

Question: Is it possible that Socrates or Buddha, or any wise men of the past, were prophets?

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Dear questioner,

Thank you for your important question.

Bygone prophets

Allah Most High has said, ‘And We have already sent messengers before you. Among them are those [whose stories] We have related to you, and among them are those [whose stories] We have not related to you’ (Qur’an, 40: 78).

This verse tells us that we know a lot about many prophets of the past, but at the same time, there were many prophets that Allah has not told us about.

Many wise men and good people in the past may have actually been prophets whose true message has been lost. It is possible that Luqman was a prophet, and it is in principle possible that a character like Buddha was a prophet, or that Socrates’ words were indirectly inspired. Allah hasn’t told us anything specific about them.

Examples to be followed

What does this mean? This means that we are only obliged to specifically believe in those prophets that Allah has told us about and that the guidance that has been set for us as an example should only be taken from them.

To take someone like Buddha or Socrates as an absolute divine example merely on the hope that he was a prophet and merely with the possibility that his original message is still preserved is not a very reasonable line of thought.

Delving in alternative divine scriptures

It is narrated that Sayyidna Umar (Allah be well pleased with him) came and read some of the Bible to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and he got very angry. ‘O Umar, are you still in doubt about it all?! By Him in Whose hand is my soul, I have brought you something perfectly clear. Don’t go and ask them about the matter lest they tell you something that is true and you deny it, or they tell you something false and you accept it! By Him in Whose hand is my soul, were Moses alive today, he would have no choice but to follow me’ (Ahmad; Fath al Bari, Ibn Hajar).

The same can be said about Buddha and Socrates or anyone else like them. Even if they were prophets, their guidance wouldn’t add anything to the pure, clear, and authentic message that we have from the final and ultimate messenger from Allah.

I pray this helps.

[Ustadh] Farid

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies, he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to craft lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language

Are the Ten Canonical Modes of Recital the same as the Qur’an?

Question: Are the Ten Canonical Modes of Recital the same as the Qur’an? What is the difference between the Seven Modes and the Ten Modes?

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Dear questioner,

Thank you for your important question.

The Qur’an by definition is something recited, and not the book (Mukhtasar Ibn al Hajib). This definition tells us that there is a difference between the Qur’an and the mushaf, but also that there is no difference between the Qur’an and the Ten Modes of Recital.

Some scholars do seem to make a difference between the two concepts but what I have mentioned is the better explanation (Itqan al Burhan, Dr Fadl Abbas).

While the Seven Modes are mass-narrated (mutawatir), the remaining three are merely well known by the scholars of Qur’an recital. To compare, we can say that both the Seven Modes and the remaining three are in keeping with the Uthmanic script (al mushaf al imam), and in keeping with Arabic language and grammar. The only difference is how well known they were (Al Itqan, Suyuti).

Please also read:

https://seekersguidance.org/answers/general-counsel/differences-between-the-canonical-recitations-of-quran/

Please see: https://seekersguidance.org/courses/ulum-al-quran-on-revelation-how-it-was-preserved-and-understood-and-why-it-is-true/

I pray this helps.

[Ustadh] Farid

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies, he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to craft lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language

 

Does The Qu’ran Imply The Permissibility To Sleep With Little Girls?

Question:

Assalamu ‘alaykum.

Does verse 65:4 of the Qur’an imply that it’s okay to have sex with little girls? For example, if a contract was issued with a 3-year-old girl, does this verse imply its okay to consummate with her?

Answer: Wa ‘alaykum assalam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

The Qur’an Does Not Permit Harming Others

The short answer is: no, the Qur’an does not imply that it is okay to sleep with little girls. Such an act would be harmful to this child on many levels – physically, mentally, and emotionally, as she would not be ready to process this experience. There would also be a likelihood of physically harming her severely.

Such a notion comes to people’s minds when they project the lowest practices and morals of their culture onto the Qur’an without understanding it on its own terms. We’ve discussed this at great length in this lesson and the next lesson on this topic. I advise you to listen to both for a full understanding.

What Does the Verse Refer To?

The verse was translated by Dr. Mustafa Khattab as follows:

“As for your women past the age of menstruation, in case you do not know, their waiting period is three months, and those who have not menstruated as well…” (Qur’an, 65:4).

This verse gives us the ruling for the ‘idda period for ladies who do not have menstrual cycles, either due to them having passed the menopause, or them not having started their menstrual cycles. This can refer to someone in their teens too, and in many pre-modern cultures marrying young was the norm.

There were no societal expectations of finishing school, getting a degree, or pursuing higher education. Marriage was normal at younger ages. This is all discussed in detail in the lessons above.

