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Prayer and Tayammum in Unclean Spaces

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat is asked about performing tayammum and prayer in spaces that are visibly unclean or known to be.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

If salah is prayed on dry earth or grass on which animals have urinated or excreted will it be valid according to the four Imams?

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

In the Hanafi school it is valid to pray on any piece of land which once had impurity on it, as long as it has (a) dried, and (b) no trace of the impurity remains. Traces of impurity would be smell, taste, and color.

Tayammum, however would not be permissible, because the condition for the validity of tayammum is pure and purifying earth. The contact of the impurity with the ground negates this. (Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah)

If water flows on the ground, or it rains, then all four schools deem it permissible to pray on as long as there is no visible impurity, such as animal droppings, etc. (Al-Mawsuʿa al-Kuwaitiyya)

May Allah bless you with the best of both worlds.

Abdul-Rahim

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Do I Have to Use a Sink to Perform a Ritual Bath If My Shower Doesn’t Work? [Shafi’i]

Answered by Shaykh Salim Ahmad Mauladdawila

Question: Assalamu alaykum

My shower doesn’t work. However, I still have access to my kitchen sink. Due to having access to that source of water, I put some towels down on the floor and perform the ritual bath using the sink.

Can I perform a tayammum instead?

Answer:  Wa’leykum salam,

Ofttimes when one is in a rare situation, it is difficult to have presence of mind of all variables and available options. A situation warranting tayammum is by definition a rare or atypical one, hence situations like an unconsidered water source may arise.

The “classic tayammum scenario” would have us in the middle of a desert with no available water. An obligatory search within a defined area must be completed before tayammum is permissible, but if there were an available source which we didn’t think of, it would not affect our tayammum as, for all intents and purposes, it wouldn’t exist to us.

Similarly in this situation, knowledge of the kitchen water source would necessitate its usage, however should the individual not have thought of the kitchen shower solution through no neglect on their own part (being that they looked for shower solutions, but the kitchen shower simply did not come to mind due to how out-of-the-ordinary it is), we could classify it as an unthought-of water source.

Basically, if she were aware of the kitchen shower solution, she’d have to do it. If she were not aware of it, she’d just do tayammum and repeat the prayer when water is available as her ignorance of the solution renders it non-existent.

[Shaykh] Salim Ahmad Mauladdawila

How to Perform Tayammum While Wearing Casts or Bandages? [Shafi’i School]

Answered by Ustadh Shuaib Ally

Question: Assalamu ‘alaikum,

1. What to do when one puts a cast on one’s leg in a state of purity and then later falls in a state of major ritual impurity?

2. What to do when one is in a state of major ritual impurity and performs tayammum because of the lack of water?

3. What to do when one puts a cast on one’s right foot, while in a state of ritual purity, and then wants to perform wudu and tayammum for prayer?

4. What to do when one puts a cast on the left forearm and wants to perform wudu and tayammum?

Answer: Assalaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullah,

When Does One Repeat Prayers?

If one put a cast or bandage on in a state of wudu, and then broke his wudu, he would make wudu as normal, and wipe over the cast with water, and perform tayammum in place of that limb when he reaches it. He does not later make up the prayer he then performs. If he put either on in a state of impurity, he must remove it if possible. If it is not possible, he must repeat the prayer.

Importantly, the above applies if the cast or bandage is somewhere other than the area of tayammum. If either is on an area of tayammum (face or hands), he must repeat the prayer regardless of whether or not he was in a state of impurity when he put it on.

Specific Examples of Performing Tayammum with Casts

A) One puts a cast on one’s leg in a state of purity, then later falls in a state of major ritual impurity. He would perform ghusl, tayammum, and wipe over the cast with water as much as possible, all in whatever order he wishes. It is better for him to do the tayammum first, such that the water removes any remains of the dust. He would not repeat the prayer later because he put the cast on in a state of purity, on a limb that he wouldn’t perform tayammum on.

B) One is in a state of major ritual impurity, and performs tayammum because of the lack of water. He would need to perform ghusl when water becomes available, as the tayammum becomes invalid. If he had performed an obligatory prayer after making tayammum and before water became available, he must repeat the prayer. This is if he had performed tayammum in an area where water is usually available. If he had performed tayammum in a place where the availability of water isn’t expected, he wouldn’t repeat his prayer.

