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Latecomer Recitation in Prayer

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum

If I am joining the congregation in the mosque late during one of the
prayers with loud recitation (Fajr, Maghrib, Ishaa), and am making up
missed cycles, as far as I understood I have to pray the fatiha and
the minimum of 3 ayat either once (1 missed raka) or twice (2 missed
rakas).

Should i recite the fatiha and the minimum of 3 ayat loudly or silently?

Could you cite the proofs in the hanafi madhab for the requirement
of reciting the fatiha and the minimum of 3 ayat in the make up cycles
?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

A latecomer (masbuq) is expected to make up the cycles (rak‘as) he missed in the order in which he missed them.

Hence, if you missed the first two cycles of the prayer, you would make up the first cycle by reciting the Fatiha and a chapter (sura) or its equivalent therein, and do the same in the second, because this is what is expected in the first two cycles.

However, if you missed three cycles, you would perform the first sitting (tashahhud) after making up a single cycle because at this point you would have actually prayed two cycles, one with the imam and another alone. Thereafter, you would pray the next cycle with a chapter (sura) or its equivalent, and the last cycle with the Fatiha alone.

This explanation is based on the tradition (hadith) of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) where he said, “Whatever you catch, pray it, and whatever you missed, then make it up.” (Nasa’i) The Hanafis understood from the word “qada’,” or make up, that the beginning of the prayer was missed, and accordingly, this is what needs to be made up. Further, the beginning of the prayer has an extra, mandatory component of recitation in it, and this is why the latecomer must recite after the Fatiha.

Lastly, given that you are considered to be praying alone (munfarid) for these makeup cycles, albeit with some nuance, you may raise your voice for the recitation in the loud prayers. But be cognisant of the other congregants present. If raising your voice will disturb them, then the proper thing to do would be to respect that.

(Ibn ‘Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar ‘ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar; Kasani, Bada’i al-Sana’i)

Please also see this answer and this answer.

And Allah Most High knows best.

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

Can the Latecomer Stand After the First Salam of the Imam?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum

Is the prayer valid if a late joiner (masbuq) stood up to complete the missed number of cycles once the Imam turns to say the First “salam” (and before the second salam)?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

Yes, the prayer of the latecomer (masbuq) who starts making up his missed cycles (rak‘as) before the imam has performed the second salam is valid.

The basis is that you should wait until the second salam, namely, until the imam ends the prayer, because it is possible that he may perform the forgetfulness prostrations (sajda al-sahw) or the like after the first salam. This is important as it is necessary (wajib) to follow the imam given that you are still a follower (muqtadi) at this moment in time.

But if you are reasonably sure that he is ending the prayer, such as in the case of an imam who normally performs the forgetfulness prostrations [if any] before the salam, it would be permissible to subsequently rise and begin making up the missed cycles before the second salam.

Note that rising before the salam altogether would be permissible only in exceptional, legally justified circumstances.

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah, with Tahtawi’s Gloss (1.375); Ibn ‘Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar ‘ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar (1.401-402)]

Please also see: What Does the Latecomer Say During the Imam’s Final Sitting? and: The Rulings Related To A Latecomer & A Note On The Durr al-Mukhtar and: What Should a Latecomer Do When His Imam Is Performing the Prostrations of Forgetfulness?

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

wassalam,

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

What Are the Rulings of a Latecomer in Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum

1. What is the ruling if, after the ‘imam’ completes the prayer and leaves and the follower is in the process of reading his missed rakahs, a third brother comes in and taps the shoulder of the follower to follow him in congragation?

2. Is it permissible to pray on friday if the Imam has already commenced his sermon?

3. If you arrive late and miss the 1 or both cycles of the friday prayer should you make up only 1 or 2 cycles or should you change your intention and make up 4 cycles as a normal Zuhr prayer?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

1. It is not permissible for a latecomer (masbuq) to become an imam for any other person. This is because the latecomer is still legally considered to be a follower (muqtadi) of his imam, and followers cannot lead others.

2. No, you cannot speak nor pray from the moment the imam ascends the pulpit, for the sermon, until he completes the two cycles (rak`ats) of the Friday Prayer (jumu`ah).

3. If you catch the Friday Prayer before the imam gives the final, exiting salams, you are deemed to have caught it. Consequently, you would make up two missed cycles.

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah with Tahtawi’s Gloss]

Please also see: Friday: Praying sunnas upon entering after the khutba starts and: If I Miss the Friday Khutba (Sermon), Is My Friday Prayer Valid? and: The Rulings Related to Friday Prayer

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

What Should a Latecomer Do When His Imam Is Performing the Prostrations of Forgetfulness?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum

If a latecomer to the prayer stands up to complete his prayer, for example after the Imam does his first salaam, but then realizes that the Imam later goes on to perform a prostration of forgetfulness (sajda al-sahw), what does the latecomer do? Does he sit back down and follow the Imam?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

Yes, if the follower (ma’mum) stands to make up his missed cycles (rak`ats), yet the imam performs the prostrations of forgetfulness (sajda al-sahw), the follower should sit back down again and follow the imam.

