Does the Collection of Fluid Under One’s Skin Invalidate One’s Ablution?

Shaykh Abdurrahim Reasat answers a question related to the discharge of fluid under one’s skin and its effect on ablution, according to the Hanafi school of thought. In addition, he clarifies what is meant by an external agent.



Assalamu alaikum,
I am slightly confused regarding what is meant by an external agent in
In my case I washed my feet in the sink and one of my toes had a patch of peeled skin, caused from wearing new shoes. By me walking normally and the normal pressures applied on the foot be considered an external agent i.e. considered similar to squeezing? The little liquid that did exit didn’t go beyond the peeled skin, but is it considered pure despite the above, and does anything need to be washed?


Wa ‘alaykum as-salam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh

The scenario you described above does not invalidate your wudu, and, because the liquid didn’t pass beyond the point of exit, your foot is deemed pure. Nothing needs to be washed.

The ‘agent’ referred to above would be anything which would make the blood/liquid exit and flow, such as squeezing.

The liquid is considered to have flowed if it exits and flows due to its own momentum. (Midani, al Lubab).

Don’t try to over-think it. The principle is simple. Remember, the Messenger of Allah said, “Indeed, the [practice of] the religion is ease itself, and no one makes the religion hard on themselves except that it overwhelms them.” (Bukhari).

I hope that helps.




Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani


How Many Prayers Can I Pray with One Single Ablution (Wudu)?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Salam Alaikum.

How many prayers can I pray with one single ablution (wudu)?
If I have performed wudu for dhuhr and I haven’t passed gas or urinated or anything of that sort, do I have to make wudu for asr or later on for maghrib?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.

You can perform as many prayers as you like with a single ablution (wudu).

Your wudu is only nullified by the appearance of a nullifier. [see: Could You Please List All the Nullifiers of Ablution According to the Hanafi school?]

And Allah alone gives success.


Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Wudu and Flowing Filth

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: As-salamu Alaikum.

When I was performing wudu today, on my damaged toe I saw some whitness on the side. When I wiped it, it didn’t move, and I assumed it was skin. However, when drying my foot I found it to be thick fluid. Would this be considered filthy since it spread beyond the point of exit?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.
Yes, if it flowed out on its own or by an agent [= like your squeezing it out], then the ablution (wudu) would be nullified.
See: A Reader on Waswasa (Baseless Misgivings)
And Allah alone gives success.
Tabraze Azam
Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

How to Wash Filth From the Private Parts [Istinja]?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Untill now I had always thought passing wind invalidates wudu so wudu aswell as istinja must be performed but have recently read that only wudu needs to be done.
How does breaking wind make you impure and how does wudu make you pure if you have not washed the area. Also if in as school or office a vessel is not available for istinja ,would wipes suffice? or wet toilet paper be permissible instead or is only flowing water to be used?
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,
I pray this reaches you in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.
Cleaning after relieving oneself (istinja’) is a confirmed sunna.
Missing a sunna intentionally and without excuse is blameworthy, yet doesn’t prevent the validity of the ablution.
In the absence of water, which is preferable to use, you can use dry toilet tissue. Wet tissues or wipes are likely to spread the filth.
Also see: Could You Please List All the Nullifiers of Ablution According to the Hanafi school? and: Bathroom Issues: Using Toilet Paper & Removing Filth and: Is Washing Filth From the Private Parts [Istinja] Necessary After Passing Gas?
And Allah alone gives success.
Tabraze Azam
Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Does Pre-seminal Fluid on My Private Parts From a Dream Necessitate a Ritual Bath?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Assalamualeykum waramatulahi wabarakatu Ya Sheik, I kiss my girl friends in my dreams and I feel a little moisture on my private parts. Can I offer prayers without taking a bath or by only washing my private parts?
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.
Pre-sexual fluid (madhi) invalidates your ablution, yet does not necessitate the ritual bath (ghusl).
In general, less than 5cm in diameter of liquid filth is excused, though it is superior to clean yourself before praying.
Please see: Please List All the Nullifiers of Ablution According to the Hanafi School and: Regarding Ghusl and Wet Dreams for Men and Women
And Allah alone gives success.
Tabraze Azam

Does Wudu Break If a Stranger Sees Your Hair?

Answered by Ustadha Sulma Badrudduja

Question: I have grown up to believe that after making wudhu (female) it is wajib to cover the hair and other parts of the body in order to keep one’s wudu intact. If a ghair mahram sees the female’s awra, it nullifies her wudu? Is this correct?


Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

I hope you are doing well. Thank you for your question.

A woman’s wudu is not nullified by a non mahram seeing her hair or any other part of her `awra. Though covering her `awra is obligatory, it does not affect her wudu.

There is a complete list of all the things which nullify wudu here:

Nullifiers of Wudu in Hanafi School


Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Doubts Regarding Whether Nosebleeds Break My Wudu

Answered by Ustadh Salman Younas

Question: The flesh against my inner nose bone is always dry and I always have a wound in my nose that often bleeds. I don’t really know if it is flowing or not, but if you put water in the nose then the blood will move from its place i think. Because I am Hanafi, my wudhu will break easily. I wanted to know can i take wudhu as shafi but pray as a hanafi?

And what if you are with congregation and your nose bleeds, what do you do?

Answer: assalamu `alaykum

This is baseless misgiving (waswasa) and must be ignored. You are not to deem your ablution as being invalid in this case unless you are absolutely sure that you have bled in a manner that nullifies ablution i.e. with flowing. As long as you are not certain, your ablution will be valid.

Mere thoughts, assumptions, and potentialities are of no significance. To base one’s religious practice on such uncertainties is contrary to the prophetic sunna. As such, it must be avoided.

Likewise, if you are waiting to pray in congregation and your nose bleeds then you should wait until the bleeding subsides, redo ablution, and then pray. Again, this only applies if you are certain that you had bled.


Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Does Your Wudu Break If Your Spouse Sees You Naked?

Question: Does your wudu break if your wife see’s you naked. Also if showering with your wife, can you make wudu while she is still there?

Answer: assalamu `alaykum

No, your ablution does not break if your wife sees you naked.

The underlying legal reason for the nullification of ablution is the exiting of filth. This meaning is not met in the situation you describe.

As for making ablution while showering with one’s spouse, this is valid. However, one should cover their minimal nakedness – which is the area between the navel and the knee for men – when performing ablution. Also note that taking a full shower suffices in fulfilling the obligations of ablution.


Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

How to Pray and Stay Pure With Discharge From Private Parts

Answered by Ustadh Salman Younas

Question: I suffer from hemorrhoids without any associated bleeding. I have a slight mucus which is released as a result of the hemorrhiods. I am unaware at the time that this has taken place and only discover it at the end of the day when traces of it is found in my underwear. This is not a continuous discharge, nor do it occur all the time. What do I need to do regarding wudu and prayer? Would this discharge be classed as impure?

Answer: assalamu `alaykum

May Allah grant you health and well-being.

Anything that exits from the two private parts will nullify ablution. As such, mucus that exits the anus due to hemorrhoids will also be a cause for the nullification of ablution. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah]

On account of it being a nullifier of ablution, it will also be considered filthy and impure. [Haskafi, Durr al-Mukhtar]

With that said, one needs to be careful not to fall into baseless misgivings. Your ablution will only be considered nullified when the substance actually exits and you are made aware of the exiting. Thus, for example, if you pray and then after the prayer you notice such mucus you should assume that the mucus exited after the completion of your prayer, not before or during it, in which case your prayer is valid. In other words, assume that the mucus only exited the moment prior to your becoming aware of it, unless you are absolutely certain that it occurred earlier due to clear indicators.

Lastly, after becoming aware of its exiting, it would be best to change your underwear if the amount of filth is equivalent to the surface area of a circle approximately 5 centimeters in diameter or less. Praying with such an amount of filth on one would not render the prayer invalid though. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah]

If it is more than the above amount, one would be obliged to change as praying with an amount of filth more than what has been mentioned above will render the prayer invalid. [ibid]


Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Related Answers:

Does Vaginal Discharge Break Wudu?

Excused Liquid Filth and Ignoring Baseless Doubts About Purity

Could You Please List All the Nullifiers of Ablution According to the Hanafi school?

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Question : Could you please list all the nullifiers of ablution according to the Hanafi school? What about touching non-mahram women directly?

Answer : It is stated in Gifts of Guidance (‘al-Hadiyya al-`Ala’iyya), of Allama Ala’ al-Din Abidin:

Ritual ablution (wudu) is nullified by:

1. Anything that exits from the private parts, even if it not customary such as a worm or stones.
2. The flowing of any ritually impure substance (f: such as blood or pus) from a wound (f: or other opening) to any place that requires cleaning (f: i.e. it flowed beyond its point of exit), or if it came out with enough force to flow (f: but was prevent from flowing because it was wiped or absorbed by a bandage).
3. Vomit that is a mouthful, such that one would not have been able to keep it in without difficulty, except if it is just phlegm. Vomit that is from the same motion (ghathayan) is considered together when determining whether it is a mouthful or not.
4. Blood (B: from the mouth or throat) that overcomes one’s saliva or equals it (f: if closer to red, wudu is invalidated; if closer to yellow, it is not).
5. The sleep of one whose rear is not firmly seated. As for the one whose rear is firmly seated, his ablution is not nullified by sleep, even if leaning against something in a way that if it were removed he would fall.
6. Loss of consciousness.
7. Madness.
8. Drunkedness.
9. The laughter of an aware adult person a prayer that contains bowing and prostration, even for the one praying by head motions alone. If the laughter occurs after the tashahhud, the ablution is nullified, though not the prayer. If you laugh such that only you could hear it, then it does not invalidate your wudu but does invalidate your prayer.
10. (Direct contact between an erect penis and the vagina of a desirable woman.

[Gifts of Guidance, unpublished translation, © Faraz Rabbani, 2002]

As for touching a female, it does not invalidate wudu. However, it is recommended to renew one’s wudu, to get out of the difference of opinion of the Shafi`is, especially if one will lead others in prayer where Shafi`is are likely to be present.This is in terms of wudu. As for voluntarily touching a stranger (i.e. non-mahram other than one’s spouse) of the other gender, this is sinful and unlawful because of the clear hadiths interdicting this.The Messenger of Allah said: “It would be better for one of you to have himself stabbed on the head with an iron nail than to touch a non-mahram woman.” (al-Tabarani, with a sound chain of narrators)

Walaikum assalam,

Faraz Rabbani.