C) One puts a cast on one’s right foot, while in a state of ritual purity, and then wants to perform wudu and tayammum for prayer. He would perform wudu as normally conducted, and when he reaches his right foot, he would, in whatever order he wishes: wash of it what he can and wipe over the cast with water, and perform tayammum in the place of that foot. He would then wash the left foot. This is take into account the normal order of wudu, which must be followed.

D) One puts a cast on the left forearm, and wants to perform wudu and tayammum. He would follow the normal order of wudu. When he reaches the left forearm, he would, in whatever order he wishes, wash what he can of the limb, wipe the cast with water, and perform tayammum in place of washing the rest of the limb. He would then continue with the rest of his wudu. He must repeat the prayer later because the cast is on a limb of tayammum.

Source: Kanz al-Raghibin

Shuaib Ally

How to Make Dry Ablution (Tayammum)

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Asalam-O-Alaikum.

Kindly tell me the method of tayammum for females, when they are on journey and there is no water or soil available for tayammum( dry ablution) ?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that this finds you in the best of health and spirits, insha’Allah.

It is permitted to perform the dry ablution (tayammum) with a valid excuse– such as being roughly one mile or so away from any water.

How to Perform Tayammum

[1] Intend to lift the state of ritual impurity,

[2] say the basmala,

[3] strike the earth [or anything of the top surface of the earth like a stone],

[4] wipe your face entirely,

[5] strike the earth [or its equivalent] a second time,

[6] wipe the right arm completely up to and including the elbow, and then the left arm likewise.

[`Ala’ al-Din `Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-`Ala’iyya; Shurunbulali, Ascent to Felicity]

And Allah alone gives success.

wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Praying Rulings for The Sick, Injured, and Hospitalized

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: After surgery, a relative can barely move, doesn’t have his balance, lost his hearing in one ear, and cannot speak properly because of loss of muscle control in his face. While he is in the hospital, they are having him urinate into a bottle, and he cannot take a bath. What is the ruling on his 5 daily prayers? Can he perform them without the full movements and facing Qiblah? Does he have to make up prayers that he could not properly complete? Also, can he pray even though he is not in a state of Wudu? Some of the medication is so strong, I would think it might fall into a category of being intoxicated (e.g. morphine). Can he pray in that state?

 

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that you are well, insha’Allah.

May Allah give him a full, quick recovery, insha’Allah.

Intoxication and the Prayer

If he is intoxicated such that he is speaking irrationally or if walking he would sway (due to high dosage and the effect of it), it would not be valid to pray.

The Ablution

If he cannot perform the ablution (wudu), he should perform the dry ablution (tayammum). The dry ablution (tayammum) can be performed with a small stone. No dust is required. Please see:

 

Performing Tayammum if Paralyzed

If he is unable to do this, he can pray without doing either (wudu or tayammum). Though, in such a case, he would simply perform the motions of the prayer (without the recitations) due to the inviolability of the prayer and its time. This is very easy and could be done in less than a minute.

Facing the Qibla

If he cannot face the qibla himself, then the responsibility of this would too be lifted. However, if it is reasonably possible for him to ask someone to turn him towards the qibla, that would be optimal, though not necessary.

The Prayer

If he can pray with head movements — by moving the head slightly for the bowing (ruku’) and slightly more for the prostration (sujud) — it would be obligatory to do so. When lying on the back, this is generally facilitated by having the head propped up with a cushion or the like.

If he cannot pray with such head movements, the prayer will not obligatory upon him, nor will he have to make up the prayers (if they exceed five prayers).

[Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

Please also see: The Sunna way of Praying when Injured or Unable to Stand

And Allah alone gives success.

Wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

I’m Too Embarrassed to Wudu in Public

Answered by Ustadha Zaynab Ansari

Question: I’m too embarrassed to do wudu in public places almost to a point of phobia. Can I do tayummum as I can do that with more privacy.