The reason for this is that you are only normally separated from the imam when he exits the prayer entirely. But the salam given before the prostrations of forgetfulness is not for exiting, and hence, the follower remains bound by the actions of the imam.

If, however, a person begins to make up the missed cycles without following the imam in the prostration, he would prostrate at the end of his prayer. But this is not the correct response to the situation at hand.

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah with Tahtawi’s Gloss (2.64-65); Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar (1.499)]

Please also see: Can the Forgetfulness Prostration Be Done in Every Prayer Just to Be Sure it is Valid? and: Was I Correct to Perform the Forgetfulness Prostrations After Reciting the Opening Supplication in the Third Cycle of Prayer?

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

Can I Choose a Latecomer to Be My Imam When I Missed the Congregational Prayer With the Imam of the Mosque?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaikum

We arrived in the mosque to pray congregational prayer but the Imam already made the salutations. We also saw some latecomers who caught some rak’ats in the prayer. Should we have chosen one of the latecomers to be our Imam?

Answer:Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

According to the Hanafi school, you cannot join in congregation with a person who is making up his missed cycles (rak`ats). This is because he is, legally, basing his prayer on the imam’s, and congregants with the imam cannot lead others at the same time.

In your situation, therefore, you would appoint an imam between yourselves and make up the prayer in a second congregation, away from the mihrab (and main congregation) and without another call to prayer (adhan).

[Mulla Khusro, Durar al-Hukkam; Tahtawi, Hashiyat al-Tahtawi `ala Maraqi al-Falah]

Please also see: Are Multiple Congregation Prayers for the Same Prayer in the Same Mosque Allowed?

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

wassalam,
[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam was born and raised in Ipswich, England, a quiet town close to the east coast of England. His journey for seeking sacred knowledge began when he privately memorized the entire Qur’an in his hometown at the age of 16. He also had his first experience in leading the tarawih (nightly-Ramadan) prayers at his local mosque. Year after year he would continue this unique return to reciting the entire Quran in one blessed month both in his homeland, the UK, and also in the blessed lands of Shaam, where he now lives, studies and teaches.

Is the Prayer of the Follower Invalid by Standing Along With His Imam for an Extra Cycle of Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam ‘aleykum.

If the Imam stood up after the last sitting for an extra cycle and the follower stood up with him then, is the prayer of the follower invalid? What about a latecomer?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray that this message finds you well, insha’Allah.

If the imam stands for an extra cycle (rak`at) of the prayer, the follower should remain seated and remind the imam to sit down by making some form of remembrance (dhikr), such as “SubhanAllah.”

Then, there are two cases:

(1) If he sat for the final sitting, then stood for the extra cycle and prostrated, the follower would simply exit the prayer on his own by saying the salams.

(2) If he did not sit for the final sitting, but stood for the extra cycle and prostrated, then the prayer of all would be nullified, and they would need to repeat it.

[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah, with Tahtawi’s Gloss]

And consider taking the following free class at SeekersHub: Absolute Essentials of Islam: Basic Hanafi Jurisprudence (STEP)

Please see also: The Rulings Related To A Latecomer & A Note On The Durr al-Mukhtar

And Allah alone knows best.

Wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

What Does the Latecomer Say During the Imam’s Final Sitting?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question: If one joins the prayer as a late comer, does he perform the full tashahud with the imam and the du’a after it?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

The latecomer should recite only the tasahhud, upto …`abduhu wa rasuluh, and then remain silent in the imam’s final sitting.

Imam al-Haskafi said in his Durr al-Mukhtar:

“If the follower finishes [f: his tashahhud, (which is to say, at-Tahiyyatu… until `abduhu wa rasuluh] before the imam, it is agreed upon that he must remain silent [f: and not recite any invocations].
As for the latecomer [f: namely, one who has missed one or more rak`a of the prayer], they should recite the tashahhud slowly, so that the finish it just before the imam says his closing salams. Some, however, said that the latecomer may recite on after the tashahhud. Others said that the latecomer should [after finishing his tashahhud] keep repeating the testification of faith[f: which is to say, Ashhadu al-la ilaha illa Allah wa Ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasul Allah.]”

Ibn Abidin commented on this in his Radd al-Muhtar:

“(His saying, “[If the follower finishes before the imam,] it is agreed upon that he must remain silent)
This is because anything beyond the tashahhud in the first sitting is not legislated (ghayr mashru`). Therefore, one does not do salawat, or supplications…
(His saying, “…should recite the tashahhud slowly”)
… This was deemed correct [f: by Qadi Khan, one of the greatest of the Hanafi imams when it came to determining the strength of fiqhi positions] in the Khaniyya and also in Sharh al-Munya… There other opinions mentioned have also been deemed correct [by some scholars]. In al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, [Ibn Nujaym] said, “And fatwa should be given by that which is mentioned in the Khaniyya, as is clear…” [Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 1: 510 – 511]

And Allah alone gives success.

Wassalam,
Faraz Rabbani.