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Performing Eid Prayers at Home

Answered by Shaykh Salman Younas

Question: Assalam aleykum

Given the current situation with COVID-19 and the closures/restrictions on mosques and public gatherings, is it permitted to perform the ʿĪd prayer at home individually or in congregation?

Answer: assalamu alaykum

There is a difference of opinion between the various schools on this issue. Given the current situation, people are permitted and encouraged to perform the ʿĪd prayer at home.

The Ḥanafī School

According to the Ḥanafī school, the ʿĪd prayer is not performed at home by individuals. Rather, it is a communal event similar to the Friday prayer that needs to fulfil the same conditions as the latter including being performed in congregation, with the community and its designated imam(s), and in a publicly accessible area. (al-Kāsānī, Badāʿi al-ṣanā’iʿ, 1:275; Ṣadr al-Sharīʿa, Sharḥ al-wiqāya, 1:183; Ibn al-Humām, Fatḥ al-qadīr, 2:29)

Three further questions arise following this relevant to the current situation:

(a) If one is unable to perform the ʿĪd prayer, or misses its performance with the community, should he perform another prayer? All major texts of the school state that it is recommended in this case to perform a normal supererogatory prayer instead at home, which may be two or four cycles and can count as ṣalāt al-ḍuḥā.

(b) Can this prayer be performed in congregation? The general rule in the Ḥanafī school is that it is neither recommended nor a sunna to perform supererogatory prayers in congregation and it may actually be disliked. However, some jurists mention that it would be permitted without dislikedness to perform supererogatory prayers in congregation if it is (i) done only on the rare occasion and (ii) in small congregations not involving openly inviting large numbers of people to the prayer. (Ibn ʿĀbidīn, Radd al-muḥtār, 2:500-01; Ḥanafīs usually define the second condition as a congregation of less than four individuals, but the applicability of this to a very limited and restrictive household setting performing a one-off prayer is arguable).

(c) Is there any difference of opinion in the Ḥanafī school on the ruling of performing ʿĪd at home? Yes, there are scholars in the school who interpret the conditions for the ʿĪd prayer in a manner that would permit the performance of this prayer at home with a minimum congregation of four people. This is not my preferred reading of the school.

Other Schools

The Shafiʿī school permits ʿĪd prayer at home – whether individually or as part of a congregation – because they deem the ʿĪd prayer as similar to any other supererogatory prayer. It is performed as two cycles with twelve extra takbīrāt – seven in the first cycle immediately after the opening supplication (istiftāḥ) and five upon rising for the second cycle before the taʿawwudh. (al-Nawawī, Rawdat al-ṭālibīn, 1:578).

The Mālikī and Ḥanbalī schools also have mainstream and relied-upon views permitting ʿĪd at home. For details, one should consult scholars from these schools.

COVID-19, ʿĪd Prayer, & Festivities

In light of the difference of opinion on the issue, the unprecedented situation Muslim are facing, and the need for many to maintain the performance of ʿĪd and make it a day of joyous celebration, gratitude to Allah, and worship for one’s family, individuals are permitted and in fact encouraged to perform ʿĪd prayers at home – whether individually or in congregation with their families.

If someone chooses to follow the stronger Ḥanafī view that ʿĪd is not permitted in the home, they may perform a normal supererogatory prayer with their family, i.e. even as a congregation, but they should not add any extra takbīrāt. This would be permitted as it is a rare and one-off occurrence with the limited members of one’s household.

It is also recommended for people to continue honouring this day by taking a bath, wearing one’s best clothing, applying fragrances, maintaining familial ties, and, importantly, making efforts to make the day memorable for children by partaking in things that elicit happiness and jubilation. As the Prophet (blessings upon him) said, “Every nation has its day of celebration, and this is our day of celebration.” (al-Bukhārī) The reality of this day as one of celebration where we express thankfulness to Allah remains even if we are unable to proceed with ʿĪd in the manner normally done in the past.

And Allah alone knows best

[Shaykh] Salman Younas

May 11th, 2020
17th Ramadan, 1441

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Shaykh Salman Younas  graduated from Stony Brook University with a degree in Political Science and Religious Studies. After studying the Islamic sciences online and with local scholars in New York, Ustadh Salman moved to Amman where he spent five years studying Islamic law, legal methodology, belief, hadith methodology, logic, Arabic, and tafsir. He is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Oxford and continues his traditional studies with scholars in the United Kingdom.

How to Perform Eid Prayer?

Is It Permissible to Pray the Fajr Prayer After Sunrise but Before the Eid Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum,

Is it permissible to pray the Fajr prayer after sunrise but before the Eid prayer?

Answer: Assalam alaykum wa rahmatuLlah,

The general interdiction against praying before the Eid prayer refers to voluntary prayers.

As for Fajr, it cannot be deliberately performed after sunrise. The time of Fajr is between true dawn and sunrise, and it must be prayed within that time frame. The exception is if it is unintentionally missed, in which case, it can generally be prayed at any time. But, depending on the circumstance, there could be some detail to this ruling. [see: Prohibited times for Prayers and Makeup Prayers and: Do You Have to Pray Make Up Prayers in Order?]

However, we do not rebuke those who may be somewhat lax in their religiosity or even those newly religious who pray either during sunrise itself, or thereafter. This is because (1) there is room for the acceptability of praying after the ending of Fajr according to positions in other schools, (2) they may have a legally acceptable excuse for doing so which we are unaware of, (3) their praying, even if as a makeup (qada‘), is far superior to not praying at all, and (4) commanding the good at the wrong time or in the wrong way may lead to a worse outcome, namely, their leaving the prayer altogether. But when the time is right, and on condition you have sound knowledge, you can point them with wisdom in the right direction so that they can fulfill the command correctly and in the way most pleasing to Allah Most High.

Please consider taking the following free class: Consider taking the following free class at SeekersHub: Absolute Essentials of Islam: Basic Hanafi Jurisprudence (STEP)

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah with Tahtawi’s Gloss]

And please also see: The Criteria of Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

wassalam,
[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam was born and raised in Ipswich, England, a quiet town close to the east coast of England. His journey for seeking sacred knowledge began when he privately memorized the entire Qur’an in his hometown at the age of 16. He also had his first experience in leading the tarawih (nightly-Ramadan) prayers at his local mosque. Year after year he would continue this unique return to reciting the entire Quran in one blessed month both in his homeland, the UK, and also in the blessed lands of Shaam, where he now lives, studies and teaches.

How to Pray the Eid Prayer – A Illustrated Explanation

Copy the text below and embed it in your blog/website:

Eid: All the Rulings, Sunnahs & Takbiraat You Need To Know, by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

As we all prepare to celebrate Eid, after a month of fasting and austerity, take a few minutes to refresh your memory on the rulings and sunnahs of this special day, with Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Takbiraat

For a refresher on the takbiraat of Eid, please have a listen to this by an Indonesia brother:

How Should a Shafi’i Perform Eid Prayer Behind a Hanafi Imam? (Shafi’i)

Answered by Shaykh Shuaib Ally

Question: Assalam alaykum,

How would a Shafi`i follower perform the Eid prayer behind a Hanafi Imam?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

How many Tabkirat Should be Declared?

In the Shafi’i school, declaring the takbirat (“Allahu Akbar”) in the Eid prayer is a recommended action, along with raising the hands for every takbir.

It is declared seven times in the first unit of prayer, not including the takbir to start the prayer.
It is then declared five times in the second unit of prayer, not including the takbir recited to return to the standing position.

When Should It be Declared?

Its time is just prior to seeking refuge in Allah, and the recitation of the Fatiha. If one starts the Fatiha, one has missed the takbirat and should not return to it.

What Should one do if Following an Imam of Another School?

A person following an Imam in the Eid prayer should follow him in the number of his takbirat. The follower should not increase or decrease the number of takbirat. This is because the Imam is meant to be followed as much as possible.

This is irrespective of whether the Imam declares the takbirat three or six times, and whether he declares them prior or subsequent to the recitation.

If the Imam leaves out the takbirat altogether, the follower should not declare them, as it is a recommended action, and the obligation of following the Imam is given precedence over it.

Source: al-Hawashi al-Madaniyyah

Shuaib Ally

A Reader on Eid al-Adha

The Ten Days of Dhu’l Hijja

The Ten Days of Dhu’l Hijja: Merits & Striving in Spiritual Works

The Complete Fiqh of Eid al-Adha

The Fiqh of Eid al-Fitr & Eid al-Adha

Does a Wife Have to Purchase Her Own Animal for Eid Slaughtering?

Can Qurbani (Udhiya) Be Done In a Different Country?

Can One Person Slaughter a Sacrificial Animal on the Behalf of Others on Eid in the Maliki School?

Is There a Difference of Opinion on Whether Slaughtering (Qurbani/Udhiya) is Necessary, and How Does One Deal With Years of Makeups?

Does One Have to do Udhiya/Qurbani for One’s Young Children?

Do I have to give 1/3 of the Sacrificial (Udhiya) Meat away in Charity?

What Do I Do if I Missed Slaughtering (Qurbani/Udhiya)?

Eid Prayer

Eid Prayer At A Masjid & Behind A Shafi`i

Fasting

Fasting During the First Nine Days of Dhu’l Hijja

General Matters

Is Hugging on Eid an Innovation (Bid`a)?

Is It a Bid’a (Reprehensible Innovation) to Say “Jumu’a Mubarak” (Blessed Friday) to Other Muslims?