Latecomer Recitation in Prayer
Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Assalam alaykum
If I am joining the congregation in the mosque late during one of the
prayers with loud recitation (Fajr, Maghrib, Ishaa), and am making up
missed cycles, as far as I understood I have to pray the fatiha and
the minimum of 3 ayat either once (1 missed raka) or twice (2 missed
Should i recite the fatiha and the minimum of 3 ayat loudly or silently?
Could you cite the proofs in the hanafi madhab for the requirement
of reciting the fatiha and the minimum of 3 ayat in the make up cycles
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,
A latecomer (masbuq) is expected to make up the cycles (rak‘as) he missed in the order in which he missed them.
Hence, if you missed the first two cycles of the prayer, you would make up the first cycle by reciting the Fatiha and a chapter (sura) or its equivalent therein, and do the same in the second, because this is what is expected in the first two cycles.
However, if you missed three cycles, you would perform the first sitting (tashahhud) after making up a single cycle because at this point you would have actually prayed two cycles, one with the imam and another alone. Thereafter, you would pray the next cycle with a chapter (sura) or its equivalent, and the last cycle with the Fatiha alone.
This explanation is based on the tradition (hadith) of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) where he said, “Whatever you catch, pray it, and whatever you missed, then make it up.” (Nasa’i) The Hanafis understood from the word “qada’,” or make up, that the beginning of the prayer was missed, and accordingly, this is what needs to be made up. Further, the beginning of the prayer has an extra, mandatory component of recitation in it, and this is why the latecomer must recite after the Fatiha.
Lastly, given that you are considered to be praying alone (munfarid) for these makeup cycles, albeit with some nuance, you may raise your voice for the recitation in the loud prayers. But be cognisant of the other congregants present. If raising your voice will disturb them, then the proper thing to do would be to respect that.
(Ibn ‘Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar ‘ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar; Kasani, Bada’i al-Sana’i)
Please also see this answer and this answer.
And Allah Most High knows best.
[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam
Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani
Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.