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Adab 11: The Proprieties of Speech

Ustadh Tabraze Azam gives a detailed account of the adab or proprieties of speech according to the Sunna.

One day, a man was sitting with Qadi Abu Yusuf, a senior companion of Imam Abu Hanifa. After a period of extended silence, which was strange given that Qadi Abu Yusuf was the chief justice and an imam in Sacred Law (fiqh), and people wouldn’t usually remain silent around him for too long, the Qadi said to him, “Do you have a question?” The man, fearing a missed opportunity, mustered up enough courage to remark, “Of course! When does a person stop fasting?” Qadi Abu Yusuf replied, “When the sun sets,” The man paused for a moment, then said, “But what if the sun doesn’t set until half the night has passed?”

Sometimes, silence is just better. The Beloved Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, gave us a central principle with respect to speech when he said, “Whosoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, then let him say the good or remain silent.” (Muslim) In fact, there are so many traditions (ahadith) which point out the risks of speaking without due thought, and more importantly, need, that anybody who reads them regularly would begin to fear for his hereafter. In an age of social media where everybody has a voice, it’s imperative that we take a moment to step back, recall what our Lord wants from us, and recognise that we have two ears and one tongue, namely, that our listening should be twice as much as our speech.

1. The Rulings of Speech

The first thing to remember is that speech, like all other actions, has rulings. When the Noble Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, told our Master Mu‘adh to “Restrain this,” namely, the tongue, he replied, “Will we be taken to task for what we say?” The striking, vivid, prophetic answer should suffice all of us as a reminder of the danger and harm we can reap with our tongues: “Is there anything that topples people on their faces – or he said their noses – into the Hellfire other than the harvests of their tongues?” (Tirmidhi)

Thus, speech may be divided into that which is (1) obligatory, (2) recommended, (3) permissible, (4) disliked, and (5) unlawful. 

Obligatory speech is speaking up to command the good, or to correct the wrong by forbidding some vice, when the conditions have been met. Remaining silent in such cases would be impermissible, just as actually engaging in wrongful speech is impermissible. Examples of the latter include engaging in slander, talebearing, lying, and the like of which we’ll see more of shortly.  Similarly, fulfilling many of the rights of your fellow believers is mandatory, such as responding to their greeting of salam, or praying for them after they’ve sneezed, for instance. 

It is recommended to speak when the speech will be recitation of the Qur’an, other remembrances (adhkar), or supplication for oneself or another. Another praiseworthy action is bringing joy to the heart of a fellow believer, or simply saying something pleasant to him because this is a form of “charity.” (Bukhari) On the other hand, it is disliked to speak whilst (a) using the bathroom, (b) undressed, or (c) engaged in intimate relations and the like. Likewise, it is unbecoming to speak when the benefit in doing so isn’t clear, or to speak during discouraged times such as after the nightfall prayer (‘isha). 

As for permitted speech, it is that which is devoid of any resultant reward or sin. An example would be to ask somebody to bring you some tea, or to tell your child to avoid something harmful. Of course, whenever the permissible is conjoined with an intention for Allah Most High, it transitions from the merely permissible to the recommended. 

2. The Golden Rule of Silence

Some of the scholars explained that speech is of four types: (a) harmful, (b) beneficial, (c) harmful and beneficial, and (d) not harmful nor beneficial. Eternal consequences matter, and whenever something harmful and beneficial conjoins, the harm is considered to preponderate over any potential good. Accordingly, this rules out two types of speech. As for that which is not harmful nor beneficial, it is unnecessary and a waste of one’s effort and energy as one finds oneself in the loss of Sura al-‘Asr. The only thing left is beneficial speech and even that has otherworldly danger, namely, because it may lead to showing-off or pride or other blameworthy traits. 

It behooves anybody, then, to recognize that speech should only be used when there is some good in it. If you don’t have anything good to say, you should remain silent as this is the sunna. Interestingly, the Noble Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, instructed us to say the good, not the truth. Now, this isn’t permission to lie, obviously, but it gives us something of prophetic wisdom to work with. The prescriptions of the Sacred Law are always beneficial to us, whether we can see the good in them or not. Many of the early Muslims had much to offer in terms of directing believers towards silence. So twenty years from now, and when your husband asks how he looks in what used to be his wedding suit, be kind!

Imam Qushayri writes in his Risala that silence is the basis. But speaking when there is a manifest need is the manner of real men (namely, in the spiritual sense, so it applies equally to women.) He continues by stating that Abu ‘Ali al-Daqqaq, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Whosoever remains silent when truth is required is a blind devil.” Therefore, when speech is required, you must speak.