In any case, a marriage could not be consummated if there was any chance of harming the wife. So the projected ideas you’ll find on the internet don’t apply.

Don’t Entertain Information Which is Inaccurate

The internet is a place where you will come across a lot of information about Islam, and not all of it is accurate. It’s a terrible idea to listen to the arguments against Islam that many people present. Usually, they are inaccurate, biased, and decontextualized. This fills people with doubts.

Engage with what will benefit you and deepen your faith. May Allah facilitate the matter for you.

[Shaykh] Abdul-Rahim

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat began his studies in Arabic Grammar and Morphology in 2005. After graduating with a degree in English and History he moved to Damascus in 2007 where, for 18 months, he studied with many erudite scholars. In late 2008 he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continued his studies for the next six years in Sacred Law (fiqh), legal theory (Usul al-fiqh), theology, hadith methodology, hadith commentary, and Logic. He was also given licenses of mastery in the science of Quranic recital and he was able to study an extensive curriculum of Quranic sciences, tafsir, Arabic grammar, and Arabic eloquence.

What Does the word ‘Musaddiq’ Mean in Reference to the Qur’an and Previous Scriptures?

Question:

Assalamualaikum,

I just need clarification on what the Qur’an actually means when it comes to confirming the scriptures in the Prophet’s time (Allah bless him and give him peace). How can we reconcile this with the fact that the Tanakh contradicts the Qur’an and Sunnah in certain particulars i.e. the life of the Prophets, some contradictory and possibly false laws, the Messianic age (one sole Messianic figure being directly from the line of David and not two where one is from a virgin birth and one from the line of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), etc.

Now one may say that the Qur’an does implicitly and explicitly confirm the corruption of the previous scriptures. If that’s the case and they have been corrupted then what exactly does it mean when the Qur’an confirms or “musaddiq” said scriptures?

Answer:

Wa ‘alaykum assalam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh,

I pray you are well.

The Scriptures Agree On The Fundamentals 

The term ‘musaddiq’ means that the Qur’an affirms what is in the Torah in general. Not everything in the Torah, however, is corroborated by the Qur’an. The Qur’an affirms the concept of the Oneness of God, the identities and teachings of certain prophets, the morals and actions ordered by God, such as not lying, the impermissibility of fornication and interest, etc.

There are also other elements that come into this, such as the signs and descriptions of the Prophet Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace). These were altered and removed in the lifetime of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) by the Jews of Medina. However, we have many narrations of a number of them admitting this, and there are historical records of Jews and Christians who accepted Islam due to the descriptions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) that they found in the manuscripts.

This corroboration was meant to indicate the continuity of revelation from the same God. Meaning, that the timeframe that the Torah was meant to last until had expired, and the new law revealed to the final Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) is what must be implemented (Alusi, Ruh al Ma’ani).

The Corruption of the Biblical Texts

If the current texts differ with the Qur’an then it is because they have been altered. The inconsistencies in the Torah have been recognized by many people. Right from the beginning, in Genesis, there are contradictions. Was the cosmic beginning watery or dry? Were birds created from water or earth? Were animals created before humans or after? There are many more examples.

The earliest complete manuscript is from the 13th century AD, a long time after the Torah was revealed. So the contradictions are not within the Qur’an; rather within the current form of the Torah.

The Qur’an confirmed the moral and theological truths in the Torah – which, now, can only be accurately known through the Qur’an – and the signs that pointed to the Prophet Muhammad is the final Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Not finding these explicit statements in the Torah now is not surprising.

I pray that clarifies matters.

[Shaykh] Abdul-Rahim

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat began his studies in Arabic Grammar and Morphology in 2005. After graduating with a degree in English and History he moved to Damascus in 2007 where, for 18 months, he studied with many erudite scholars. In late 2008 he moved to Amman, Jordan, where he continued his studies for the next six years in Sacred Law (fiqh), legal theory (Usul al-fiqh), theology, hadith methodology, hadith commentary, and Logic. He was also given licenses of mastery in the science of Quranic recital and he was able to study an extensive curriculum of Quranic sciences, tafsir, Arabic grammar, and Arabic eloquence.

Meaning of Saba (Sheba)

Question: What does the name of the sura of the Qu’ran Saba mean?

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Dear questioner,

Thank you for your important question.

Saba or Sheba is the name of a place in Yemen from where heralded the people of Saba or Sheba who spoke a form of Old South Arabian.

The name was originally that of a man that then became the name of his tribe or the name of a place (Maani al Quran, Nahhas).

I pray this helps.

[Ustadh] Farid

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies, he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to craft lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language