Muslim Woman to Marry Christian Man

Ustadha Raidah Shah Idil makes it clear that a Muslim woman cannot marry a Christian man.

If a Muslim woman wants to marry a Christian man on the condition that he will allow their children to be practicing Muslims, and their life and all matters will be handled as per Islamic teaching, then is there an issue in getting married?

The Qur’an doesn’t mention clearly that Muslim women are prohibited from marrying Christian men. It seems to be just a matter of scholars thoughts or considerations.

Best regards

Marriage Validity

“Do not marry polytheistic women until they believe; for a believing slave-woman is better than a free polytheist, even though she may look pleasant to you. And do not marry your women to polytheistic men until they believe, for a believing slave-man is better than a free polytheist, even though he may look pleasant to you. They invite you to the Fire while Allah invites you to Paradise and forgiveness by His grace. He makes His revelations clear to the people so perhaps they will be mindful.” (Sura al-Baqara 2:221)

Dear sister, it is not permissible for you to marry a Christian man.

There is no scholarly difference on this very clear matter. Please refer to these previous answers for further clarification: Can a Muslim Woman Marry a Non-Muslim Man if Their Children Are Raised as Muslims? and Why Is a Muslim Woman Not Allowed to Marry a Non-Muslim Man?

The only way for your relationship to be made halal is this – he must embrace Islam, and you must do a valid nikah with him.

Future Children

Your marriage contract to a non-Muslim man is invalid, causing your children to be born out of wedlock. Your unborn children will be innocent of your sin of zina, but they deserve a better start to life. Please read: Can I Claim a Child from an Illicit Relationship?

Reality of Your Situation

You are both already in love, want to marry, live by Islam and raise your children as Muslims. As a courtesy to you, your Muslim family, his own soul, and most of all, to Allah Most High, please encourage your partner to embrace Islam.

Even if he does not fast a single day in his life or complete a single prayer, it is better for him to die on belief, so the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, can intercede for him on the Day of Judgement. Death, Hellfire and Heaven are real. Would you not want the man you love to be with you and your children in Paradise?

I encourage you to share this with your partner: Advice to a Christian Man Who Wants to Marry a Muslim Woman.

I pray that Allah opens his heart to Islam, and blesses you with a loving marriage and pious children.

Please also see Love, Marriage and Relationships in Islam: All Your Questions Answered.

Christian Woman in Love with Muslim Man

Shaykh Abdul-Rahim Reasat responds to a Christian woman asking for advice about marrying a Muslim man.

I am a non-Muslim woman who is falling in love with a Muslim man I work with. I believe in God and my family are non-practicing Christians.

The man I care for has all the qualities I longed for a partner to have but never found until now.

He has rekindled my own faith and makes me want to be better. He has told me he is fond of me also but I am aware that we can not have any physical contact etc. He has also expressed that I would need to be Muslim to be with him (Marry). He does not want me to convert to be with him but because I truly believe in Islam.

I love listening to him telling me about Islam and have begun to read the (translated) Qur’an to try to understand Islam better. I feel a pull towards it as I naturally seem to possess qualities that closely align with Islam but I am confused and torn between Islam and Christianity.

I believe Islamically the man could still marry me if I am Christian and I would support him in raising any children we may have Muslim, but he wants me to be Muslim too.

I don’t believe we would have met and shared mutual fondness for each other if it was not blessed by God as both of us before knowing the other was interested tried to ignore it and prayed for guidance and were still lead to each other in odd “coincidences.” We have done our best to keep our relationship/interaction halal as this is important to him and to me as I can not bear to be the cause of him to sin.

What should I do?


I pray you are well.

Thank you for reaching out to us. I pray that God facilitates that which is best for you both, in this, and the next life.

It’s a huge blessing from God that He presented this opportunity to you. The person you refer to sounds like an excellent individual, and your open-mindedness has allowed his qualities to shine through.

He is right. You should look into Islam with an open mind and heart. God has opened up an opportunity to learn about Islam, and put you in a position to learn about its beauty and see it embodied in an upstanding individual.

Our ‘Why Islam is True‘ podcast is an excellent place to start.


The heart of the matter here is that we, as Muslims, are convinced of Islam’s being the the final, and truest set of beliefs and practices revealed to humanity by the Creator. It is the natural progression of what the other Abrahamic faiths lead to, and the perfect balance of a righteous worldly life, the devotion to divine that spirit yearns for, and cognizance of the ever-lasting life that is certain to come to us all after death.

This truth is based on sound, rational proofs, among other things, such as thousands of documented miracles – the greatest of them being the Qur’an itself. A believer in this truth feels completely at ease once it settles in a his heart. The mind can easily accept it. It feels natural for the body to submit to its dictates. And the soul thrives in its light.

It is commendable that this individual asked you to accept this based on personal conviction. As Muslims, we are not a recruitment drive. There are no targets to hit; no agenda to serve. Rather, the Messenger of God told us that “No one truly believes until they love for their brother what they would love for themselves.” The brotherhood  referred to here is that which binds humanity as they are all the children of Adam.

We want perpetual, permanent, Paradisal bliss for ourselves and everyone else on the planet. Everyone makes their own choice though.

Marrying a Non-Muslim Lady

Islam does allow a Muslim man to marry a Jewish or Christian lady, but would anyone want his beloved wife to come to any harm? Rejecting God and His Messengers has consequences. This is clearly why he wants you to learn about and accept Islam on your own accord.

There is also the matter of the children. Would they not be confused as to why each parent has a different religion – especially when religions talk about eternal fates? What about other matters, such as important questions each religion answers differently, or points of practice?

The Messenger of Allah

God sent us Messengers to convey to us His will, and to instruct us. The greatest of them is Muhammad, God’s final Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace. I urge you to learn about his qualities, teachings, and his life. Never has there been a more beautiful, caring, loving, generous, forgiving, gentle, beloved, reliable, courageous, and strong human being. You’ll see the truth of this when you look into his life yourself.

Allah sent His final message at the hands of the most extra-ordinary human being. Every who learns about him with a fair mind and open heart, falls in love with him. You can learn more about him here and here.

The Qur’an

The Qur’an is Allah’s final message. Read it, reflect on it, and – as with everything else about Islam – ask those qualified to answer if you have any questions at all. The Qur’an is an Arabic book, and some aspects of it need explanation. I recommend taking out course The Qurʾan: What it is, How it was Preserved, and Why it is True.


Religion is supposed to be something which answers all the questions the soul demands answers for. Islam’s worldview provides soul-nourishing answers which satisfy the mind to boot. Issues like the purpose of existence, suffering and the ‘Problem’ of Evil, the reality of the Trinity, and others, which Christians have struggled to answer, have simple and profound answers in Islam. It makes more sense to the mind, and better answers the questions of the soul.

Christianity has many internal contradictions, which Christians themselves are forced to recognize. How can such a religion have divine origins? God doesn’t make mistakes.

Look into the works of Bart Erhman, an ex-Christian scholar of Christianity. They are sufficient to show this if Muslim sources are not enough. Dr Ali Ataie’s free course is also a great place to start.

Accepting Islam is the best possible choice you could make. Many people who embrace Islam after having been Christians actually feel closer to Jesus once they become Muslims. This is the account of one of the greatest scholars of the day.

Ask Allah For Guidance

At this time, one of the best prayers you can make to God is, “O God, let me see the truth as the truth – and give me the ability to wholeheartedly follow it. And show the falsehood as falsehood – and give me the ability to completely shun it.”

If you have any further questions or matters you wish to discuss please don’t hesitate to contact us. We are here for you.

I leave you with the promise of Allah spoken with the Royal “We” to show that just as He is truly majestic, His promise will certainly be fulfilled:

Whoever, male or female, does good deeds and is a believer [in God’s religion] We will make them live a truly amazing, fulfilling, beautiful life, and We will reward them according to the standard of the best they used to do. (Sura al-Naml 16:97)

May Allah grant you the best of both worlds.


Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Can I Marry a Hindu Woman?

Answered by Ustadha Raidah Shah Idil

Question: I am in a relationship with a Hindu girl. I feel it is necessary to tell her about Islam, but she is not convinced. She wants to stay Hindu even after marriage. Is it right for me to marry her and continue to convince her about Islam?

Answer: Assalamualaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray this finds you well. May Allah soften her heart to Islam, and grant you the strength to do what is best for both of you.


“Do not marry unbelieving women until they believe […] And do not marry (your women) to unbelievers until they believe.” [Quran 2:221]

Your marriage contract with a Hindu woman will be invalid. It is impermissible for you to marry her.

Although it must be hard for you to hear this, love is not enough to make a marriage successful. Please complete this online course to help you understand the spirit and law behind marriage in Islam. Islamic Marriage: Guidance for Successful Marriage and Married Life

Hope in Allah

Remember the Prophetic promise that if you leave something for Allah’s sake, then He will replace it with something better.

No matter how stuck you feel right now, trust that Allah has the power to make a way out for you. You just need to do your part. Please listen to this podcast: Positive Spiritual Thinking: Choosing Mindfulness (taqwa) and Embracing Trust (tawakkul) by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani


“Verily! You guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He knows best those who are the guided.” [Qur’an, 28:56]

Nobody can be convinced to become Muslim. Only those who are sincere will be guided by Allah. That being said, Allah is the Turner of hearts, and anything is possible with His help.


Please perform the Prayer of Need and ask Allah to help guide the woman you wish to marry.

Please perform the Prayer of Guidance up til seven times about what to do. If Allah inspires her to embrace Islam, then that is a sign that marriage to her is good for you. If she remains opposed to Islam, then this is a clear sign that marriage to her is unwise.

Future children

It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet Muhammad (upon him be blessings and peace) said: “Beware! Every one of you is a shepherd and every one is answerable with regard to his flock. The Caliph is a shepherd over the people and shall be questioned about his subjects (as to how he conducted their affairs). A man is a guardian over the members of his family and shall be questioned about them (as to how he looked after their physical and moral well-being). A woman is a guardian over the household of her husband and his children, and shall be questioned about them (as to how she managed the household and brought up the children). A slave is a guardian over the property of his master and shall be questioned about it (as to how he safeguarded his trust). Beware! Every one of you is a guardian and every one of you shall be questioned with regard to his trust.” [Sahih Muslim]

Mothers are often the primary caregivers of children. What religion do you want your children to be raised on?

I pray that Allah grants you the strength to do what pleases Him, and what will ultimately benefit you in both worlds.

Please refer to the following links:

Can a Muslim Man Marry a Sikh or a Hindu?
Marriage in Islam: A Reader
Rights of Children in Detail


Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Photo: Danumurthi Mahendra

Can I Marry a Non-Muslim Man Who Loves Me Deeply?

Answered by Ustadha Raidah Shah Idil

Question: Can I marry a non-Muslim man who loves me deeply, but who is not ready to convert to Islam? He believes in Allah, and never asked me to change my religion. I am stressed and very depressed about this matter.

Answer: Assalamualaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray this finds you well.

Marriage to a non-Muslim man

“Do not marry unbelieving women (idolaters), until they believe: A slave woman who believes is better than an unbelieving woman, even though she allures you. Nor marry (your girls) to unbelievers until they believe: A man slave who believes is better than an unbeliever, even though he allures you. Unbelievers do (but) beckon you to the Fire. But Allah beckons by His Grace to the Garden (of bliss) and forgiveness, and makes His Signs clear to mankind: That they may celebrate His praise.” [Al-Qur’an, 2:221]

Dear sister, you cannot marry a non-Muslim man, no matter how much you love each other. Your marriage contract with him would be invalid, on the basis of him being an unsuitable marriage partner.

Practical Steps

It is difficult to think clearly when deep feelings are involved, so I encourage you to take a break from your relationship and think over these few points:

1) Make it clear that if he wants to marry you, then he must convert to Islam. If you waver on this point, then he will not consider conversion a priority. Alhamdulilah, you say that he already believes in Allah. This is a wonderful first step towards his embracing of Islam. It is only natural to want good for those whom we love, and there is no greater good than the gift of belief in Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him).

2) If he refuses to convert, then reflect upon the long-term ramifications of your situation. You are both in love, but your marriage contract will be invalid. Sexual intercourse with him will be zina. Your children will be illegitimate in the eyes of the Shari’ah.These are harsh truths, but important for you to consider for your sake, and that of your unborn children. Contrast this harsh reality to one much more pleasing to Allah: a loving marriage to a Muslim man who loves you, and who will help you raise your children on Islam. If he chooses to embrace Islam, then this man whom you love can be your husband.

3) Marriage takes more than love. It takes a life-long commitment to shared values, on a bedrock of strong faith in Allah and the truth of the Akhirah. If the person you choose to spend the rest of your life with is not Muslim, then how will you successfully weather the storms of the dunya? How will you teach your children about Islam when their father is not Muslim? Please consider doing this course, Islamic Marriage: Guidance for Successful Marriage and Married Life, and encourage him to do the same.

4) Know that heartbreak, like all things in this world, is temporary. Right now, you may feel that you cannot live without him, and vice-versa. Please turn to Allah during this time of pain and distress, and ask Him to give you the strength to do what is right by Him. Please pray Salatul Istikhara to help guide you to what you need to do next, and please pray Salatul Hajat for the strength to remain steadfast.

5) Reflect on how you got yourself into this relationship to begin with. What is the state of your faith? Were you lonely? Are you longing for the companionship of a husband? Wanting to marry is natural and healthy. Choosing to marry a Muslim man of good character will give you happiness in both worlds, inshaAllah. Only a Muslim man can be your helpmate towards attaining Allah’s pleasure.

I pray that Allah grants you the wisdom and courage to do what is pleasing to Him. May Allah replace what you give up for His sake, with something far, far greater.


Please refer to the following links

Can a Muslim Woman Marry a Non-Muslim Man if Their Children Are Raised as Muslims?
Is There Any Leeway for a Muslim Woman to Marry a Non-Muslim Man?
Why Has Allah Allowed Me to Fall in Love With Someone I Can’t Marry?

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Can You Suggest Me a Supplication to Avoid for My Daughter to Marry a Non-Muslim Man?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: As salam alaykum,

My daughter wants to get married to a Gujarati boy. They both want to follow their own religion. Can you please suggest me some strong Dua so that she agrees to marry a muslim man and live happily?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray that this message finds you well, insha’Allah.

You should pray the Prayer of Need (salat al-hajah), and supplicate using blessed words and at blessed times– such as before dawn, and in blessed ways– see: Struggling to Have Children: Ten Key Etiquettes of Du’a

And please also see: A Reader on Tawba (Repentance) and: How Does One Perform The Prayer Of Need (salat al-haja)? and: What Are Some Prophetic Supplications That Can Help Me Deal With Trials in My Life?

And Allah alone knows best.


Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Is a Marriage to a Non-Muslim Woman Valid? (Shafi’i)

Answered by Shaykh Shuaib Ally

Question: Assalam alaykum,

If a Muslim man is in a relationship with a non-Muslim woman and she falls pregnant and then they get married, but she is not a person of the book, is the marriage valid islamically? If a child is conceived out of wedlock but the parents marry by the time he/she is born is the child classed as illegitimate or legitimate?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

It is not legally permissible for a Muslim man to marry a non-Muslim woman who does not fall within the category of ‘people of the book’.
If a Muslim man were to nevertheless do so, that marriage contract would be invalid; that is, it would not be legally recognized.

When is a Child Considered Illegitimate?

Legitimacy or illegitimacy has to do primarily with attribution of the child to the father, and includes derivative rules related to inheritance, guardianship and marriage.

If a child is born to a validly married couple in a period in which the child could have been conceived in this valid marriage, it would be attributed to the father.

The lower limit for the duration of a pregnancy for legal purposes is six months. Therefore, if a man were to marry a woman and she were then to give birth three months later, the child would not be attributed to the father. If she were to give birth shortly after six months, the child would be.

Please see also: Can a Muslim Man Marry a Sikh or a Hindu?

Shuaib Ally

Is It Simply Disliked For a Muslim Woman to Marry a Christian Man?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Assalamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.
Is it forbidden in Islam for a Muslim woman to marry a Christian man or is it only disliked?
In my country muslim men are not serious and I have met a christian man with a good character. Is it better for me to marry this christian man?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.
It is decisively established that it is unlawful for a Muslim woman to marry a non-Muslim man.
Allah Most High says, “Do not marry idolatresses until they believe: a believing slave woman is certainly better than an idolatress, even though she may please you. And do not give your women in marriage to idolaters until they believe: a believing slave is certainly better than an idolater, even though he may please you. Such people call [you] to the Fire, while God calls [you] to the Garden and forgiveness by His leave. He makes His messages clear to people, so that they may bear them in mind.” [2.221]
Pray the Prayer of Need (salat al-hajah) regularly [How Does One Perform The Prayer Of Need (salat al-haja)?], and ask Allah for a righteous, Muslim spouse who will help you get to Paradise. Take the means yourself and become the spouse you would want to marry.
Consider taking: Islamic Marriage: Guidance for Successful Marriage and Married Life
Please see: Marrying a Christian Man With Good Character and: Advice to a Christian Man Who Wants to Marry a Muslim Woman and: Can a Muslim Woman Marry a Non-Muslim Man if Their Children Are Raised as Muslims?
And Allah alone gives success.
Tabraze Azam
Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Marrying a Hindu Woman and the Islamic View on Eating Meat

Answered by Ustadha Zaynab Ansari

Question: Assalam alaikum. I have one close non Muslim friend who wants to marry me but she is Hindu. Her religion doesn’t allow her to become Muslim.  She wants me to change my religion as well. Also, she has a problem with eating animals as she is vegetarian and reveres certain animals we eat. I want to convince her about Islam and the Islamic view on eating animals. Please advise me.

Answer: Assalamu alaikum,

Dear Brother,

Thank you for your question.

It’s really important to try to separate one’s personal feelings from the larger question of accepting Islam. If the young woman is truly interested in Islam, she needs to investigate it on its own merits (and on its own terms) and leave off the marriage talks.

Marriage talks require a clear-headed focus and it’s hard to achieve that if she’s caught up in the “why do Muslims eat meat” question.

There is a lot of good information about Islam out there, some of it is available right here at SeekersGuidance.

Islamic law allows the consumption of certain animal products, including beef, provided the animal is slaughtered in the name of God and humane slaughtering practices are followed. Islam is an Abrahamic faith and, as such, it does not believe in reincarnation, hence there is no particular dimension to the existence of the cow that would prevent a human from consuming it.

The cow, like other permissible animals, was created to sustain the human and, as such, should be viewed as a blessing and provision of God, who has given the animal life and has given humans His permission to take that life only in His name.

If the young woman can’t accept your way of life, then it might be worth reconsidering your compatibility.

May Allah make things easy,

Zaynab Ansari

Related Answers:

What is Islam’s Stance on Muslim Men and Women Marrying Non-Muslims?

Can a Muslim Man Marry a Sikh or a Hindu?

Can a Muslim Woman Marry a Non-Muslim Man if Their Children Are Raised as Muslims?

Answered by Ustadha Zaynab Ansari

Question:   salam alykom wa rahmatu Allah..

I am Muslim woman and I want to marry a Catholic man.  He is not willing to convert to Islam because he doesn’t want to practice any religion.  We are really in love.  I didn’t meet a Muslim man so far who I can spend the rest of my life with and this guy is perfect for me.  Can I marry him in a civil marriage?  If we have children, he doesn’t mind if they are raised Muslim.  Any advice would be appreciated.

Answer: Dear Sister,

Assalamu alaikum,

I pray you are well and enjoying the blessings of Dhul-Hijjah as women and men gather in the Sacred Precincts for pilgrimage to Allah’s House.

From an Islamic legal standpoint, your civil marriage to a non-Muslim man is not valid. The invalidity of this marriage is not based on its being a civil contract. In fact, in Islam, marriage is a civil contract with sacred aspects. The invalidity of this marriage is due to the unsuitability of the marriage partner. Muslim women are required to marry Muslim men, on the basis of what Allah revealed:

“Do not marry unbelieving women (idolaters), until they believe: A slave woman who believes is better than an unbelieving woman, even though she allures you. Nor marry (your girls) to unbelievers until they believe: A man slave who believes is better than an unbeliever, even though he allures you. Unbelievers do (but) beckon you to the Fire. But Allah beckons by His Grace to the Garden (of bliss) and forgiveness, and makes His Signs clear to mankind: That they may celebrate His praise.”  (Al-Qur’an, 2:221)

In this Qur’anic verse, we see that faith (in Allah and His Messenger) trump other considerations, including social status. Muslim men are given qualified permission to marry non-Muslim women, however, in another verse:

This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them. And so are the virtuous women of the believers and the virtuous women of those who received the Scripture before you (lawful for you) when ye give them their marriage portions and live with them in honor, not in fornication, nor taking them as secret concubines. Whoso denieth the faith, his work is vain and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter. (Al-Qur’an, 5:5)

No similar permission is given to Muslim women to marry non-Muslim men. In fact, when we examine the hadith (traditions) of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, for biographical information about women in the early Muslim community, we discover that some of them had non-Muslim men who were interested in marrying them; however, these women insisted that these men become Muslim first.

I urge you to consider, in addition to the cautions I have stated above, the difficulty that will be entailed in having children with someone who is not Muslim, yet trying to raise those children as Muslims. It will be possible, yes, but what will you do when you need a positive Muslim male role model for your children, particularly your boys? These are important questions.

Last, but not least, please read the details of the Guidance Prayer at

May Allah give you clarity,

Zaynab Ansari
Dhul-Hijjah 6, 1432

Is There Any Leeway for a Muslim Woman to Marry a Non-Muslim Man?

Answered by Zaynab Ansari Abdul-Razacq

Question:  I am currently interested in marrying a man that is not Muslim. Growing up, I have barely liked a Muslim man due to their lack of courtesy, disrespect, and lack of concern for social justice. I convinced myself that I would marry a Muslim man just because it is haram to marry a non-Muslim, but I am not excited about it at all and would rather never get married in my life.  Currently, I know a non-Muslim man who constantly wants me to consider him, but he isn’t thinking of converting. I am madly in love with him.  This isn’t the first time I’ve liked a non-Muslim and even though I am fully practicing and wear hijab. Is there any room in the religion for the permissibility of my marriage to a non-Muslim man?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. May the peace and blessings of Allah descend on the Prophet Muhammad, his family, his companions, and all who follow them.

Dear Sister,

Assalamu alaikum,

Thank you for your question. I pray you are in good health and iman.

Allah Most High says, “Is then the man who believes no better than the man who is rebellious and wicked? Not equal are they. For those who believe and do righteous deeds are Gardens as hospitable homes, for their (good) deeds.As to those who are rebellious and wicked, their abode will be the Fire: every time they wish to get away therefrom, they will be forced thereinto, and it will be said to them: “Taste ye the Penalty of the Fire, the which ye were wont to reject as false.” (32:18-20)

Allah is telling us that we cannot compare people of faith to those of none. Our faith is a guiding light. If we extinguish that to pursue some worldly gain at the expense of our heavenly abode, what are we left with?

Woman to woman, I think you should ask yourself what you have internalized about your Islam that you find yourself attracted to men outside the faith? This might be more about you than these men. You should focus on shoring up your faith. Remember our actions (include wearing hijab and outward rituals of worship) are all empty without a firm conviction in Allah’ s truth that He knows what is best for us.

If you feel that you have some future with this man, you should ask Allah to guide him to Islam and grant him to you as a spouse if it will be good for your deen and dunya.

But you must be firm with this person that your faith is above all else.

Finally, you must take yourself out of it. Emotions cloud judgment. Introduce him to the Muslim community and then leave it alone.

May Allah reward you,

Zaynab Ansari Abdul-Razacq
June 10, 2011/Rajab 9, 1432