3. Excellence in Speech

We were directed to observe excellence in all of our dealings. Consequently, excellence, or ihsan, towards ourselves and others entails that we speak normally with others, without trying to put on heirs. Moderation, too, is generally the emblem of piety. When speaking, avoid being too loud or too quiet, or speaking too quickly or slowly, or speaking sternly when encouraging towards the good and with gentleness when warning against evil. However, this latter point must be contextualized and stated in the correct manner lest that it be a means of pushing people away from religion. Moreover, and as an aside, the sunna is to be attentive to the speaker whilst he is speaking as this nurtures respect and minimizes unbecoming outcomes from “hearing” things that weren’t said or other misunderstandings.

Equally, it is important to train oneself to see the good in things and speak accordingly, turning a blind eye to the ugly. Allah Most High says, “When they come across falsehood, they pass it by with dignity.” (Sura al-Furqan 25:72) It is reported that some of the disciples were walking with the Prophet Jesus, peace be upon him, and they came across the carcass of a dog. One of the disciples then remarked, “What an awful stench!” The Prophet Jesus, peace be upon him, said, “It would have been better if you had said: ‘How white its teeth are!’” Regardless of the soundness of the report, we can learn something about dignity from it. 

In the same vein, one of the righteous used to say “good morning” to wild pigs and stray dogs that he passed, and when asked about it, he commented that he was getting himself accustomed to saying the good! It is also reported that a group of the corrupt were paddling by in a stream besides Ma‘ruf al-Karkhi and his companions. The companions asked Ma‘ruf to pray against them as they were drinking wine and playing unlawful instruments. So they raised their hands, and Ma‘ruf said, “O Lord, make them glee with joy in the hereafter as you have made them joyful in this life.” Astonished, they asked him how he could make such a supplication given the impermissible they were engaged in. He replied, “Their rejoicing in the hereafter will come about because of their repentance in this life.” May Allah be pleased with him!

The Beloved Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said, “If a person says, ‘People have gone to ruin,’ he is the most ruined of them all.” (Muslim) How so? Because of his conceitedness with respect to his state and actions, and his causing believers to despair from Allah Most High’s mercy. 

Another sunna is to be brief with one’s words so as to speak only to the extent of the need. Going beyond that can lead to situations which may comprise one’s religious comportment, or worse, make one say something which will be a source of later regret. Note, as previously explained by Imam Qushayri, speaking is the dispensation, or rukhsa, so the basis is in using it sparingly or at least with wisdom. There is nothing like safety, as Imam Nawawi, may Allah be pleased with him, noted. 

4. Self-Control in Speech

When clear benefit has been ascertained, the sunna is to engage others with excellence, holding oneself to standards of decency that befit a believer who is striving to emulate his Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and especially if he claims love. As such, foul language needs to be completely shunned, not only because it is impermissible and interdicted, but because it is at odds with the manner, or adab, a strong, faithful believer is trying to uphold. The Noble Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said, “The believer is not given to reviling, cursing, obscenity, or vulgarity.” (Tirmidhi) If you are habituated to using such language, ask Allah Most High to free you from its shackles and grant you the ability to express joy or disappointment in a manner that is pleasing to Him. 

Modesty is from faith,” (Bukhari) said the Beloved Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. The way of the Qur’an and the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, is to avoid explicit references to matters that are unbecoming, such as when referring to the nakedness (‘awra). This is why the Qur’an alludes to the publicly undignified, specifically in the context of ablution (wudu) and cleanliness, and also intimate relations, by saying, “But if you are ill, on a journey, or have relieved yourselves, or have been intimate with your wives and cannot find water, then purify yourselves with clean earth.” (Sura al-Ma’ida 5:6) The scholars explain that a proper islamic education brings about a sense of refined decorum and modesty which prevents a person from mentioning certain things inappropriately and without express need. 

When it comes to self-control, a number of matters require attention. Unsurprisingly, these are the matters whose implications are religiously quite serious, namely, oaths, vows, promises and divorce. If you find yourself making too many oaths or promises, or threatening your spouse with divorce, you need to work on your self-restraint. Neglecting promises is one of the signs of hypocrisy, and failing to uphold the contents of oaths has expiatory consequences. But neither is encouraged unless you have the full conviction to carry out what you say, and the details of both may be sought elsewhere. The Companions (sahaba) were people of their word, and this is one of the traits of true believers. 