Answer: In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Dear Brother,

Wa alaikum as-salaam wa rahmatullah,

In the Chapter of Repentance, God Most High reminds the believers that He is most deserving of their fear, “Do you hold them [the disbelievers] in awe? Nay, it is God alone of whom you ought to stand in awe, if you are [truly] believers!” (Al-Qur’an, 9:13)

The lesson from this verse is important. No one is more deserving of our consideration than Allah Most High. People are people and they will have to stand before Allah just like you will; in other words, we’re all nothing before Allah. Why be uncomfortable if someone sees you performing ablution? Public facilities are just that. Public. No one can stop you from washing yourself. And if you start performing tayammum (dry ablution), not only is it invalid since you have access to water, you’re depriving people of the opportunity to interact with you and learn something about Islam.

Finally, we live in a society where people have very little public shame. So we need to check ourselves to see why we put so much stock in what random strangers think of us. Who cares if someone has a problem with our hijab, beard, or foot-washing? We have to be confident in who we are as believing men and women, aspiring only for the approval of our Lord.

May Allah Ta’ala grant ease,

Zaynab Ansari

Can a Pregnant Woman Make Tayammum if Doing Wudu is Difficult and Painful?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan

Question: I am heavily pregnant and am finding that normal activities like wudhu are so difficult and almost painful to perform due the bending, etc. I am just about managing to fulfill the five fard and the witr prayers but performing wudhu is hard although I am still doing it. Is there any ruling that would allow me to perform tayammum, etc until after I have delivered my baby and completed my nifaas?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray this finds you in the best of health states.

I understand the difficulty of your situation. Try to find ways of performing wudu that involve minimal bending, such as placing your feet in a bucket of water instead of washing them under the sink (making sure to replace the water at least daily, lest the amount of used water become predominant). Be creative, and seek advice of women that have undergone the same issues you face.

If you have tried all feasible ways of performing wudu and doing so still causes undue hardship, such that you will develop back problems or the like were you to make wudu, then there would be leeway for tayammum. The fear of developing back problems would need a reliable basis, namely:

(a) The judgment of a qualified physician who appreciates the importance of the Sacred Law; or,
(b) Past experience; or,
(c) A clear and obvious sign, regarding which no two (reasonable) people would disagree over. This would be, for example, worsening pain over time that becomes too difficult to bear.

[Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

And Allah knows best.
wassalam
Faraz

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Performing Tayammum if Paralyzed

Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan

Question: My mum recently had a stroke and is incapacitated in bed. Her left side is paralyzed. She is in no way capable of performing wudhu and I gather that she is allowed to perform tayammum instead.

Would a person be exempt from performing wudhu (and hence qualify for performing tayammum instead) if they are physically incapable of performing wudhu by themselves?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and states. May Allah Most High grant your mother a speedy recovery and make her illness a means of drawing near to the Divine.

Yes, she most certainly may perform tayammum instead of wudu.

Also, it is worth mentioning that in the Hanafi school, it is valid to use a stone, even if small, to wipe on when performing tayammum. Using dust or dirt is not a condition.

Lastly, she would perform the prayer itself using head motions, details of which are described in this informative video:

The sunna way of praying when injured or unable to stand

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi Falah]

And Allah knows best.
wassalam
Faraz

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Can I Make Tayammum at Work to Avoid Disturbing Customers by Getting the Floor Wet?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan

Question: If water is available but there is no suitable place to make wudu is it permissible to do tayemmun? i.e If i work in a store where the bathroom of the store is broken and I cannot step out of the store that i work at because i am not given permission.  If I were to do wudu in the store the floor would get wet and customers wouldn’t like it.  Under such circumstances is it permissible then to perform tayemmum

Answer: Assalamu alaikum warahmatullah,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and states.

It would not be permissible for you to make tayammum in such a situation. Every workplace must provide a bathroom facility for their employees,or at least allow them to go to one nearby if none is available at work.

If the bathroom sink is broken, then simply bring your own water in a container and use it to make wudu in the bathroom. You can wear khuffs or other valid footgear to wipe on instead of washing your feet, which would save water.

If the bathroom itself is not usable, then simply explain to your employer that you need to leave work to use the restroom.

And Allah knows best.
wassalam
Faraz

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani