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What Is the Proof That Prayer Is Not Permissible When the Sun Is at Its Zenith?

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: What is the textual evidence that prayer is not permissible when the sun is at its zenith?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful and Compassionate

The Messenger of Allah said, “The prayer is witnessed and attended (i.e. by Angels) until the mid-day and it is certainly a time when the doors of Hell are opened and its fire kindled. So leave the prayer until the shadow appears. [Nasaai]

Uqbah bin Amir al-Juhani narrates, “There are three times which the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) would prohibit us from praying or burying our deceased therein: When the sun clearly begins to rise until it has fully risen, when the sun reaches its peak till it begins to decline, and when the sun’s light begins to weaken till it fully sets.” [Muslim]

There are many other narrations in this regard as well.

May Allah bless you
Allahu A’alam

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of the Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.

What Is the Ruling of the Prostration of Forgetfulness?

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: What Is the Ruling of the Prostration of Forgetfulness?

Answer: You will only need to perform Sajdah al-Sahw if you left out a necessary action in the prayer. If you did leave out such action then you should make Sajdah al-Sahw whether people are watching or not.

You should understand that Allah, Most High is certainly watching and His knowledge and opinion of you is more important than that of the people.

Doubts

If you are constantly doing Sajdah al-Sahw because of doubts regarding the number of units of prayer (rakah) that you have done, then you should only consider the doubt if it is substantial.

If you are 50/50 then you should continue your prayer based on the lesser number of units then end the prayer with Sajdah al-Sahw. [Maraqi al-Falah]

If this doubt occurs are the salaam or after having already sat in the final sitting the length of time it takes to recite the tashahud supplication, then you should not pay the doubt any mind. That is until and unless you have absolute certainty that you left out something. [Maraqi al-Falah]

Waswasa

For the one who is constantly in doubt abandoning caution is sometimes the best cure.

“As for the one who is often inflicted with waswasa, it is necessary for them to sever the cause of the waswasa and not to give it any consideration. This is because it is the doing of Shaytan and we have been commanded to oppose him.” [Hashiyah Ibn Abidin]

Knowledge

The long-term cure for these constant doubts is to seek a deeper understanding of Islamic Knowledge. With knowledge, Shaytan can not deceive you with his whispers and plots. I would advise that you find authentic scholars in your area and study with them a basic text in Islamic Jurisprudence.

Please note that SeekersGuidance.org has classes available in Islamic Jurisprudence and many other subjects.

May Allah ease all of your affairs and protect you and us from the plots of Shaytan

Allahu A’alam

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of the Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.

Movements In Prayer

Answered by Shaykh Yusuf Weltch

Question: Salam Aleykum, Do movements in the prayer invalidate the prayer? Does lifting one’s hand or hands in the prostration invalidate the prayer?

Answer: Wa Aleykum Selam

Movements That Invalidate the Prayer

Movements in the prayer, if excessive, can invalidate the prayer. The definition of excessive is such a movement that if an onlooker saw you doing it, they would assume that you are not in prayer. [Maraqi al-Falah] The movement you described doesn’t seem to fit this definition.

Movements That Do Not Invalidate the Prayer

Movements that are not excessive may still be disliked if they is no benefit in doing so or no wisdom behind it. This disliked movement is call ‘Abath’ The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Verily Allah dislikes for you ‘Abath’ idle movements in the prayer….” [Maraqi al-Falah]

Lifting One’s Hands During the Prostration

The minimum requirement of the prostration, regarding the hands, is that at least one hand must be placed on the ground. “The prostration is realized by placing the forehead, not just the nose, along with one of the hands….” [Maraqi al-Falah] If the forehead, one of the hands, the feet, and the knees were to be on the ground together, for at least the amount of time it takes to say ‘SubhanAllah’ once, the prostration would be valid. Although to leave the proper method of prostrating is disliked.

Stillness in Prayer

One should strive to remain still during the prayer. If one could fix their clothing prior to the prayer so that it does not disturb them in the prayer, this is best. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and give him peace) entered the Masjid and saw a man playing with his beard, while in prayer. The Messenger then said, “If his heart were still, his limbs would have been still.” [Tirmidhi]

May Allah bless you

Allahu A’alam

[Shaykh] Yusuf Weltch

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Yusuf Weltch is a graduate from Tarim; a student of Habib Umar and other luminaries; and authorized teachers of Qur’an and the Islamic sciences.

What Is the Meaning Of “Prayer” (Salat) in Arabic and in Islam?

Answered by Ustadh Shuaib Ally

Question: Assalamu aleykum,

What is the meaning of Prayer (Salat)?

Answer:Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.

Introduction

The word ‘Salat’ carries closely related but different meanings, and therefore doesn’t have a single clean English equivalent. Although usually accurately rendered as ‘prayer,’ it can sometimes refer to something else, largely determined by context and the actor.

Generally speaking, prayer (salat) from Allah to His servants carries meanings of sending blessings to them, mercy, forgiveness, praise and veneration. For example, “those are the ones upon whom are blessings (salawat) from their Lord, and mercy” (2:157).

From angels, it tends to mean seeking forgiveness for people (33:57). From people, it usually refers to supplication and worship.

The meaning of Prayer (Salat) in the Arabic language

Prayer (Salat) originally carries the meaning of either:

a. Supplication (du’a); when the Qur’an commands ‘and pray for them; your prayer is a source of peace for them’ (9:103), it means to supplicate for them. In a narration recorded by Muslim, the Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported as saying, “when one of you is invited to participate in a meal, he should accept; if he is fasting, he should supplicate for them (falyusalli).”

b.Veneration, or mercy and blessing; the narration “O Allah, bless and have mercy on (salli ‘ala) the family of Abu Awfa” is a prayer for Allah to have mercy on andbless that family; the verse “Allah and the angels pray for [yusalluna] the Prophet” (33:57) carries the meaning of praise and veneration (see below).

The meaning of Salat as Prayer

The generally recognized act of worship that contains bowing and prostrating is called ‘salat’ because major parts of it contain acts of supplicating, the original meaning of the word. The vast majority of Qur’anic usage of ‘salat’ is of this kind. It is also argued that salat derives from veneration (the second possibility listed above); prayer is thus called because it contains the veneration of God.

The meaning of Salat as Blessings upon the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him)

In the tashahhud (the sitting portion during prayer), “al-salawatu lillahi” (prayers belong to Allah) means that all of the supplications meant to venerate God are only for Him, none else being deserving of it.

Going on to say “Allahumma salli ‘ala Muhammad” is a request to Allah to venerate him in this world by having him mentioned in a praiseworthy manner, spreading his message, and rendering his law lasting. It is also a prayer to allow him to intercede on behalf of his community in the afterlife, and to have his reward multiplied.
Ibn al-Athir says that it could also be that when Allah commanded that salat should be sent to the Prophet (peace be upon him), we recognized our inability to do so in a manner commensurate to his worth, and thus asked Allah himself to fulfil that function on our behalf.

The meaning of Salawat as Places of Worship (Synagogues)

The general rule of Qur’anic usage of ‘salat’ is that it refers to worship or mercy. The verse wa salawatun wa masajid (22:40) is an exception to this. The salawat here refers to Jewish places of worship, not the act itself. Some hold that this is because the word itself means a place of worship; others hold that there is a deliberate ellipsis in the verse, and it means places of prayer, not prayer itself.

Sources: al-Misbah al-Munir; Mu’jam Maqayis al-Lugha; Mufradat Alfadh al-Qur’an; ‘Umdat al-Huffadh; al-Nihaya fi Gharib al-Hadith; al-Kulliyat

Shuaib Ally

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Parenting: Planting the seeds of prayer in our young ones

Teaching our children and teenagers to perform obligatory prayers, and enforcing it, is a delicate and often stressful matter for families. What is the prophetic guidance on the matter? When and how is it best done? Parenting expert Hina Khan-Mukhtar sheds some light.

I was driving a girlfriend to her house when my son Shaan called me from high school on my cell phone. I had him on speaker, so his anxious voice reverberated around the inside of the vehicle for us both to hear: “Mama, can you please be sure to pick me up exactly at three? I need to make it home in time to pray my Dhuhr (afternoon prayer) and I don’t want to risk missing it.”

After I assured him more than once that I wouldn’t be late, I hung up and found my friend staring at me with a quizzical look on her face.

“What?” I asked.

“Explain that to me,” she said.

“Explain what to you?”

“How the heck do you get a teenage boy in public high school to actually care about not missing his prayer?”

It is a question that I’ve been asked more than once, and there has never been a simple, easy answer to give. The quickest and most honest one is to frankly admit that all guidance is a blessing and a mercy from God and none of us are in any real control of what our children choose to take — and not take — from our teachings.

But let’s face it — we all know that’s not what parents want to hear (even if they know it’s the truth). Parents are looking for tips and advice, some kind of handbook to follow, a checklist of do’s and don’ts. The fact of the matter is that saying “Tell me what else to do besides pray about/for it” is a false premise to begin with — every success is dependent first and foremost upon prayer for that very success. After hoping I’ve made that clear, I will say that for the purposes of this article, I did sit down and reflect on what has brought us to where we are now after almost 18 years of raising sons, alhamdulillah (praise be to God). I write this article with the full knowledge that we are no experts; we are no authority figures; we are no success stories (if for no other reason except the fact that the “story” simply isn’t over yet). We just happen to be parents who for whatever reason are blessed with children who choose to pray…for now (may the desire always remain with them and only grow in conviction — amen). I asked my kids what they think has helped make prayer a priority for them in their lives, and I informally interviewed some friends to get their insights as well. Here’s what has worked for our families so far, and we hope that our experiences may help others in turn, insha’Allah (God willing)…

1) For God’s sake (literally), leave those kids alone for the first 7 years!

We’re not contending that you shouldn’t teach your kids about their religion or that you shouldn’t encourage them to stand with you in prayer, but we are saying that you shouldn’t have any real expectations of them until after they are 7 years old. I still remember how I cringed when I once saw a well-meaning father pretty much forcing his 6-year-old daughter to join the congregational prayer. She kept running off, and he kept bringing her back, insisting that she fold her hands and stand silently by his side as he recited the Quranic verses aloud. His intentions were noble and sincere, no doubt, but the execution left much to be desired. It was painful to watch, and I remember hoping that his plans weren’t going to backfire on him one day. Another time, I heard a mother tell her son that “Allah will be mad at you if you don’t pray; the angels are writing down that you’re being a bad boy”, and it took all my willpower not to cry out loud, “Stop! Please don’t say that to your 5-year-old!”

There is a reason God has not made prayer incumbent upon children — what baffles most adults is trying to figure out how they are supposed to take the spiritual souls that have been placed under their care and then successfully prepare them for the lifelong duty of praying five times a day once their physical bodies have attained puberty. The responsibility on parents is no joke, and some of them can crack under the pressure.

In the early years, children should be allowed to join and leave the prayer at will, letting themselves get acclimated to the motions and the sensations of the ritual prayer at their own pace. Praying with the family should be an enjoyable experience — one that kids can partake in (or not) as much as they desire. Their association with prayer should be one of sweetness. I know one father who has all of his children share their duas (supplications) aloud one by one after the prayer is over so that everyone can join together in asking Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) to grant their siblings’ wishes. Once the duas are over, the kids often dissolve into tickling and wrestling matches while the father finishes up his supererogatory prayers on his own. Kids can be taught the basic adab (etiquettes) of prayer from an early age — i.e. being mindful of not walking in front of people while they are praying and resisting the urge to make loud, obnoxious noises while others are engaged in worship — but these guidelines about the prayer are all related to respectful consideration towards our fellow Muslims; as far as these little Muslims themselves are concerned, no one should be demanding any personal obligations of them just yet!

2) When the time to begin formally praying finally does come, go all out and make the initiation into prayer a celebration to remember! Treat it like an exciting honor, a real rite of passage.

When each of my boys turned 7 years old, I bought them beautiful journals which I gave to my friends and family to fill with inspiring messages about prayer. A few of my more “crafty” friends went all out and used their art supplies to create elaborate 3-D cards complete with embossed ink and sequined beads. My parents and my in-laws each wrote messages to their grandsons, sharing their hopes and wishes for their futures with them. Older cousins wrote about how prayer helps them in good times and in bad; aunties and uncles gave advice on what helps them get through “prayer slumps” which — if we are truly honest — are bound to come in one’s life at some point or another. I remember my husband Zeeshan getting teary-eyed as he read his message aloud to our middle son Ameen. The general theme was one of encouragement and excitement. It’s been almost 10 years since I put together those gifts for my older two sons, and even now, I will sometimes catch them perusing their Prayer Books with smiles on their faces as they read the heartfelt messages to themselves.

A friend recently organized an elaborate “Salah (Prayer) Party” for her daughter who had turned 7 years old earlier this year. There was a delicious cake and a colorful piñata and many goody bags, but there was also a “Prayer Mat Making Station”, a “Misbaha (Prayer Beads) Making Station”, and a “Pin the Moon Over the Mosque” Game for the kids to enjoy. Along with yummy treats, each little girl also left the party with a “Prayer Chart” where she will now be able to track how many prayers in a day she is able to complete. I overheard the birthday girl excitedly bragging to her guests, “Guess what? I get to wake up for Fajr (dawn) prayer now!”

Zeeshan and I have found that slow and steady wins the race. When each of our sons turned 7 years old, we allowed them to choose one prayer that they wanted to take on as their daily commitment. Every single one of them chose the Maghrib (evening) prayer — probably because that was a time their father was usually home from work, they could pray in congregation behind him, and worship at that particular time of day seemed to fit seamlessly into our hectic schedules. The understanding was that — no matter what — Maghrib would never be neglected from that day (i.e. their 7th birthday) forward. If the boys wanted to pray any of the other prayers, that was all well and good (and highly praiseworthy), but it was their choice and we made it clear that we would not be monitoring them or holding them accountable. Maghrib, however, was non-negotiable. Whether they were at a play date or in the middle of a shopping mall or at a swimming lesson, if the time for Maghrib came in, they made sure to take a few minutes to complete it. (One note: we didn’t expect more than the fard/obligatory of Maghrib from them at this age.)

We continued this routine for twelve months. When a year of praying Maghrib on time had finally passed by successfully, we told the boys that they were now “qualified” to take on a second prayer. We treated it like an honor that only the most responsible could be trusted to handle! Once six months of praying two prayers had passed, we announced that it was time for them to commit to a third prayer. We tracked the completion of their prayers with star stickers on calendars that we had made at home out of cardstock. Using this method, all three of our boys were praying all five of their daily prayers by the time they were 9 1/2 years old, alhamdulillah. By age 10, prayer was an established routine. After the age of 10, the boys eventually began adding on the sunnah (supererogatory) prayers as well.

It is important to note that during this period (i.e. before the age of 10), we did clearly explain to the children that we were not requiring them to stick with their prayers because we considered it sinful for them to leave them (we didn’t) but because we were trying to train them for the time when fard prayers would eventually be required. We told them that we were trying to teach them how to honor commitments, we knew that it took practice and discipline to do so, and we accepted that it was our job to slowly but surely teach them those tools for success.

During the course of writing this article, I asked my almost-16-year-old son Ameen why he prays all of his prayers on time, and he responded, “I don’t remember ever not praying, so I can’t imagine not doing it now. It’s a part of who I am.”

My most fervent prayer is that he always feels that way. I am no fool; I know prayer is a gift and, if not treated with gratitude and humility, it can be lost at any moment. May Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) protect us from ever experiencing such a devastating void in our lives. Aameen. (Amen.)

3) “If it was good enough for the Prophet (salallaahu alaihi wasallam), it’s good enough for me.”

When I asked Shaan why he is committed to his prayers, he said, “It was the last thing the Prophet (salallaahu alaihi wasallam) told us to hold onto; he was talking about it right up until the point he passed away. How can we ignore that? How important must prayer be if he (peace be upon him) was reminding us about it even with his last breaths?”

If children are taught the seerah (biography of the Prophet Muhammad) and Islamic history, they will learn that our pious predecessors performed their prayers even in the middle of a battlefield, even when they were ill and dying, even when they were being harassed and humiliated. They learn that missing a prayer just isn’t an option for anyone who has taqwa (God-consciousness).

4) Teach them what they’re saying, what they’re doing, and why.

Prayer should not be allowed to become a series of robotic yoga-like motions devoid of meaning or purpose. Zeeshan and I have been forthright with our kids and confessed to them that there will be times when prayer might feel like an inconvenient, rote duty that just needs to be discharged — and they may find themselves feeling disillusioned and disheartened when those thoughts come to them — but, nevertheless, the canonical prayer is never to be abandoned, no matter how ambivalent one might be feeling towards it in that moment.

“We worship Allah with our minds, bodies, and souls,” I remind my children. “If our minds and souls aren’t ‘into’ prayer for some reason, we can at least force our bodies to obey Him. And then we pray that He will eventually lead our minds and souls to follow our bodies in joy and submission as well. Allah is the One Who is in charge of our hearts. He can turn us to Him at any time He wills. We just have to make sure that we’re not the ones who’re turning away first.”

One of the ayahs (verses) of the Quran that I often quote to my kids is 51:56: “And I have not created jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.”

“That’s the purpose of life right there,” I tell them. “If you want to know why we were created and what we’re supposed to be doing while we’re here, you have your answer in that one line. Look no further.”

When we discuss the creation of man and the time when Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) commanded Iblis (Satan) to bow down to Adam, we point out how it was nothing but arrogance that made Iblis rebel. “With every prostration, you are choosing to obey God and humble yourself before Him in a way that Satan refused to,” Zeeshan tells them.

We have made sure to make it clear to the kids, however, that God is not in any need of our prayers or our praise or our prostrations; on the contrary, it is we who are in need of Him.

We have also emphasized that none of us should ever feel self-righteous or holier-than-thou about the fact that we are choosing to pray when others are not. “We need prayer; it’s like taking medicine that the Doctor prescribes,” I tell the boys. “Would any of us go around bragging about taking meds or look down on others because they aren’t taking the prescription that we’ve chosen to take for our own health?”

At the same time, we have encouraged friendships with those families and children where prayer is a taken-for-granted part of the daily routine. We all know that you are only as good as the company you keep, and being in an environment where prayer is as natural as eating or drinking just helps create a new type of “normal” for the kids. My boys have grown up seeing not only their parents and their friends praying in congregation but seeing their parents’ friends and friends’ parents giving significance to the five daily prayers as well.

Teaching our children about the Isra and Mi’raj (Night Journey and Ascension) has been instrumental in getting them to understand how the prayer was revealed and what the different parts of the prayer mean to us on a spiritual level. The position of ruku (bowing) is compared to the way one would bow in front of a king. In the humbling position of sajdah (prostration), we point out how that is the only position in which the human heart is elevated over the human brain. “At a certain level, yes, we can recognize Allah by using our thinking minds,” we tell our kids, “but — ultimately — we come to Him via our hearts. It is the heart that truly knows God; it is the heart that truly recognizes Him.”

Once the kids are taught that the same “attahiyat” that we recite while we are sitting in prayer is in fact the actual repetition of the conversation between Allah (subhana wa ta’ala) and the Prophet Muhammad (salallaahu alaihi wasallam) and the angels, they will not be so prone to mindlessly speed through it, insha’Allah. The prayer will suddenly have relevance for them. When we sit and recite our dhikr (litanies) after prayer, we tell the kids that each whisper on our tongues is a polishing of the heart. “We want to have hearts that shine like mirrors and only reflect Him on the Day of Judgement,” we tell them. Making sure that we teach them what the Arabic words that they are reciting actually mean helps in bringing about some consciousness in the prayer, insha’Allah.

Finally, it’s really important to talk to the kids about intention. One of my favorite quotes by Imam Ali (radiAllahu anhu) that I like to share with the boys is his comparison of worshippers to three types — the first is the worshipper who worships out of desire for Heaven (he is like the businessman looking only for a profit); the second is the worshipper who worships out of fear of the Hellfire (he is like the slave who wants only to avoid punishment); and the third is the worshipper who worships out of gratitude because he recognizes that Allah is worthy of worship (he is the truly free man).

“Which one are you?” we ask our sons…and then we leave them to reflect.

And we reflect on ourselves as well.

5) Set them up for success.

We make sure to equip each of our cars with what I like to call “a prayer pack” — a small knapsack that contains a clean prayer mat, a bottle of water for wudu (ablutions), a squeeze bottle for istinja (ritual washing of the private parts after using the toilet), a compass for ascertaining the Qibla (direction of the Ka’aba in Makkah for prayer), and a prayer garment that will cover any woman who is in need of one. Before smart phones arrived on the scene, I used to keep a print-out of the month’s prayer timings in the pack as well. This prayer pack ensured that I didn’t need to worry about whether I had the ability to fulfill my prayers properly and on time or not.

Once Shaan started high school, I helped him create his own “prayer pack”. In his backpack, we placed a zip-up prayer mat made out of parachute material; it was light and compact and easily folded up and unfolded on a moment’s notice. I also included a digital timer that snapped around his thumb and could be discreetly clicked for dhikr while accurately keeping track of how many litanies had been completed. And I bought him a really cool compass that he uses regularly to figure out the direction for prayer. We recently invested quite a bit of money in some high quality khuffs (waterproof socks) for him so that he wouldn’t have to deal with the inconvenience of having to stick his foot in the sink while making wudu in the boys’ restroom at his high school. He can just wipe over his khuffs during school hours now. On Shaan’s first day as a freshman, his father and I helped him come up with talking points so that he could approach the principal with confidence when he requested a private space for prayer; we promised to have his back if he ran into any resistance. Our “support” turned out to be unnecessary however. It’s been three years now, alhamdulillah, and the high school front office staff knows Shaan really well — he’s the kid who comes in every day during lunch to go to the conference room to pray.

While all of these gadgets and gizmos may be great to have around for convenience’s sake, the kids understand that they will have to make do for prayer — one way or the other — whether they have their prayer packs on hand or not. “Guard your prayer” is the mantra in our home.

6) “Let the beauty of what you love be what you do.” – Rumi

For some kids, positive sensory associations are very important in creating an attachment to prayer. From a young age, my boys have taken great pride in dressing up for Jumah (Friday) prayers in their best clothes, wearing their best perfume and their best kufis (prayer hats). We always set out their most special clothes for the most special of days, and they feel noble and dignified as they wash and dress for going to the mosque on Friday afternoons. I know of one mom who created a magical “prayer corner” in her daughter’s bedroom, complete with a lace canopy that cascaded down over an intricately embroidered prayer mat and an ornate table that held a beautifully designed Quran and crystal prayer beads. Other parents regularly light sweetly scented incense or candles during prayer time in the home. One mother used to wear a silk prayer gown stamped with gold and silver block print for her night prayers; her children sometimes have compared her to a princess, other times to an angel. Another parent told me that she always baked the kids’ favorite treats to share after the congregational prayers on Fridays and also played nasheeds (devotional hymns) in the house after Surah Kahf had been recited for the week. These are all examples of kids who saw, heard, smelled, and tasted nothing but beauty and elegance when it came to prayer in their homes.

7) Aspire to be what you want them to be.

No one recognizes hypocrisy quicker than a child. The truth of the matter is that you can encourage and teach a child to pray all you want, but if you’re not going to pray, the chances are highly likely that he/she’s not going to pray either. And letting a child witness that you pray isn’t always enough either. What about how you pray? Are you rushed and distracted? Do you drag your feet when the prayer time comes in? Are you nonchalant if you miss a prayer? I know of an adult who remembers his own father weeping when he once missed a prayer, and that reaction made more of an impression on him about the importance of prayer than all the lectures in the world ever could.

In conclusion, I feel it’s important to confess how emotionally difficult it was for me to actually write this article. I’ve been analyzing what my hesitation was, and I realize that it was rooted in the fear that my words will come across as preachy and imbued with a sense of self-satisfaction when nothing could be farther from the truth. Another part of me worries that I will somehow jinx my family by admitting to the world that my husband and kids are regular with their prayers (for now). After a lot of back and forth debate with myself, I finally decided to pray to Allah to purify my intentions and asked Him to allow me to write just one thing that will benefit even one parent out there. I remember when I had my first son in 1997, how desperate I was to find any kind of reading material that would help motivate and guide me in teaching him the fundamentals of this beautiful religion. I didn’t need proofs for why I needed to teach the prayer; I was already more than convinced. But I did desperately crave real-life examples of how Muslim parents got down in the trenches and actually did the hard work of passing on this most important pillar of the faith to the next generation. I have been fortunate in that I have been surrounded by many inspirational parents and have had the opportunity to learn from them all, alhamdulillah. I am hoping that their techniques can now help a new generation of parents, insha’Allah.

A year ago, one of my girlfriends who has a son in college somberly told me that he had recently confessed to her that he was no longer praying because he “just wasn’t feeling it anymore”. This was a mother who had “done everything right”; she was a mentor to many of us when it came to raising children to be practicing and believing Muslims. I tried to comprehend what she was telling me and then thoughtlessly blurted out, “Why aren’t you panicking?” I didn’t understand how she could tell me such devastating news in such a calm and matter-of-fact manner.

“Because I have faith in my Lord” was her forthright response. “From Day One, I have been praying for my children’s imaan (faith), and I don’t think those prayers just disappeared into thin air. They have been heard and they will be answered, insha’Allah…but in His time and not mine. I’ve done my part; I’ve done what was commanded of me. Now I leave my children’s fate to Allah while I continue to pray for their guidance and His Mercy.”

As of this writing, her son is praying all five prayers once again.

 

Resources for Seekers:

Traditional Methods of Raising Children
Raising a Muslim with Manners

Raising Your Children with Deen & Dunya – Radio Interview with Hina Khan-Mukhtar
Raising Children with Deen and DunyaIbn Khaldun on the instruction of children and its different methods
Islamic Parenting: Ten Keys to Raising Righteous Children
The Prophet Muhammad’s Love, Concern, & Kindness for ChildrenOn Parents Showing Righteousness to Children

Repeating the Tashahud During Prayer‏

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Assalamu Alaikum,
Please advise me on the best way to help someone that is suffering from misgivings during the prayer that cause them to repeat the tashahhud, sometimes several times. His fear is that the prayer is invalid if the recitation of the tashahhud is not correct. After the completion of the prayer, he is then overcome with feelings of frustration at the fact that he has repeated the tashahhud, and feel as though he should repeat the prayer. Please help.
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.
Recite the tashahud once. Ignore all misgivings.
Your prayer is not invalidated by mistakes in the tashahud. Learn to recite it soundly, ideally with a teacher, and then recite it once during the prayer. Ask Allah to remove the whisperings, and to fill your heart with true remembrance.
Please also see: Do Grammatical and Pronunciation Mistakes While Reciting the Qur’an Invalidate Your Prayer? and: A Reader on Waswasa (Baseless Misgivings)
And Allah alone gives success.
wassalam,
Tabraze Azam
Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Riyad al-Salihin: On the Virtues of Prayer

187. Chapter: On the excellence of the prayers

1042. Abu Hurayra said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘What do you think would happen if there was a river by someone’s door in which he washed five times every day? Do you think that any dirt would remain on him?’ They said, ‘Not a scrap of dirt would remain on him.’ He said, ‘That is a metaphor of the five prayers by which Allah wipes out wrong actions.'” [Agreed upon]

1043. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The metaphor of the five prayers is that of an sizeable flowing river at the door of one of you in which he washes five times every day.” [Muslim]

1044. Ibn Mas’ud reported that a man received a kiss from a woman and went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him about it. Allah sent down, “Establish the prayer at the two ends of the day and in the first part of the night. Good actions eradicate bad actions.” (11:114) The man said, “Messenger of Allah, is this for me?” He said, “It is for every single one of my community.” [Agreed upon]

1045. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The five prayers, and Jumu’a to Jumu’a is expiation for what is between them as long as a man has committed no major sins.” [Muslim]

1046. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “There is no Muslim man who attends a prescribed prayer and does wudu’ for it well and is humble in it and in its bowing, without that being expiation for the sins before it as long as he did not commit any major sin. This will always apply.” [Muslim]

188. Chapter: On the Subh and ‘Asr prayers

1047. Abu Musa reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever prays the two cool ones will enter the Garden.” [Agreed upon]

1048. Abu Zuhayr ‘Umara ibn Ruwayba said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘No one who used to pray before the rising of the sun and before its setting will enter the Fire,” meaning Fajr and ‘Asr.” [Muslim]

1049. Jundub ibn Sufyan reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who prays the Subh prayer is in Allah’s keeping. O son of Adam, watch out that Allah does not demand from you anything that is in His keeping.” [Muslim]

1050. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There are angels which take turns in being with you in the night and other angels in the day and they meet together at the prayers of Fajr and ‘Asr. Then the ones who were with you during the night ascend and Allah asks them – although He knows better than they do – ‘How were My slaves when you left them?’ They say, ‘When we left them they were praying and when we came to them, they were praying.'” [Agreed upon]

1051. Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah al-Bajali said, “We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he looked at the full moon on the night of Badr and said, ‘You will see your Lord as you see this moon and you will not be harmed by seeing Him. If you can manage not to be overwhelmed to the point of missing the prayer before the sun rises and before it sets, don’t be.'” [Agreed upon]

1052. Burayda reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If anyone misses the prayer of ‘Asr , his actions will come to nothing.”[al-Bukhari]

189. Chapter: On the excellence of walking to the mosque

1053. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah will prepare a residence in the Garden for anyone who goes to the mosque morning and evening each morning and evening that he goes.” [Agreed upon]

1054. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who purifies himself in his house and then goes to one of the houses of Allah to fulfil one of the obligations of Allah, one step removes an error and the other raises him a degree.” [Muslim]

1055. Ubayy ibn Ka’b said, “There was a man of the Ansar and I do not know of any man who lived further from the mosque than him. He never missed a prayer. It was said to him, ‘You should buy a donkey which you could ride in the dark and when it is very hot.’ He said, ‘It would not make me happier if my house were right next to the mosque. I want my steps to the mosque to be written down for me and also my return when I return to my family. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah will combine all that for you.”‘” [Muslim]

1056. Jabir said, “The area around the mosque was empty and the Banu Salama wanted to move near to the mosque and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, heard about it. He said to them, ‘It has reached me that you want to move near to the mosque?’ They said, ‘Yes, Messenger of Allah, we do want that.’ He said, ‘Banu Salama, keep the houses you have. Your footprints are written down. Keep the houses you have! Your footprints are written down.'” [Muslim]

1057. Abu Musa reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The people who get the greatest reward for the prayer are those who live furthest away and then the next furthest. Someone who waits for the prayer so that he can pray it with the Imam has a greater reward than someone who prays and then goes to sleep.” [Agreed upon]

1058. Burayda reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Give good news to those who walk to mosques in the dark that they will have full light on the Day of Rising.” [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

1059. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Shall I direct you to something by which Allah will wipe out errors and raise degrees?’ They said, “Yes please, Messenger of Allah.” He said, “Doing thorough wudu’ in adverse circumstances, taking a lot of steps to the mosques and waiting for one prayer after another prayer. That is what you should hold to. That is what you should hold to.” [Muslim]

1060. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If you see a man who frequents mosques, then testify to his belief. Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, says, “The mosques of Allah should only be frequented be by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day…’ (9:18)” [at-Tirmidhi]

190. Chapter: On the excellence of waiting for the prayer

1061. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Each of you is in the prayer as long as he is waiting for it and there is nothing but the prayer preventing him from going to his family.” [Agreed upon]

1062. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The angels pray for every one of you as long as you remain in the place in which you prayed and do not break wudu’, saying, ‘O Allah, forgive him! O Allah, show mercy to him!'” [al-Bukhari]

1063. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, delayed the ‘Isha’ prayer until the middle of the night and then prayed. Then he turned his face to us after he had prayed and said, ‘The people have prayed and gone to sleep, but you were in prayer the whole time you were waiting for it.'” [al-Bukhari]

191. Chapter: On the excellence of the Group prayer

1064. Ibn ‘Umar stated that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Prayer in a group is seventy-seven times better than the prayer of a man by himself.” [Agreed upon]

1065. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The group prayer is twenty-five degrees higher than the prayer in your house or the prayer in your place of business. Anyone who does wudu’ and goes to the mosque with no other object than to do the prayer, Allah will raise him up a degree with every step he takes, and a wrong action will fall away from him. When he prays, the angels pray for him all the time he is in his place of prayer, ‘O Allah! Forgive him! O Allah! Show mercy to him!’ One of you is in the prayer as long as he is waiting for the prayer.” [Agreed upon]

1066. Abu Hurayra said, “A blind man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Messenger of Allah, I have no guide to direct me to the mosque.’ He asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to make an dispensation for him allowing him to pray in his house, and he gave him that dispensation. When he turned away, he called to him and said to him, ‘Do you hear the call to prayer?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Then respond to it.'” [Muslim]

1067. ‘Abdullah – and it is said ‘Amr – ibn Qays, known as Ibn Umm Maktum, the mu’adhdhin, said, “Messenger of Allah, there are many reptiles and wild beasts in Madina.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “You hear ‘Come to the prayer. Come to success,’ so come.” [Abu Dawud]

1068. Abu Hurayra reported that Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “By Him in Whose hand my soul is, I seriously considered ordering someone to collect firewood, ordering the prayer be called, appointing a man to lead the prayer and then coming up behind certain men and burning their houses down about them!” [Agreed upon]

1069. Ibn Mas’ud said, “Anyone who wants to meet Allah tomorrow as a Muslim should observe these prayers when they are called. Allah has prescribed the sunan of guidance for His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and they are part of the sunan of guidance. If you prayed them in your houses, like this person who does not come prays in his house, you would be abandoning the sunna of your Prophet. If you were to abandon the sunna of your Prophet, then you would go astray. I have seen that only hypocrites, whose hypocrisy is known, fail to come. A man used to be brought to it, supported between two men, until he was stood up in the prayer line.” [Muslim]

In another variant, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, taught us the sunan of guidance, and part of the sunan of guidance is the prayer in the mosque from which the call to it is given.”

1070. Abu’d-Darda’ said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘If there are three in a village or desert and they do not pray (together) Shaytan will overpower them. You must perform the group prayer. The wolf devours the stray sheep.” [Abu Dawud]

192. Chapter: Encouragement to attend the Group Prayers at Subh and ‘Isha’

1071. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘If someone prays ‘Isha’ in a group, it is as if he had prayed half of the night. If someone prays Subh in a group, it is as if he had prayed the entire night.'” [Muslim]

1072. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “And if they only knew what was in the prayers of ‘Isha’ and Subh, they would come to them even if they had to crawl.” [Agreed upon]

1073. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is no prayer heavier on the hypocrites than Fajr and ‘Isha’. If they only knew what is in them, they would come to them even if they had to crawl.” [Agreed upon]

193. Chapter: On the command to persevere in the prescribed prayers and the strongest prohibition against abandoning them

Allah says, “Safeguard the prayer – especially the middle one,” (W2:236; H2:238) and He says, “If they repent and establish the prayer and pay zakat, let them go on their way.” (9:5)

1074. Ibn Mas’ud said, “I asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ‘What is the best action?’ He said, ‘The prayer in its time,.’ I said, ‘Then what?’ He said, ‘Dutifulness to parents.’ I said, ‘Then what?’ He said, ‘Jihad in the way of Allah.'” [Agreed upon]

1075. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Islam is based on five: the testimony that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, performing the prayer, paying the zakat, hajj to the House and fasting Ramadan.” [Agreed upon]

1076. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I have been commanded to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and establish the prayer and pay the zakat. If they do that, their lives and property are protected from me except for the right of Islam, and their reckoning is up to Allah.” [Agreed upon]

1077. Mu’adh said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent me to Yemen and said, ‘You are going to a people who have a Book. When you come to them, call on them to testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. If they obey you in respect of that, then tell them that Allah has made the five prayers obligatory for them every night and day. If they obey you in respect of that, inform them that Allah has made it obligatory for zakat to be taken from their property and given to their poor. If they obey you in respect of that, beware of the things on which people place great value and beware of the supplication of the wronged. There is no screen between him and Allah.'” [Agreed upon]

1078. Jabir said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘All that lies between a man and shirk and disbelief is abandoning the prayer.'” [Muslim]

1079. Burayda reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The contract which is between us and them rests on the prayer. Anyone who abandons it, has rejected belief.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1080. Shaqiq ibn ‘Abdullah the Follower said, “The Companions of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not think that abandoning any action denoted disbelief, except abandoning the prayer.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1081. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The first action which the slave will be called to account for on the Day of Rising is his prayer. If it is in order, he will have success and win through. If it is not in order, he will be disappointed and lose out. If any of his obligatory prayers are lacking, the Lord, the Mighty and Exalted, will say, ‘See if My slave has any supererogatory actions and use them to complete his obligatory prayer.’ Then the rest of his actions will be assessed in the same way.” [at-Tirmidhi]

194. Chapter: On the Excellence of the first row and the command to complete the first rows and make them straight and close together

1082. Jabir ibn Samura said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to us and said, ‘Do you not want to line up as the angels line up in the presence of their Lord?’ We said, ‘Messenger of Allah, how can we line up as the angels line up in the presence of their Lord?’ He said, ‘They fill up the first rows and press together in them.” [Muslim]

1083. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If people only knew what was in the call to prayer and the first row, and could find no other way to get it than drawing lots for it, they would certainly draw lots for it.” [Agreed upon]

1084. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best of the rows for the men is the first row and the worst is the last row. The best of the rows for the women is the last row and the worst is the first row.” [Muslim]

1085. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw people hanging back and he said to them, “Come forward and complete the row behind me and let those behind you complete your row. If people persist in hanging back, Allah will set them back.” [Muslim]

1086. Abu Mas’ud said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to put his hand on our shoulders in the prayer and say, ‘Keep straight and do not be disunified or your hearts will become disunified. Let those among you who have maturity and intelligence stand nearest to me and then those who are closest to them and then those closest to them.” [Muslim]

1087. Anas stated that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Make your rows straight. Straightening the row is part of the perfection of the prayer.” [Agreed upon]

In a variant of al-Bukhari, “Straightening the row is part of establishing the prayer.”

1088. Anas said, “When the iqama for the prayer was given, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, would turn round and face us. He said, ‘Straighten your rows and stand close together for I can see you behind my back.'” [al-Bukhari]

In one variant of al-Bukhari, “We used to stand shoulder to shoulder and foot to foot.”

1089. An-Nu’man ibn Bashir who said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “Make your rows straight or Allah will cause disagreements between you.” [Agreed upon]

In a variant in Muslim, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to straighten our rows to such an extent that it was as arrows could be straightened by them. This continued until he saw that we had understood that. Then one day he came out to us and stood for the prayer until he was about to say the takbir. Then he saw the chest of a bedouin man protruding from the line. He said, ‘Slaves of Allah! Make your rows straight or Allah will cause disagreements between you.'”

1090. Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go between the rows from one end to the other, pushing our chests and shoulders. He would say, ‘Do not be disunified or your hearts will become disunified.’ He used to say, ‘Allah and the his angels bless the first row.'”

1091. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Make the rows straight, stand shoulder to shoulder and close up the gaps. Give way to your brothers and do not leave any openings for Shaytan. Allah will connect with anyone who connects up the row and Allah will break off from anyone who makes a break in a row.” [Abu Dawud]

1092. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Press together in your rows, drawing close to one another and making your shoulders touch. By the One in whose hand my soul is, I see Shaytan coming through the gaps in the row as if he was a small black goat.” [Abu Dawud]

1093. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Complete the front row and then the one behind it. The only row to be incomplete should be the last row.” [Abu Dawud]

1094. ‘A’isha reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah and the angels bless those on the right hand side of the rows.” [Abu Dawud]

1095. Al-Bara’ said, “When we prayed behind the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, we wanted to be on his right so that his face would turn towards us. I heard him say, ‘Lord, protect me from Your punishment on the day You raise up – or You gather – Your slaves.'” [Muslim]

1096. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Put the Imam in the middle and fill up the gaps.” [Abu Dawud]

195. Chapter: The Excellence of doing the sunnas with the obligatory prayers, and clarification of the least of them, the most perfect, and what is between that

1097. Umm Habiba Ramla bint Abi Sufyan said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘No Muslim slave prays to Allah Almighty twelve voluntary rak’ats over and above the obligatory ones every day without Allah building a house for him in the Garden (or “without a house being built for him in the Garden.”)'” [Muslim]

1098. Ibn ‘Umar said, “I prayed with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, two rak’ats before Dhuhr and two rak’ats after it, two rak’ats after Jumu’a, two rak’ats after Maghrib, and two rak’ats after ‘Isha’.” [Agreed upon]

1099. ‘Abdullah ibn Mughaffal stated that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is a prayer between the two adhans, there is a prayer between the two adhans,” and then the third time he said, “For whoever wishes it.” [Agreed upon]

196. Chapter: The importance of the two rak’ats which are the sunna of Subh

1100. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not fail to pray four rak’ats before Dhuhr and two rak’ats before Subh.” [al-Bukhari]

1101. ‘A’isha said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was not more constant in respect of any supererogatory action than the two rak’ats of Fajr.” [Agreed upon]

1102. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The two rak’ats of Fajr are better than this world and everything it contains.” [Muslim]

In one variant, “I love them more than the entire world.”

1103. Abu ‘Abdullah Bilal ibn Rabah, the mu’adhdhin of the Messenger of Allah, said that he went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to tell him it was time for the Morning prayer and ‘A’isha distracted Bilal by something which she asked him to do until it was well into the time. Bilal stood and announced the prayer to him and then repeated his announcement. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, still did not come out. When he did come out, he led the people in the prayer, and Bilal informed him that ‘A’isha had distracted with something she had asked him to do until it was well into the time and yet he still delayed coming out. He – i.e. the Prophet said – ‘I was doing the two rak’ats of Fajr.’ He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, you were well into the time.’ He said, ‘If I had been even further into the time than I was, I would still have done the two rak’ats. I would have done them well and done them properly.'” [Abu Dawud]

197. Chapter: On two quick rak’ats for Fajr and clarification of what is recited in them and their time

1104. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray two quick rak’ats between the adhan and the iqama for the Subh prayer.” [Agreed upon]

In one variant of both al-Bukhari and Muslim, “He used to pray the two rak’ats of Fajr when he heard the adhan. He would make them so short that I would say, ‘Did he recite the Umm al-Qur’an [the Fatiha} in them?'”

In a variant of Muslim, “He used to pray the two rak’ats of Fajr when he heard the adhan and made them short.” In one variant, “When Fajr appeared.”

1105. Hafsa said that when the mu’adhdhin withdrew to call the adhan of Subh and daybreak appeared, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed two short rak’ats before the iqama of the prayer was given. [Agreed upon]

1106. Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray the night prayers two by two and then do the witr with one rak’at. He would pray two rak’ats before the morning prayer with the adhan still echoing in his ears.” [Agreed upon]

1107. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to recite the following ayat from al-Baqara in the first of the two rak’ats of Fajr, “Say: ‘We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us…,” (W135; H136), and in the last, “We believe in Allah. Bear witness that we are Muslims.” (W3:51; H3:52)

In one variant, in the last he recited the following ayat from Ali ‘Imran, “Come to a proposition which is the same for us and you.” (W3:63; H3:64) [Muslim]

1108. Abu Hurayra said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recited in the two rak’ats of Fajr, “Say: ‘Unbelievers!'” (109) and “Say: He is Allah, Absolute Oneness.” (112) [Muslim]

1109. Ibn ‘Umar said, “I watched the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for a month and he used to recite in the two rak’ats of Fajr, ‘Say: Unbelievers!,’ and ‘Say: He is Allah, Absolute Oneness.’” [at-Tirmidhi]

198. Chapter: On the recommendation to lie down on the right side after the two rak’ats of Fajr and encouraging doing that whether or not one has prayed voluntary prayers in the night

1110. ‘A’isha said, “After the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed the two rak’ats of Fajr, he would lie down on his right side.” [al-Bukhari]

1111. ‘A’isha said, “Between the time he finished the ‘Isha’ prayer until Fajr, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray eleven rak’ats, and he would say the salam after every two rak’ats and perform the witr with one. When the mu’adhdhin fell silent after calling the Fajr prayer and the time of Fajr was clear and the mu’adhdhin had come to him, he would do two quick rak’ats and then lie down on his right side until the mu’adhdhin came to him for the iqama.” [Muslim]

1112. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you has prayed the two rak’ats of Fajr, he should lie down on his right side.” [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

199. Chapter: On the sunna of Dhuhr

1113. Ibn ‘Umar said, “I prayed with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, two rak’ats before Dhuhr and two rak’ats after it.” [Agreed upon]

1114. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not fail to pray four rak’ats before Dhuhr.” [al-Bukhari]

1115. ‘A’isha said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray four rak’ats in my house before Dhuhr and then go out and lead the people in prayer. Then he would come in and pray two rak’ats. He would lead the people in the Maghrib prayer and then enter and pray two rak’ats. He would lead the people in the ‘Isha’ prayer and then enter my house and pray two rak’ats.” [Muslim]

1116. Umm Habiba reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah will make unlawful for the Fire anyone who maintains the practice of the four rak’ats before Dhuhr and the four after it.” [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

1117. ‘Abdullah ibn as-Sa’ib reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray four rak’ats when the sun began to descend before the Dhuhr prayer. He said, ‘It is an hour in which the gates of heaven are opened and I want a righteous action to ascend for me in it.'” [at-Tirmidhi]

1118. ‘A’isha reported that when the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not pray four rak’ats before Dhuhr, he would pray them after it. [at-Tirmidhi]

200. Chapter: On the sunna of ‘Asr

1119. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray four rak’ats before ‘Asr and would separate them with a taslim to the highest of the angels and all of the Muslims and believers who follow them.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1120. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “May Allah have mercy on any man who prays four rak’ats before ‘Asr.” [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

1121. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray two rak’ats before ‘Asr. [Abu Dawud]

201. Chapter: On the sunna before and after Maghrib

1122. ‘Abdullah ibn Mughaffal reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Pray before Maghrib,” and the third time he said, “for anyone who wishes to do so.” [al-Bukhari]

1123. Anas said, “I saw the great Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, go quickly to the pillars at Maghrib.” [al-Bukhari]

1124. Anas said, “In the time of the Messenger of Allah, we used to pray two rak’ats after sunset before Maghrib.” It was said, “Did the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, pray them.” He said, “He used to see us pray them and he neither commanded nor forbade us.” [Muslim]

1125. Anas said, “When we were in Madina and the mu’adhdhin gave the adhan for the Maghrib prayer, people would go quickly to the pillars and do two rak’ats, so that if a man who was a stranger entered the mosque he would suppose that the prayer had already been prayed due to the great number of people praying those two rak’ats.” [Muslim]

202. Chapter: On the sunna before and after ‘Isha’

See hadiths 1098 and 1099.

203. Chapter: The sunna of Jumu’a

It contains the previous hadith of Ibn ‘Umar (1098).

1126. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you prays Jumu’a, he should pray four rak’ats after it.” [Muslim]

1127. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not pray after Jumu’a until after he had left. He would pray two rak’ats in his house. [Muslim]

204. Chapter: The recommendation to pray voluntary prayers at home but not obligatory prayers. The command to move from the place where one did the obligatory prayer or to speak before doing the voluntary prayer

1128. Zayd ibn Thabit reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “O people, pray in your houses. The best prayer is a man’s prayer in his house – except for the obligatory prayer.” [Agreed upon]

1129. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do some of your prayers in your houses and do not make them into graves.” [Agreed upon]

1130. Jabir reported said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Any of you who does all his prayers in the mosque, should do some of them in his house, for Allah will put blessing in his house on account of his prayer.” [Muslim]

1131. ‘Umar ibn ‘Ata’ said that Nafi’ ibn Jubayr sent him to as-Sa’ib ibn Ukht Namir to ask him about something that Mu’awiya had seen him do in the prayer. He said, “Yes, I prayed Jumu’a with him in the enclosure. When the Imam did the salam, I stood up where I was and prayed. When he entered he sent word to me and said, ‘Do not do what you did again. When you have prayed Jumu’a. do not pray another prayer until you have spoken or gone out. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded us to do that, not to do another prayer after the prayer until we had spoken or gone out.” [Muslim]

205. Chapter: On encouraging performance of the Witr prayer and clarification that it is confirmed, and making its time clear

1132. ‘Ali said, “The witr is not an obligation like the prescribed prayer, but it is the sunna of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He said, ‘Allah is single (witr) and loves odd numbers, so do the witr, people of the Qur’an.'”[Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

1133. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did the witr at all times of the night, at the beginning of the night, its middle and its end. The latest time he did his witr was just before dawn.'” [Agreed upon]

1134. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Make the witr the last of your prayers at night.”[Agreed upon]

1135. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do the witr before you do Subh.” [Muslim]

1136. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray at night when she was in front of him. When only the witr remained to do, he would wake her up to do the witr.” [Muslim]

In one variant, “When only the witr remained to do, he said, ‘Get up and do the witr, ‘A’isha.'”

1137. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Set out to the Subh prayer with the witr done.” [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

1138. Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who is afraid that he will not get up at the end of the night should do his witr at its beginning. Anyone who intends to get up at the end of night, should do the witr at its end. The prayer at the end of the night is witnessed, and that is the best.” [Muslim]

206. Chapter: The Excellence of the Duha prayer, clarification of its minimum, maximum and middle size, and the encouragement to persevere in doing it

1139. Abu Hurayra said, “My friend, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered me to do three things: to fast three days every month, to do the two rak’ats of Duha and to do the witr before sleeping.” [Agreed upon]

1140. Abu Dharr reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Sadaqa is owed by every joint you have. Every glorification is sadaqa. Every praise is sadaqa. Commanding the right is sadaqa. Forbidding the wrong is sadaqa. Praying two rak’ats in the forenoon (Duha) covers all these.” [Muslim]

1141. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray four rak’ats for Duha and would do any number more that Allah wished.” [Muslim]

1142. Umm Hani’ Fakhita bint Abi Talib said, “I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the year of the Conquest of Makka and found him washing. When he finished washing, he prayed eight rak’ats. That was in the time of Duha.” [Agreed upon]

207. Chapter: Permission to pray Duha from the time the sun is high until noon. It is best to pray it when it is very hot and well into mid-morning

1143. Zayd ibn Arqam said that he saw some people praying at the beginning of the time of Duha. He said, “Do they not know that the prayer at a later time is better? The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The prayer of the repenters is when the young camels have become hot from the sun.'” [Muslim]

208. Chapter: The encouragement to pray the two rak’at prayer of greeting when entering the mosque, and it being disliked to sit down before praying the two rak’ats at whatever time one enters, whether that be the two rak’ats of greeting, or an obligatory or sunna prayer

1144. Abu Qatada reported said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you enters the mosque, he should not sit down until he has prayed two rak’ats.” [Agreed upon]

1145. Jabir said, “I once came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while he was in the mosque and he said, ‘Pray two rak’ats.'” [Agreed upon]

209. Chapter: The recommendation to pray two rak’ats after doing wudu’

1146. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to Bilal, “Bilal, tell me that action that you have done since entering Islam which gives you the most reason to hope for I heard the sound of your sandals ahead of me in the Garden.” He said, “I have done no action which gives me more reason to hope than that of never purifying myself at any time of the night or day without then praying after that purification as much as is written for me to pray.” [Agreed upon]

210. Chapter: The excellence of the day of Jumu’a, its obligatory nature and washing for it, putting on scent and going early to it. Supplication on Friday and the prayer on the Prophet. Clarification of the time when supplication is answered. The recommendation of remembering Allah often after Jumu’a

Allah Almighty says, “Then when the prayer is finished spread through the earth and seek Allah’s bounty and remember Allah much so that perhaps you may be successful.” (62:10)

1147. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday. On it Adam was created and on it he was admitted to the Garden and on it he was expelled from it.” [Muslim]

1148. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever does wudu’ thoroughly, then goes to Jumu’a, listens and is silent, will be forgiven until the next Jumu’a and three days more. Whoever plays with pebbles has wasted it.” [Muslim]

1149. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The five prayers and from one Jumu’a to another and one Ramadan to another expiate what is between them if major sins are avoided.” [Muslim]

1150. Abu Hurayra and from Ibn ‘Umar said that they heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, standing on the steps of the minbar, “People should be wary of avoiding the Jumu’as or else Allah will put a seal on their hearts and then they will be among the heedless.” [Muslim]

1151. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you comes to the Jumu’a, he should have a ghusl first.” [Agreed upon]

1152. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Doing ghusl on the day of Jumu’a is obligatory for every male who has reached puberty.” [Agreed upon]

1153. Samura reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If someone does wudu’ on the Day of Jumu’a, it is by a dispensation and there is a blessing in it but if someone does ghusl, ghusl is better.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1154. Salman reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When a man does ghusl on the day of Jumu’a, making himself as clean as possible, uses his hair oil or puts on any perfume he has in his house, then goes out and does not split up two people, and then prays what is prescribed for him and is silent while the Imam speaks, he is forgiven everything between then and the previous Jumu’a.” [al-Bukhari]

1155. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who does ghusl on the day of Jumu’a, the same as for janaba, and then goes in the first part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a camel. If he goes in the second part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a cow. If he goes in the third part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a horned ram. If he goes in the fourth part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed a hen. If he goes in the fifth part of the time, it is as if he has sacrificed an egg. When the Imam comes out, the angels settle down to listen to the reminder.” [Agreed upon]

1156. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned the day of Jumu’a and said, “There is a time during it when Allah Almighty gives to a Muslim standing in prayer whatever he asks for.” He indicated how small it was with his hand. [Agreed upon]

1157. Abu Burda ibn Abi Musa al-Ash’ari reported that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar asked, “Did you hear your father relate anything from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, concerning the special time on the day of Jumu’a?” He said, ‘I replied, “Yes. I heard him say that he heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘It is from the time the Imam sits down until the prayer is finished.'” [Muslim]

1158. Aws ibn Aws reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best of your days is the day of Jumu’a, so do a lot of prayer on me during it. Your prayer is presented to me.'” [Abu Dawud]

211. Chapter: On the recommendation to perform the prostration of gratitude when one obtains a blessing or an affliction is averted

1159. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas said, “We went out with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from Makka, making for Madina. When we were near ‘Azwaza’, he dismounted and lifted his hands and made supplication to Allah for a time and then he went down into prostration and remained there for a long time. Then he stood and raised his hands for a long time and then went down into prostration again. He did that three times. He said, ‘I asked my Lord and interceded for my community, and He gave me a third of my community. So I went down into prostration to my Lord out of gratitude. Then I lifted my head and asked my Lord for my community and He gave me another third of my community. I went down into prostration to my Lord out of gratitude. Then I lifted my head and asked my Lord for my community and He gave me the last third of my community so I again went down into prostration to my Lord.” [Abu Dawud]

212. Chapter: On the excellence of rising in the night to pray

Allah Almighty says, “And stay awake for prayer during part of the night as a supererogatory action for yourself. It may well be that your Lord will raise you to a Praiseworthy Station,” (17:79) and the Almighty says, “Their sides eschew their beds,” (32:16) and the Almighty says, “The part of the night they spent asleep was small.” (51:17)

1160. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to get up to pray at night to the extent that his feet became swollen. I said to him, ‘Why do you do this, Messenger of Allah, when you have been forgiven your past and future wrong actions?’ He said, ‘Should I not be a thankful slave?'” [Agreed upon]

1161. ‘Ali reported that one night the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came to him and Fatima daughter of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and knocked at their door. “He said, ‘Do you not pray?'” [Agreed upon]

1162. Salim ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab reported from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “‘Abdullah is an excellent man. If only he would pray during the night.” Salim said, “After that ‘Abdullah spent very little of the night asleep.” [Agreed upon]

1163. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to me, “‘Abdullah, do not be like so-and-so who used to pray at night and then stopped doing it.'” [Agreed upon]

1164. Ibn Mas’ud said, “A man was mentioned in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and it was said of him that he had continued to sleep into the morning without having got up for the prayer. He said, ‘Shaytan urinated in his ears,’ or he said, ‘his ear.'” [Agreed upon]

1165. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Shaytan ties three knots at the back of your necks when you are asleep. He hits every knot saying the words, ‘You have a long night ahead of you so sleep soundly.’ When you wake up and remember Allah, one knot is undone. When you do wudu’, one knot is undone. When you pray, one knot is undone. So the morning finds you cheerful and energetic. Otherwise, the morning will find you lazy and foul-tempered.” [Agreed upon]

1166. ‘Abdullah ibn Salam reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “O people, make the greeting common practice and provide food and pray at night while people are asleep, and you will enter the Garden in safety.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1167. Abu Hurayra reported said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best fast after Ramadan is the month of Allah, al-Muharram, and the best prayer after the obligatory prayer is the night prayer.” [Muslim]

1168. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Night prayers are two by two, and when you are afraid that the dawn is near, then pray one rak’at as witr.” [Agreed upon]

1169. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray in the night two by two and then do one rak’at for witr.” [Agreed upon]

1170. Anas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used not to fast in a month until we thought that he would not fast for any of it and he would fast until we thought that he would not break his fast for any of it. If anyone wanted to see him praying in the night he could see him doing that or to see him sleeping he could see him doing that.” [al-Bukhari]

1171. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray eleven rak’ats. In them he would stay in sajda long enough for one of you to recite fifty ayats before lifting his head. He would pray two rak’ats before the Fajr prayer and then lie down on his right side until someone came to him to call him to the prayer.”[al-Bukhari]

1172. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not do more than eleven rak’ats (at night) during Ramadan or at any other time. He would pray four rak’ats – do not ask about their beauty or length – and then he would pray four more – and do not ask about their beauty or length – and then he would pray three. I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, do you sleep before the witr?’ He said, ”A’isha, my eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.'” [Agreed upon]

1173. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to sleep in the first part of the night and stand in prayer in the last part of it.” [Agreed upon]

1174. Ibn Mas’ud said, “I prayed in the night with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he stood so long that I wanted to do something awful.” He was asked, “What did you want to do?” He said, “I wanted sit down and leave him.” [Agreed upon]

1175. Hudhayfa said, “I prayed with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, one night and he began al-Baqara. I said, ‘He will go into ruku’ after a hundred.’ He continued and I said, ‘He will pray one rak’at with it.’ But he continued. I said, ‘He will go into ruku’ with it.’ Then he began Surat an-Nisa‘ and recited it and then began Ali ‘Imran and recited it. He recited slowly and when he passed through an ayat of glorification, he glorified Allah. When he passed a question, he asked it. When he passed an ayat of seeking refuge, he sought refuge. Then he went into ruku’ and began to say, ‘Glory be to my Lord, the Immense.’ His bowing was about as long as his standing. Then he said, ‘Allah hears whoever praises Him. Our Lord, yours is the praise.’ Then he stood for a long time, nearly as long as his bowing. Then he prostrated and said, ‘Glory be to my Lord, the Most High.’ His prostration was almost as long as his standing.” [Muslim]

1176. Jabir said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, “Which prayer is the best?” He said, “A long qunut (i.e. standing).'” [Muslim]

1177. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As reported that the Messenger of Allah , may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The prayer which Allah Almighty loves best was the fast of Da’ud, and the fast which Allah Almighty loves best is the prayer of Da’ud. He used to sleep half of the night and pray one third of it and then sleep a sixth. He used to fast one day and break the fast the next day.” [Agreed upon]

1178. Jabir said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘There is an hour during the night in which whatever good of this world and the Next a man asks Allah Almighty for, He will give it to him. That happens every night.'” [Muslim]

1179. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you gets up in the night, he should begin his prayer with two quick rak’ats.” [Muslim]

1180. ‘A’isha said, “When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to get up at night, he would begin his prayer with two quick rak’ats.” [Muslim]

1181. ‘A’isha said, “When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, missed the prayer in the night due to illness or some other reason, he would pray twelve rak’ats during the daytime.” [Muslim]

1182. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who sleeps through his hizb or part of it, should recite it between the Fajr prayer and the Dhuhr prayer. It will be written for him as if he had recited it in the night.” [Muslim]

1183. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “May Allah show mercy to a man who gets up in the night and prays and wakes up his wife, and. if she refuses, splashes some water in her face. May Allah show mercy to a woman who gets up in the night and prays and wakes up her husband, and if he refuses, splashes water in his face.” [Abu Dawud]

1184. Abu Hurayra and Abu Sa’id stated that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When a man wakes up his wife at night and they pray together – or they pray two rak’ats together – they are written down among ‘the men and women who remember’.” [Abu Dawud]

1185. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If one of you nods off while he is praying, he should go and lie down until he is no longer sleepy. If someone prays when he is drowsy, he may not know whether he is asking for forgiveness or asking for something bad for himself.” [Agreed upon]

1186. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you gets up in the night, and the Qur’an is unintelligible on his tongue and he does not know what he is saying, then he should lie down again.” [Muslim]

213. Chapter: The recommendation to pray at night in Ramadan – that is the tarawih prayers

1187. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who prays in Ramadan motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions.” [Agreed upon]

1188. Abu Hurayra said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to encourage prayer at night in Ramadan although he did not command people to do it as a obligatory duty. He would say, ‘Anyone who prays in Ramadan motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward will be forgiven all his past wrong actions.'” [Muslim]

214. Chapter: On the excellence of praying in the Night of Power

Allah says, “Truly We sent it down on the Night of Power” (97:1) to the end of the sura. Allah says, “We sent it down on a blessed night.” (W44:2; H44:3)

1189. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who prays on the Night of Power motivated by belief and in anticipation of being rewarded will be forgiven his past wrong actions.” [Agreed upon]

1190. Ibn ‘Umar reported that some of the Companions of the Prophet were shown in a dream that the Night of Power is during the last seven days. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I think that your dreams agree about the last seven. Those who want to look for it, should look for it in the last seven.” [Agreed upon]

1191. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do i’tikaf in the last ten nights of Ramadan and he said, ‘Look for the Night of Power during the last ten nights of Ramadan.'” [Agreed upon]

1192. ‘A’isha reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Look for the Night of Power during the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan.” [al-Bukhari]

1193. ‘A’isha said, “When the last ten days of Ramadan started, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray during the night, wake up his family and intensify his efforts.” [Agreed upon]

1194. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to do night prayers in Ramadan which he did not do in other months, and in the last ten nights of it what he did not do during the other nights.” [Muslim]

1195. ‘A’isha said, “I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, if I know what night the Night of Power is, what do you think I should say during it?’ He said, ‘Say: “O Allah, You are Pardoning and you love pardon, so pardon me.”‘” [at-Tirmidhi]

214. Chapter: The excellence of the siwak and the qualities of the natural form (fitra)

1196. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If it was not for the fact that I might have been overburdening my community – or the people – I would have ordered them to use the siwak for every prayer.” [Agreed upon]

1197. Hudhayfa said, “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, got up in the night, he would rinse out his mouth.” [Agreed upon]

1198. ‘A’isha said, “We used prepare the Prophet’s siwak and wudu’ water and Allah would make him wake for whatever part of the night He wished, and he would use the siwak and do wudu’ and then pray.” [Muslim]

1199. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “How many times have I told you about the siwak!” [al-Bukhari]

1200. Shurayh ibn Hani’ said, “I asked ‘A’isha, ‘What did the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, do first when he entered his house?’ She replied, ‘Use the siwak.'” [Muslim]

1201. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari said, “I visited the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the end of the siwak was on his tongue.” [Agreed upon]

1202. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The siwak is purification for the mouth and pleasing to the Lord.” [an-Nasa’i]

1203. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The natural form of man (fitra) involves five things – or there are five things which are part of the natural form of man: circumcision, shaving the pubic hair, cutting the nails, removing hair from the armpits and trimming the moustache.” [Agreed upon]

1204. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Ten things make up man’s natural form: trimming the moustache, letting the beard grow, using the siwak, snuffing water up the nose, cutting the nails, washing the knuckles, removing hair from the armpits, shaving the pubic hair and using water in the lavatory.'” The narrator said, “I forgot the tenth. It could be rinsing the mouth.” [Muslim]

1205. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Trim the moustache and let the beard grow.” [Agreed upon]

216. Chapter: Stressing the obligation of zakat and clarification of its excellence and what is connected to it

Allah says, “Establish the prayer and pay zakat” (W2:42; H2:43) and the Almighty says, “They were only ordered to worship Allah, making their deen sincerely His as people of pure natural belief, and to establish the prayer and pay zakat – that is the correct deen.” (98:5) He says, “Take zakat from their wealth to purify and cleanse them.” (W9:104; H9:103)

1206. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Islam is based on five: testifying that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (shahada); establishing the prayer (salat); paying the zakat (poor-tax), the Hajj and the fast (sawm) of Ramadan.” [Agreed upon]

1207. Talha ibn ‘Ubaydullah said that a man came to the Messenger of Allah from the people of Najd. His hair was unkempt. The sound of his voice could be heard, but they could not understand what he said until he drew near. He was asking about Islam. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “It is five prayers a day.” He asked, “Do I have to do any more?” He said, “No, unless you want to do voluntary prayers.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then said, “And you must fast the month of Ramadan.” He asked, “Do I have to do any more?” He said, “No, unless you want to do so voluntarily.” Then the Messenger of Allah mentioned zakat to him. He said, “Do I have to do any more?” He said, “No, unless you want to do so voluntarily.” The man withdrew, saying, “By Allah, I will do no more nor less than this.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If he is speaking the truth, he will have success.” [i.e. he will be granted Paradise] [Agreed upon]

1208. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent Mu’adh to Yemen and said, ‘Call on them to testify that there is no god but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah. If they comply with that, then let them know that Allah has made the five prayers obligatory on them every day and night. If they comply with that, then let them know that Allah has made the payment of zakat from their property obligatory on them, to be taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor.'” [Agreed upon]

1209. Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “I have been commanded to fight people until they testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and establish the prayer and pay the zakat. If they do that, their lives and property are protected from me except for the right of Islam, and their reckoning is up to Allah.” [Agreed upon]

1210. Abu Hurayra said, “When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died and Abu Bakr was khalifa and those of the Arabs who were going to reject rejected, ‘Umar said, ‘How can we fight people when the Messenger of Allah said, “I am commanded to fight people until they say, ‘There is no god but Allah.’ Whoever says that, his property and life are protected from me, except when there is a legal right to them, and his reckoning is up to Allah.”?’ Abu Bakr said, ‘By Allah, I will fight anyone who makes a distinction between prayer and zakat! Zakat is the right which is due on wealth. By Allah, if they refuse me a nose-rope which they used to pay to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I will fight them for refusing it!’ ‘Umar said, ‘By Allah, then I realised that Allah had expanded Abu Bakr’s breast in respect of the decision to fight and I recognised that it was the truth.” [Agreed upon]

1211. Abu Ayyub reported that a man said to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, “Tell me an action which will ensure my entrance into the Garden.” He said, “Worship Allah and do not associate anything else with him. Establish the prayer and pay the zakat and maintain ties of kinship.” [Agreed upon]

1212. Abu Hurayra said, “A bedouin came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘Tell me an action by which, if I do it, I will enter the Garden.’ He said, ‘Worship Allah and do not associate anything else with him. Perform the prescribed prayer and pay the obligatory zakat, and fast Ramadan.’ He said, ‘By the One who has my soul in His hand, I will do no more than this.’ When he turned to go, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Anyone who wants to see one of the people of the Garden should look at this man.'” [Agreed upon]

1213. Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “I gave allegiance to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on the basis of performing the prayer, paying the zakat and giving good counsel to every Muslim.” [Agreed upon]

1214. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is no one who has gold or silver and does not pay what is due on them without them being turned, on the Day of Rising, into slabs of Fire and being heated in the Fire of Jahannam and his side, forehead and back being branded with them. Every time they cool they will be heated again throughout a day whose length is fifty thousand years, until people’s fates have been decided and he sees his way open either to the Garden or to the Fire.” It was said, “Messenger of Allah, what about camels?” He said, “There is no owner of camels who fails to fulfil what is due to them, and one of their rights is to be milked on the day they are watered, without, on the Day of Rising, being thrown on his face on account of them on a very wide level plain. Not one young camel will be missing and they will trample him with their hooves and bite him with their teeth. When the last of them have passed over him, then the first of them will return to him throughout a day whose length is fifty thousand years until people’s fates have been decided and he sees his way open either to the Garden or to the Fire.”

It was asked, “Messenger of Allah, and what about cattle and sheep?” He said, “There is no owner of cattle or sheep who fails to fulfil what is due to them, without, on the Day of Rising, being thrown on his face on account of them on a very wide level plain. Not one of them will be missing. None of them will have curved horns or no horns or broken horns. They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hooves. When the last of them have passed over him, then the first of them will return to him in a day whose length is fifty thousand years until people’s fates have been decided and he sees his way open either to the Garden or to the Fire.”

It was asked, “Messenger of Allah, what about horses?” He said, “There are three kinds of horses: those which are a burden for a man, those which are a protection for a man and those which contain a reward for a man. Those which are a burden for a man are those which are kept just for showing off, boastfulness and out of enmity against the people of Islam. They are a burden. Those which are a protection for a man are those a man keeps in the way of Allah without forgetting Allah’s right in respect of their backs and necks. They are a protection for him. As for those which contain a reward for him, they are those which a man keeps in meadows or grasslands in the way of Allah for the people of Islam. For anything they eat of that meadow or grassland there are good deeds written for him for what they ate and good deeds for their droppings and urine. If one of them breaks its tether and goes over a hillock or two, its tracks and droppings are also good deeds for him. If it crosses a river and drinks from it when he had not intended to allow it to drink from it, Allah writes for him the amount it drinks as good deeds for him.”

It was asked, “Messenger of Allah, what about donkeys?” He said, “Nothing has been revealed to me about donkeys except for this unique, comprehensive verse, ‘Whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it. Whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it.’ (99:7-8)” [Agreed upon]

217. Chapter: On the obligation to fast Ramadan and clarification of the excellence of fasting and what is connected to it

Allah Almighty says, “You who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you..” to His words “The month of Ramadan is the one in which the Qur’an was sent down as guidance for mankind, with Clear Signs containing guidance and discrimination. Any of you who are resident for the month should fast it. But any of you who are ill or on a journey should fast a number of other days.” (W2:182-184; H2:183-185)

1215. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah, the Mighty and Exalted said, ‘Every action of the son of Adam is for himself except for fasting. It is Mine and I repay it.’ Fasting is a shield. When someone is fasting, he should not have sexual relations nor quarrel. If someone fights him or insults him, he should say, ‘I am fasting’. By the One in whose hand the self of Muhammad is, the changed breath in the mouth of the faster is more fragrant to Allah than the scent of musk. The faster experiences two joys: when he breaks his fast he rejoices and when he meets his Lord he rejoices in his fasting.” [Agreed upon]

In one variant of al-Bukhari, “He has left his food and drink and appetites for My sake. Fasting is Mine and I repay it. Any other good deed I repay with ten like it.”

In a variant of Muslim, “Every action of the son of Adam is multiplied. A good action receives from ten to seven hundred times. Allah Almighty said, “Fasting is Mine and I repay it. He leaves his appetites and food for My sake. The faster experiences two joys: a joy when he breaks his fast and a joy when he meets his Lord. The changed breath in the mouth of the faster is more fragrant to Allah than the scent of musk.”

1216. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The one who spends out two kinds of actions in the way of Allah will be summoned from the gates of the Garden and told, ‘O slave of Allah this is better.’ All the people who did the prayer will be called from the gate of the prayer. All the people who did jihad will be called from the gate of jihad. All the people who fasted will be called from the gate of Rayyan. All the people who gave sadaqa will be called from the gate of sadaqa.” Abu Bakr said, “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, Messenger of Allah. No one called from those gates will feel distress. Will anyone be called from all those gates?” He said, “Yes, and I hope that you will be among them.” [Agreed upon]

1217. Sahl ibn Sa’d reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There is a gate in the Garden called ar-Rayyan which those who fast will enter on the Day of Rising, and none but they will enter it.” It will be said, ‘Where are the fasters?’ They will stand up and none but they will enter it. When they have entered it, it will be closed and no one else will enter it.” [Agreed upon]

1218. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “No slave fasts one day in the way of Allah without Allah putting his face seventy years’ journey away from the Fire on account of that day.” [Agreed upon]

1219. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who prays in Ramadan motivated by belief and in expectation of the reward will be forgiven his past wrong actions.” [Agreed upon]

1220. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When Ramadan comes, the gates of the Garden are opened, the gates of the Fire are closed and the shaytans are chained up.” [Agreed upon]

1221. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Fast when you see it (the new moon) and break the fast when you see it. If it is cloudy, then make Sha’ban complete with thirty days.” [Agreed upon]

In the variant of Muslim, “If it is cloudy, you must fast thirty days.”

218. Chapter: On generosity, charity and doing much good in the month of Ramadan, and increasing that in the last ten days of the month

1222. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was the most generous of people, and he was even more generous during Ramadan when Jibril met him. Jibril used to meet him every night in Ramadan until it was over and the Prophet would go through the Qur’an with him. The Messenger of Allah was more generous with good things than the blowing wind.” [Agreed upon]

1223. ‘A’isha said, “When the last ten days of Ramadan started, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray during the night, wake up his family and intensify his efforts.” [Agreed upon]

219. Chapter: On the prohibition against fasting before Ramadan after the middle of Sha’ban unless that fasting is connected to what is before it and coincides with his habit, like fasting Monday and Thursday

1224. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “None of you should fast a day or two before Ramadan except for a man who customarily fasts. He should fast that day.” [Agreed upon]

1225. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Do not fast immediately before Ramadan. Fast when you see the new moon and break it when you see it. If cloud obscures it, then complete the thirty days.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1226. Abu reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When half of Sha’ban remains, then do not fast.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1227. Abu’l-Yaqatan ‘Ammar ibn Yasir said, “Anyone who fasts the day which is doubtful has rebelled against Abu’l-Qasim.” [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

220. Chapter: On what one says when seeing the new moon

1228. Talha ibn ‘Ubaydullah reported that When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw the new moon, he would say, “O Allah, make the new moon shine on us with security, belief, safety and Islam! My Lord and your Lord is Allah. It is a new moon of guidance and good.” [at-Tirmidhi]

221. Chapter: The excellence of suhur and delaying it as long as one does not fear the approach of dawn

1229. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Have suhur. There is blessing in suhur.” [Agreed upon]

1230. Zayd ibn Thabit said, “We used to have suhur with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Then he stood up for the prayer.” Anas said, “I said, ‘How long was there between the adhan and suhur?’ He said, ‘Enough to recite fifty ayats.'” [Agreed upon]

1231. Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had two mu’adhdhans: Bilal and Ibn Umm Maktum. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Bilal calls the adhan while it is still night, so eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum calls the adhan.” He said, “The time between the two adhans was only long enough for the one to go up and the other to come down.” [Agreed upon]

1232. ‘Amr ibn al-‘As reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The difference between our fasting and the fasting of the people of the Book lies in the eating of suhur.” [Muslim]

222. Chapter: On the excellence of hastening to break the fast and that with which one breaks the fast and what one says after breaking the fast

1233. Sahl ibn Sa’d reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “People will continue to be all right as long as they hurry to break the fast.” [Agreed upon]

1234. Abu ‘Atiyya said, “Masruq and I visited ‘A’isha and Masruq said to her, ‘There are two of the Companions of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and neither of them is lacking in good. One of them hastens Maghrib and fast-breaking and the other delays Maghrib and fast-breaking.’ She said, ‘Which one hastens Maghrib and fast-breaking?’ He said, ”Abdullah – i.e. ibn Mas’ud.’ She said, ‘That is what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did.'” [Muslim]

1235. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah, the Mighty and Majestic said, ‘The most beloved of My slaves to Me is the quickest to break the fast.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1236. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When night advances from here and day retreats from there and the sun sets, then people fasting should break their fast.” [Agreed upon]

1237. Abu Ibrahim ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on a journey while he was fasting. When the sun set, he said to someone, ‘So-and-so, get down and mix some sawiq for us’ He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, won’t you let it get dark?’ He said, ‘Get down and mix some sawiq for us.’ He said, ‘It is still daytime.’ He said, ‘Get down and mix some sawiq for us.’ So he got down and mixed it for them. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, drank and then gestured with his hand towards the east, saying, ‘When you see the night advancing from here, then the faster should break his fast.'” [Agreed upon]

1238. Salman ibn ‘Amir ad-Dabi the Companion reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When one of you breaks his fast, he should break it with dates. If he cannot find any. then he should break it with water. It is pure.” [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

1239. Anas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to break the fast with fresh dates before he prayed, and if there were no fresh dates, then with small dry dates. If there were no dry dates, then with a few sips of water.” [Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi]

223. Chapter: On commanding the faster to guard his tongue and limbs from incorrect actions, verbal abuse and the like

1240. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “When someone is fasting, he should not have sexual relations nor quarrel. If someone fights him or insults him, he should say, ‘I am fasting'” [Agreed upon]

1241. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah does not require someone who does not abandon lies, and acting by them, while fasting to abandon his food and drink.” [al-Bukhari]

224. Chapter: On questions regarding fasting

1242. Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If someone forgets, and eats and drinks, he should complete his fast. Allah has fed him and let him drink.” [Agreed upon]

1243. Laqit ibn Sabira said, “I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, tell me about wudu’.’ He said, ‘Do wudu’ thoroughly letting the water run between your fingers and snuffing the water well up your nose, unless you are fasting.'” [at-Tirmidhi]

1244. ‘A’isha who said, “Fajr used sometimes to find the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, junub from one of his wives. Then he did ghusl and fasted.” [Agreed upon]

1245. ‘A’isha and Umm Salama said, “When morning found the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, junub from one of his wives, he would still fast.” [Agreed upon]

225. Chapter: Clarification of the excellence of fasting Muharram, Sha’ban and the sacred months

1246. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The best fast after Ramadan is the month of Allah, al-Muharram. The best prayer after the obligatory prayer is the night prayer.” [Muslim]

1247. ‘A’isha said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not fast in any month more than Sha’ban. He used to fast all of Sha’ban.” In one variant, “He used to fast Sha’ban except for a little.” [Agreed upon]

1248. Mujiba al-Bahiliyya about her father or her uncle, “He went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and then went to him again a year later when his circumstances and appearance had changed. He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, do you not recognise me?’ He said, ‘Who are you?’ He said, ‘I am the Bahili who came to you last year.’ He said, ‘What has changed you? You had a handsome appearance.’ He said, ‘I have only eaten at night since I left you.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘You have tortured yourself!.’ Then he said, ‘Fast the month of endurance [Ramadan] and one day every month.’ He said, ‘Let me do more. I have strength.’ He said, ‘Fast two days.’ He said, ‘Let me do more.’ He said, ‘Fast three days.’ He said, ‘Let me do more.’ He said, ‘Fast in the sacred months and stop. Fast in the sacred months and stop. Fast in the sacred months and stop.’ He spoke with three fingers, putting them together and then releasing them.'” [Abu Dawud]

226. Chapter: The excellence of fasting and other things in the first 10 days of Dhu’l-Hijja

1249. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “No virtuous actions done during any ten days are better liked by Allah than the actions done on these days (the first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijja).” They said, “Messenger of Allah, not even jihad in the way of Allah?” He said, “Not even jihad in the way of Allah, except for a man who goes out putting his life and property in danger and returns with nothing.” [al-Bukhari]

227. Chapter: On the excellence of fasting the Day of ‘Arafa, ‘Ashura’ and the ninth of Muharram

1250. Abu Qatada said “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about fasting the Day of ‘Arafat. He said, ‘It expiates the past year and coming year.'” [Muslim]

1251. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, fasted the Day of ‘Ashura’ and ordered it to be fasted. [Agreed upon]

1252. Abu Qatada reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about fasting the Day of ‘Ashura’ and said, “It expiates the past year.” [Muslim]

1253. Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If I remain alive until next year, I will fast the ninth.” [Muslim]

228. Chapter: On the recommendation to fast six days of Shawwal

1254. Abu Ayyub reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who fasts Ramadan and then follows it with six from Shawwal, it is as he had fasted the entire year.” [Muslim]

229. Chapter: On the recommendation to fast Mondays and Thursdays

1255. Abu Qatada reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about fasting Mondays and he said, “That is the day on which I was born and the day when I was sent – or when revelation descended on me.” [Muslim]

1256. Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Actions are presented on Mondays and Thursdays, so I like my actions to be presented while I am fasting.” (Muslim related it without mentioning fasting.) [at-Tirmidhi]

1257. ‘A’isha said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to take care to fast on Mondays and Thursdays.” [at-Tirmidhi]

230. Chapter: On the recommendation to fast three days of every month

It is best to fast the ‘white days’, which are the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth.

1258. Abu Hurayra said, “My friend, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered me to do three things: to fast three days every month, to do the two rak’ats of Duha and to do the witr before sleeping.” [Agreed upon]

1259. Abu’d-Darda’ said, “My beloved, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commanded me to do three things which I will not forego as long as I live: to fast three days of every month, to pray Duha, and not to sleep until after praying the witr.” [Muslim]

1260. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As reported said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Fasting three days every month is equivalent to fasting continuously.” [Agreed upon]

1261. Mu’adha al-‘Adawiyya asked ‘A’isha , “Did the Messenger of Allah fast three days of every month?” She said, “Yes.” “I said, ‘What part of the month did he fast?’ She said, ‘He did not care what part of the month he fasted.'” [Muslim]

1262. Abu Dharr reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If you fast three days of the month, then fast the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1263. Qatada ibn Milhan said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to command us to fast the white days: the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth.” [Abu Dawud]

1264. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not fail to fast the white days either when at home or on a journey.” [an-Nasa’i]

231. Chapter: On the excellence giving the faster something with which to break the fast, and the excellence of the faster when people eat in his presence and the supplication of the one who eats for what is eaten

1265. Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever gives a faster something with which to break his fast has the same reward without that diminishing the reward of the faster in any way.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1266. Umm ‘Umara al-Ansariyya reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited her and she presented him with some food. He said, “Eat.” She said, “I am fasting.” The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “The angels pray for blessing on a fasting person when people eat in his presence until they finish.” Perhaps he said, “Until they are full.” [at-Tirmidhi]

1267. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, visited Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada, who brought some bread and oil, and he ate. Then the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Those who were fasting have broken the fast with you and the pious have eaten your food and the angels prayed for blessings on you.” [Abu Dawud]

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