5. Unlawful Speech 

Something that was touched upon earlier was the impermissibility of certain types of speech. Practically, this means that it is not permitted to engage in any of it without a genuine, shari‘a-countenanced reason. The honour of your fellow believer is sacred and inviolable, as our Beloved Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, informed us. (Muslim

Generally, there are two types of impermissible speech: that which relates to another, and that which relates to yourself. The former is more dangerous because it affects the rights of others, and its harm may reach you in the hereafter. The Blessed Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said, “The bankrupt from amongst my community is the one who will come on Judgement Day with his prayers, fasts and alms, yet he swore at so and so, wrongfully accused so and so…” (Tirmidhi) The remainder of this lengthy tradition (hadith) apprises us that those wronged will come to receive their rights by taking this person’s good deeds. For anybody who believes in the reality of the hereafter and divine justice, this should make us all at least think twice or three times before reeling off a word or two by which one falls into the divine wrath. (Bukhari)

The types of speech which fall into this category are numerous, but some of the most important to keep in mind are as follows: (1) slander (ghiba), namely, to mention a fellow believer in their absence with words that they would dislike; (2) talebearing (namima), namely, saying words which worsen relations between people, or that which entails the divulging of something private; and (3) lying (kadhib), namely, to deliberately say something false. Finally, one of the cancers affecting the community of believers (umma) is anathema (takfir). This is something that must be left for the Muslim judge (qadi), or at the very least, senior jurisconsults (muftis), because ordinary people do not understand subtleties and intricate rulings. Condemning people to the Hellfire is extremely dangerous, the peril of which is palpable for everybody to see, both in our times and in recent history. 

6. Dignified Joking and Jest 

The condition for the permissibility of joking is that it is free of lying. Thereafter, it should be in moderation, like with all things, and it should certainly not turn into mockery or ridicule. Insulting one’s fellow believers is not permissible as many verses and traditions attest to. When free from the undignified, making believers laugh, bringing joy to their hearts and putting a smile on their face is a tremendous action worthy of a huge reward, particularly when coupled with an intention for Allah Most High. There are a number of traditions (ahadith) which record the humour and joking of the Beloved Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. 

We pray that the All-Merciful overlooks our many shortcomings, increases us in presence and sincere following, and grants us the clarity and capacity to make speech-judgements that are in line with our next-worldly goals and hopes. All blessing and facilitation is from Him, Most High.

And Allah alone gives success.


 

 

Day 16: Speak Good About Others–30 Deeds 30 Days

Day 16: Speak Good About Others

Even if we dislike someone, we know that when we will be in Paradise together, there will be no hatred or grudges. Even if someone was a frequent sinner in this world, Allah can choose to completely forgive them. This teaches us that we should only see others in a positive light.

This Ramadan, try your best to speak positively about everyone else. Mention their good qualities, their strengths and their contributions. Introduce people to others and allow them to connect. There will be certain times where you have to be honest, but unless you absolutely must, try your best see the good in each person and every situation. By doing this, we can hope that Allah overlooks our faults and helps us when we need help.


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Day 10: Speak No Evil – 30 Deeds 30 Days

Day 10: Speak No Evil

Words are definitely a very emphasized trait in Islamic teachings. In fact, most of what gets people into trouble, has to do with unkind or untrue words being said. Just like there are certain things you can’t unsee, there are also certain things you can’t unhear. Sometimes an offhand comment can really hurt someone. And words said carelessly can drive people apart in terrible ways.

So today, stay vigilant. Guard your tongue, and make sure that you don’t participate in any evil speech. Create the peaceful and secure environment that we all deserve.speak no evil


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Day 7: Stop Gossip-30 Deeds 30 Days

Day 7: Stop All Gossip

The tongue can kill or heal, build or destroy. A physical scar heals faster than the scarring from harsh words. In the Quran, we are promised spiritual success -and also material success-if we speak well and are conscious of Allah. We also hear hadiths that say that a good  Muslim leaves what doesn’t concern them.

This Ramadan, stay alert during iftar gatherings and while browsing social media. Watch yourself and make sure that you don’t engage in anything hurtful, degrading, or pointless. If someone comes out, try to change the subject, or kindly advise them if you’re sure you can do it in a beneficial way. It’s harder than it sounds, but the effects are better than they sound.


Bring new life to this Ramadan by enrolling in a FREE On-Demand course.

The Gift of Speech And Using Our Tongues Wisely

The Prophet ﷺ  said, “The faith of God’s servants will not be right until his heart is right and his heart will not be right until his tongue is right”.
In this Friday Sermon, Dr. Umar Faruq Abd-Allah expands on this and talks about the gift of speech, and using our tongues wisely for beneficial speech.

Resources on The Gift of Speech

SpeechCover Photo by Christopher Rose

Characteristics to be Adopted: Controlling the Tongue – Imam Zaid Shakir

Article reposted, with thanks to NID and Imam Zaid Shakir

Note: The following characteristic is especially relevant in Ramadan, as one of the objectives of the fast is to control the tongue. Ibrahim al-Nakha’i, on of the teachers of Imam Abu Hanifa, may Allah have mercy on them both, mentioned: “The people ruined before you were done in by three characteristics: too much talking, too much eating, and too much sleeping.” Al-Hamdulillah, the Fast of Ramadan, when properly engaged in, cuts down on all three of these ruinations.

