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Forced to Sit without Tahiyat al Masjid

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat is asked about the sunna of tahiyat al masjid and whether it is best to sit down during the iqama or to stand.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I live in an area where there is only one mosque within walking distance and it is the local mosque affiliated to no organization or jamaat.

I have the same right over the mosque as they have, but when there is no time for tahiyat al masjid, I tend to stay standing until one or two minutes before the iqamah is given. Sometimes people will force me to sit down saying it is a sunna.

I want any unbiased islamic fatwa/hadith/Qur’anic interpretation from any faqih/mufti that will help me make wiser/less fitna-inducing decisions.

Jazak Allah khayr.

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I pray you are well.

Sitting During the Iqama

It is better for you to sit. Firstly because it is disliked to remain standing whilst the Iqama is being given until the statement of “hayya ‘ala ’l-falah.” (Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar).

Getting On With People

Secondly, because the Messenger of Allah said, “The believer gets on [with people].” (Ahmad) Going against the regular practice of people causes friction, and a believer is someone who leaves a positive mark on people with a smile, a light joke, or an endearing gesture.

Doing something that rubs people the wrong way will make you a bullseye for a lot of glares and comments. This could leave you with an unpleasant feeling about the masjid and its people, or even put you off from going there.

It is best to overlook minor annoyances, or, even better, to deal with them with a sense of humor. We have all dealt with the uncles in the mosque who have a heart attack if someone walks in with their socks on, or if the Iqama is not called when the second hand reaches “12” on the clock – sometimes, even if the imam is not present!

In many cases these people are the ones who gave their hard-earned money to build the masjid in the first place, and they are particular about how things are done. Give them a smile, make a joke about something, and walk away having shown good character, honoured the elderly, and done something to please Allah. A pleasant sentence is charity (Bukhari).

Following a Weaker Position to Avoid Friction

Sometimes, it is better to do something sub-optimal in fiqh if it means not causing friction – unless it means that something impermissible will be done. An example of this is what to after the prayer ends.

The position of the Ḥanafī school is to ask for forgiveness (astaghfirullah) three times, and then say a short sentence of duʿa or praise (Allahumma Anta ’s-Salam, wa minka ’s-salam…) before immediately getting up for the sunna prayers. To sit and say one’s devotional prayers and praises is slightly disliked. Even reciting Ayat al-Kursi is deemed too long a wait. (Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah).

However, in many mosques, the imam will sit and make a collective supplication after the prayer. Getting up at this point could cause offence§, so it is better to sit and do what everyone else does, and then get up for the sunna prayers.

The Point is Allah

Going to the masjid is about pleasing Allah. He should be focus of the entire endeavor. If a particular masjid resembles a concentration camp then it might be better to pray in another masjid, if possible, where you can focus on Allah.

May Allah make our hearts attached to the mosques and shade us with His shade on the day where there is no shade save His. Amin.

Abdul-Rahim

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


Does Leaving Out the Call to Commence (Iqama) Invalidate or Affect my Prayer?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani
Question: Assalam’aleykum,
If I omit to perform the Iqama does it nullify my prayer?
Answer: walaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,
I pray this finds you in the best of health and spirits.
The call to commence (iqama) is a confirmed sunna for men–as the basis of their prayer is the group pray, so their individual prayer resembles the group prayer. Omitting the call to commence doesn’t invalidate the prayer, as omission of sunna actions diminishes reward but doesn’t affect validity.
[ref: Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]
Wasalam
Faraz Rabbani

Maliki Ruling on Calling the Adhan and Iqama in the Ears of Newborns

Answered by Shaykh Rami Nsour

Question: What is the Maliki ruling on calling the Adhaan & Iqamaah in the ears of newborn children?

Answer:

Imam Malik on Calling the Adhan and Iqaama in the Ears of a Newborn

According to Imam Malik, the practice of calling the Adhaan & Iqamaah in the ears of newborn children is disliked (makruh) due to the fact that he did not find it as a practice in Medina. Imam Malik was very careful about considering something a sunna if there was not proof that the tradition was maintained by the scholars of Medina. Later Maliki scholars recommended implementing the practice due to the Hadith and this has been accepted as the practice of many of the Maliki scholars. (Al Hattab, Mawahib al Jalil)

Imam Malik, the Practice of Medina and the Madhab

Although the opinions of Imam Malik and the Practice of Medina represents a large amount of the Maliki rulings, there are many opinions of the Madhab that are from Malik’s students or later Maliki mujtahid Imams. Thus, when one follows the Maliki madhab, or any of the four valid schools of thought, they are not only following the opinions of one scholar but rather the opinions of a large group of scholars using similar methodological principles.

Giving the Call to Prayer (adhan) in an area where it is already given

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: We offer prayers in Jamat at our office without giving Adan because we all hear Adan from near surroundings.

 

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I hope you are in the best of health and spirits, insha’Allah.

According to the Hanafi school, if the call to prayer is given in one’s vicinity, the sunna would be fulfilled and it would not be disliked to leave it. [Haskafi, al-Durr al-Mukhtar]

It would however remain recommended to give the call to prayer (adhan) when reasonably possible.

See: Fiqh of Adhan and Iqama When Praying Alone

And Allah knows best.

Wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Differences Between the Adhan & Iqama

Answered by Sidi Salman Younas

Question: What are the differences between the adhan and iqama?

Answer: assalamu `alaykum

Generally, the call to prayer (adhan) and the call to commence (iqama) are the same. However, there are a few differences between them, which include:

1. The additional wording of “the prayer has commenced” (qad qamat al-salat) in the iqama.
2. The iqama being recited in a quicker manner than the adhan.
3. The person giving the iqama does not place his fingers in his ears nor does he turn his head left or right.

[Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

These are the major differences between the two, though there are more relating to dislikedness, repeating the recitation of each, and so forth.

Wasalam
Salman

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Should the Call to Prayer Be Called When Praying Alone?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question : Should the Adhan and Iqama be called when praying alone?

Answer : Yes, it is a sunna for men to give the adhan and iqama (even if only quietly), even when praying alone. [, Maraqi al-Falah ]

And Allah alone gives success.

Faraz Rabbani

Forgetting the Iqama

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question : Forgetting the Iqama

Answer : If the mu’dhdhin forgets something of the iqama, he should pause, go back one or two lines in his mind, and continue if the pause is short. If he can’t remember,or if the pause becomes long, then it should be re-started.

And Allah alone gives success.

Faraz Rabbani

When to Stand Up For Prayer at the Time of Iqamah?

Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam

Question :   When its time to pray in jama’a  when should one stand ?

 

Answer :   The renowned Hanafi jurist (faqih), Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) states whilst discussing the manners and etiquettes (adaab) of prayer:

“Prayer (salat) has certain etiquettes. Leaving them out does not necessitate any wrongdoing or admonishment, such as leaving out non-emphasised Sunnahs, but to carry them out is superior.”

Then, regarding one such etiquette of prayer, Imam al-Hakafi (Allah have mercy on him) states:

“And the Imam and the followers standing up when it is said: “Come to success (hayya ala al-falah)”…if the Imam is close to the prayer niche (mihrab), otherwise (if the Imam is not sitting close to the Mihrab) people in each row will stand up when the Imam reaches them. If the Imam enters from the front, they will stand up when their sight falls on the Imam. If the Imam himself gives the call to prayer (iqama) in the Masjid, then they should not stand up until he completes the Iqama.” (See: Radd al-Muhtar ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 1/479, Bab Sifat al-Salat)

In light of the above text, there are three situations here:

1) If the Imam is sitting close to his place of leading the prayer or Mihrab, then he and others should stand upon hearing the call “Hayya ala al-Falah”. This is considered to be from amongst the etiquettes of prayer; hence failing to do so will not constitute any wrongdoing or blameworthiness (karaha).

2) If the Imam is not sitting close to the Mihrab, then this has two possibilities:

a) If the Imam is entering from the back, people sitting in each row should stand up when the Imam passes by their row,

b) If the Imam enters from the front, one should stand up when one sees the Imam entering,

3)If the Imam himself is giving the Iqama, one should stand up when the Iqama is completed by the Imam.

It is worth noting here that all of the above is considered to be from the etiquettes (adaab) of prayer and not something that is necessary or a confirmed Sunnah, hence failing to comply with the above guidelines will not necessitate any wrongdoing. One should not rebuke or reproach an individual if he does not stand up at the recommended moment. At times, this issue is given more significance than it deserves.

And Allah knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK

Fiqh of Adhan and Iqama When Praying Alone

Answerd by Mufti Muhammd ibn Adam

Question : If I am praying an obligatory prayer alone at home, do I need to say the Adhan and Iqama?

  Answer :  Sayyiduna Uqba ibn Amir (may Allah be pleased with him) relates that I heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say: “Your Lord, the Exalted, is pleased with a shepherd of goats at the peak of a mountain, who makes the call to prayer (gives the Adhan) and offers prayer. Allah, the Exalted, says, “Look at this servant of mine; he gives the Adhan and Iqama for prayer out of fear for me. I have forgiven my slave and entered him into Paradise.” (Sunan Abi Dawud no: 1196, Sunan Nasa’i no: 665 and Musnad Ahmad 4/157)

 

Sayyiduna Malik ibn al-Huwayrith (may Allah be pleased with him) says that two men came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace), wanting to travel. So the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “When you set out, give the Adhan and the Iqama and then the oldest of you should be the Imam.” (Sahih al-Bukhari no: 604)

 

Sayyiduna Salman al-Farisi (may Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “If a man is in a deserted land and the time of prayer arrives, thus he performs ablution (wudhu); and if he does not find water he performs the dry ablution (tayammum). If he gives the Iqama [and offers prayer], his two angels offer prayer with him, and if he gives the Adhan and Iqama, an army of Allah pray behind him – the two sides of which is not visible [due to it’s sheer number].” (Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq no: 1955 and Al-Mu’jam al-Kabir of Tabarani 6/249)

 

The follower (tabi’i), Tawus (Allah be pleased with him) says: “When a man [who is alone] offers prayer with Iqama, his two angels pray with him. And when he gives the Adhan and Iqama, many angels offer prayer with him.” (Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq no: 1952. Similar statements have been recorded in the same chapter of the Al-Musannaf from Abdullah ibn Umar, Mak’hul and Sa’id ibn al-Masayyab, may Allah be pleased with them all).

 

It is stated in the renowned Hanafi Fiqh primer, Nur al-Idah:

 

It is an emphasized (mu’akkada) Sunna to give both the Adhan and Iqama for obligatory prayers (fara’idh), even when praying alone, whether for current prayers or make-up prayers, whether on journey or at home, for men. It is [prohibitively] disliked for women to give both the Adhan and Iqama. (See: Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-Idha, P: 194-195)

 

It is stated in another Hanafi Fiqh primer, Kanz al-Daqa’iq:

 

It is [prohibitively] disliked for a traveller to omit both the Adhan and Iqama, but not for the one praying alone at home within a town [where Adhan and Iqama have been given in the local Mosque]… (Kashf al-Haqa’iq Sharh Kanz al-Daqa’iq, 1/39)

 

Based on the above Hadiths and based on the above and other similar texts found in classical Hanafi works, there are few scenarios to the situation at hand:

 

1) For a non-traveller; when praying alone at home or elsewhere, if he is not in the vicinity of a Mosque where the Adhan and Iqama have been given, then it is an emphasized Sunna to give both. As such, it is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahrim) to omit both the Adhan and Iqama. However, if he were to merely omit the Adhan and not the Iqama, then it is not disliked. On the contrary, if he were to omit the Iqama but give the Adhan, then it is disliked.

 

The reason for this, as explained by Imam Ibn Abidin in light of the Hadiths quoted above, is that the objective of Adhan is not restricted to calling others for prayer; but rather, the objective includes proclaiming the name of Allah and his religion in the lands, and reminding the slaves of Allah consisting of human and Jinn of this.

 

2) For a non-traveller; when praying alone at home or elsewhere, if he is in the vicinity of a Mosque where the Adhan and Iqama have been given, then it is recommended (not emphasized Sunna) to give both the Adhan and Iqama. As such, it is not disliked to omit both. Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said: “The Adhan of the vicinity is enough for us (adhan al-hay yakfina).” One should, however, try and at least give the Iqama.

 

3) For a traveller, it is an emphasized Sunna to give both the Adhan and Iqama. As such, it is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahrim) to omit both. However, if he were to merely omit the Adhan and not the Iqama, then it is not disliked. On the contrary, if he were to omit the Iqama but give the Adhan, then it is disliked.

 

Finally, two points are worth considering:

 

Firstly, both Adhan and Iqama are Sunnas for men only, and not women, rather it is disliked for women to give Adhan and Iqama, as reported from Ibn Umar, Anas and others (Allah be pleased with them). The reason for this is that Adhan and Iqama are from the Sunnas of congregation, and the basis of men’s prayer is that it is performed in congregation; thus, when they pray alone, they perform it as the congregational prayer. The basis of women’s prayer, however, is that it is performed alone, and as such, Adhan and Iqama are not Sunna for them.

 

Secondly, where it is prohibitively disliked (makruh tahrim) for a man to omit the Adhan and Iqama, if he were to pray without giving the Adhan and Iqama, his prayer is still valid and he is not required to repeat it. (The above details are gathered from Radd al-Muhtar ala ‘l-Durr al-Mukhtar 1/394-395, Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya 1/54, Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-Idah with the Hashiya of Tahtawi P: 194-195, Imdad al-Fattah Sharh Nur al-Idah P: 192-193, Kashf al-Haqa’iq Sharh Kanz al-Daqa’iq with Sharh al-Wiqaya on the margins 1/39, and Umdat al-Fiqh 1/38)

 

And Allah knows best

 Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK

             

 

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