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A. Silence (الصمت) is to refrain from speaking falsely; not truthfully.
Al-Kafawi, al-Kulliyyat

الصمت إمساك عن قول الباطل دون الحق  – الكفوي  الكليات

Silence (الصمت) differs from not speaking (السكوت) in three ways:

1. Not speaking is to leave off speech despite being capable of it. Capability is not a consideration in defining silence.

2. Silence (الصمت) also involves a relative period of time. If someone were to close his lips for a brief moment he would be described as not speaking (ساكىت). He would only be described as silent (صامت) if the period of his being closed-mouthed endured for an extended period of time.

3. Not speaking (السكوت) involves a failure to speak, whether one refrains from uttering truth or falsehood; whereas silence (الصمت) involves refraining from speaking falsehood.

Protecting the Tongue (حفظ اللسان) is protecting the tongue from lying, slander, tale-carrying, false speech and other things that have been forbidden in the Divine Law.

A.1. Imam al-Marwardi mentions four conditions for protecting the tongue from slipping into sin:

1. There has to be an issue that calls for the speech; either to secure a benefit or to repulse harm.

2. To speak in a manner appropriate for the subject and to speak at the proper time.

3. To limit the speech to exactly what is needed.

4. To carefully choose ones words.

A.2. Some Etiquettes Related to the Tongue

1.  Not to engage in exaggerated praise.

2. Not to allow fear or hope to push one to make promises or threats one will not be able to fulfill.

3. That ones actions are consistent with ones speech.

4. That ones tone is consistent with the topic one is addressing.

5. That one does not raise ones voice to a repulsive level.

6. That one avoids direct mention of indecent subjects. Rather, one should use allegorical speech when discussing such matters.

7. One should avoid the slang of lowlife, riffraff elements. Rather the jargon of scholars and literary figures should be employed when appropriate.

A.3. Texts From the Hadith Concerning Silence and Holding Ones Tongue

The Prophet, peace upon him, said, “From a person’s Islam being good is his leaving what does not concern him.” *Note: This includes leaving speech that does not concern him.
Tirmidhi, #2318

The Prophet, peace upon him, mentioned, “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day let him speak well or remain silent.”
Bukhari, #6018

The Prophet, peace upon him, was asked, “Which Muslim is best?” He responded, “One who the other Muslims are safe; from his tongue and his hand.”
Tirmidhi, #2504

Ibn Mas’ud mentioned that he asked the Prophet, peace upon him, “Which action is best?” He replied, “Prayer performed on time.” He asked, “Then which, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “That people are safe from your tongue.”
Mundhari, al-Targhib, 3:523

The Prophet, peace upon him, said, “All of the speech of the Child of Adam will be held against him, it will not be in his favor; except commanding good, forbidding wrong, or the remembrance of Allah.”
Tirmidhi, #2412

The Prophet, peace upon him, mentioned, “Do not speak excessively in other than the remembrance of Allah, for verily excessive speech in other than the remembrance of Allah hardens the heart, and the heart most distanced from Allah is the hard heart.”
Tirmidhi, #2411

Can You Explain the Hadith Stating that Saying a Word One Thinks Is Harmless Can Result in Falling in the Depths of Hell?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: The Prophet, Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him, said: A person may utter a word that he thinks harmless, but it results in his falling in Hellfire [the depth of ] 70 years [in travel].

What does this mean? Can you give me an example of what is meant because I’m confused, does the word ‘harmless’ here mean unaware if something is sinful?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that you are well, insha’Allah.

The word ‘harmless’ refers to one’s not considering it to be something evil and, more so, a sin for which one will be taken to account for.

[Munawi, Fayd al-Qadir Sharh al-Jami` al-Saghir]

The Narration

Abu Huraira narrates that the Messenger of God (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Verily a person utters a word, that he deems harmless, but it results in his falling into the depths of the Hellfire.” [Tirmidhi; Ibn Majah]

In a similar narration (hadith), reported by Muslim in his Sahih, Imam Nawawi commentates that the person does not think about what he is saying and, furthermore, does not fear the consequences which may arise because of it.

A Note on Holding one’s Tongue

Nawawi ends by stating that this is from the strong encouragement to hold one’s tongue and to only speak when there is some benefit in doing so; otherwise, one should keep it to oneself. This is understood from the words of the Messenger of God (Allah bless him and give him peace), “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should say the good or remain silent.” [Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim]

And Allah knows best and He alone gives success.

Wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani