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Should One Do the Prostration of Forgetfulness Due to Pronunciation Errors?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: As salaamu alaykum,

In Salah,is the prostration of forgetfulness required if one repeats verses due to pronunciation errors? (Hanafi School)

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

You should not be repeating verses due to pronunciation errors. For the most part, such non-deliberate errors are completely excused. Further, even reciting with correct tajwid is not a requirement in the Hanafi school. Focus on your recitation outside of the prayer, and recite verses once within it.

Please see: Do Grammatical and Pronunciation Mistakes While Reciting the Quran Invalidate Your Prayer? and: Should I Repeat my Quran and Dua Recitations Due to Errors in Pronunciation?

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

wassalam,

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam holds a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Leicester, where he also served as the President of the Islamic Society. He memorised the entire Qur’an in his hometown of Ipswich at the tender age of sixteen, and has since studied the Islamic Sciences in traditional settings in the UK, Jordan and Turkey. He is currently pursuing advanced studies in Jordan, where he is presently based with his family.

Do Pronunciation Errors Invalidate Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: As salaam alaikum.

I repeat my recitation during prayer to ensure I am pronouncing the surah correctly. This practice causes me to pray extremely long and exhausting prayers that give me little tranquility and happiness in my heart.

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

Unintentional pronunciation errors aren’t going to invalidate your prayer. Practice your tajwid outside of the prayer, and say things once, and once only, within the prayer itself.

Please also see: Do Grammatical and Pronunciation Mistakes While Reciting the Qur’an Invalidate Your Prayer? and: Should I Repeat My Qu’ran and Dua Recitations Due to Errors in Pronunciation?

And Allah Most High alone knows best.

wassalam,

[Ustadh] Tabraze Azam.

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Tabraze Azam was born and raised in Ipswich, England, a quiet town close to the east coast of England. His journey for seeking sacred knowledge began when he privately memorized the entire Qur’an in his hometown at the age of 16. He also had his first experience in leading the tarawih (nightly-Ramadan) prayers at his local mosque. Year after year he would continue this unique return to reciting the entire Quran in one blessed month both in his homeland, the UK, and also in the blessed lands of Shaam, where he now lives, studies and teaches.

Should I Repeat All My Prayers Because of Mistakes in the Fatiha?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question:As salaamu alaykum,

If someone has been reading a letter of the Fatiha incorrectly for some time but is not sure how long does he need to repeat all his past prayers?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.

No, you do not need to make up any prayers.

Please also see: Do Grammatical and Pronunciation Mistakes While Reciting the Qur’an Invalidate Your Prayer?

And Allah knows best.

wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Mistakes in Recitation During my Prayers: How not to Loose Hope of Them Being Accepted?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Asalaamu alaikum
I know the rules of Tajwid but I always make mistakes in my recitation during prayer because it is difficult for me to remember those rules. I cry a lot because of that because my prayers will never be accepted. What should I do?
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.
Mistakes in recitation or pronunciation don’t affect the validity of your prayer.
Work on your tajwid outside of the prayer, and focus on what you are doing during the prayer itself.
See: Should I Repeat My Qur’an and Du’a Recitations Due to Errors in Pronunciation? and: The Sunna Method of Reciting the Qur’an and the Legal Status of Reciting With Tajwid
And Allah alone gives success.
Tabraze Azam
Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.

Using a Mushaf With Color Coded Tajwid Rules

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Is there a particular preference for the Uthmani script when beginners (especially children) recite the qur’an? Should beginners (especially children) recite qur’an from the tajweed they remember (by memory) or should they use a qur’an that gives them hints or clues of the tajweed rules applied?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that you are well, insha’Allah.

In the early stages, there is no harm in having them recite from a mushaf wherein the tajwid rules are distinct and clear (such as colour coded). This is useful for some to use as a teaching tool. Though in the long term, it would be best to “wean” them away from such a mushaf so that they do not become reliant upon it, and are given the opportunity to really master the rules.

With that said, it may remain superior to teach the rules separately and then have them recite from a “normal” mushaf so they are forced to concentrate harder and apply the rules during recitation.

And Allah knows best.

Wassalam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Is It Required That the Imam Know More Qur’an Than the Followers?

Answered by Sidi Waliyullah Amin

Question: I share my house with two other Muslim roommates. We often pray Salaah in congregation whenever we are at home. I learned Tajweed and memorized sections of the Quran under a scholar. My roommates often lead the Salaah and I realized I know more of the Quran and have a more correct pronunciation than my roommates. I do not know how to be humble and yet let them know that I should be leading the congregation because of the hadith of the Prophet (SAW) that the most learned in the Quran should lead Salaah. How do I deal with this situation?

Also, what is the ruling on praying behind people who follow another school (as I’ve encountered situations where this seems to be an issue)?

Answer:

The Ruling of Having the Most Learned Person Lead the Prayer

Regarding your first question, it’s sunnah, or from the perfection of the congregation, to have the most learned lead the prayer, whereas to avoid dispute is essential (wajib). As long as the Imam’s recitation is free from major errors then this issue shouldn’t be allowed to cause dispute.

It is a condition for the validity of the prayer that the Imam knows enough Quran to fulfill the amount that is mandatory for prayer. But after the conditions are met, then the one who is actually most entitled to lead is the one who know the rules of prayer best.

Minimum Required Recitation for the Imam

The Imam should be able to recite at least one Ayah properly in order for the prayer to be valid. Properly means that he’s able to recite every letter correctly from its point of articulation (makhraj). The characteristics of the letters, or sifaat, and the other rules (ahkam) of tajweed (e.g. ikhfa, idgham) are not considered essential in this issue.

If they are not able to do this and they still insist on leading, then don’t pray with them. In this case you should inform them (and make dua for them) because their prayer is invalid. The only way their prayer would be valid is if they are actively attempting to mend the essential deficiencies in their recitation, even if only by sincere intention. However, in this case he still may not lead until he rectifies those essential deficiencies.

Praying Behind Someone Who Follows a Different Madhab

As for your second question it’s completely permissible to follow someone of another madhhab. The madhahib are the most scholarly rendition of Islamic jusrispudence and the differences are all valid and strongly substantiated.

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

Do Grammatical and Pronunciation Mistakes While Reciting the Qur’an Invalidate Your Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Salman Younas

Question: What is the fiqh of basic quranic recitation? I remember reading an answer many years ago that in this day and age due to general ignorance, this is excused for the general masses. For example my basic recitation like others in the west is poor, i find it difficult to say certain letters or sounds from different part of the body (throat, tongue, chest etc). Common mistakes are saying “kul huwa Allahu ahad” instead of “qul huwa Allahu ahad” and other similar letters or sounds. What is the ruling for people in our times regarding basic recitation?

Answer: assalamu `alaykum

The fatwa position in our times is that such mistakes in recitation do not nullify the prayer.

Ibn `Abidin states in his Radd al-Muhtar, the central reference for fatwa in our times:

“As for the later scholars… then they agreed that mistakes in declension (i`rab) never invalidates [the prayer] even if the belief [entailed by the change in meaning] is disbelief (kufr). This is because most people do not differentiate between the various declensional perspectives.”

A mistake in declension is to alter the final vowel of a word. Thus, if a word is supposed to end in a fatha but is pronounced as ending in a kasra, this would be a mistake in declension. As is clear from the words of Ibn `Abidin above, it would not invalidate the payer.

He continues by stating:

“If the mistake is in altering one letter for another, then if it is possible to differentiate the two [when reciting] without difficulty, such as the letter al-saad and al-taa’ when one recites al-talihat in place of al-salihat, then they agree that it invalidates the prayer. If it is not possible to differentiate, such as al-daad and al-zaa or al-saad and al-sin, then most of them state that it does not invalidate the prayer due to general hardship (`umum al-balwa).”

Based on this, common mistakes in pronunciation of certain letters is also overlooked. It does not invalidate the prayer even if there occurs a change in meaning. An example of such a mistake in pronunciation is the oft-occurring recitation of “walad ḍāllīn” as “walad zallin”.

To summarize, we can say that the following, when not done willfully, do not invalidate the prayer.:

a. Grammatical mistakes, such as those relating to the declension of words, and

b. Common mistakes in the pronunciation of certain letters and words.

Of course, we cannot stress enough the importance of learning correct pronunciation of the Qur’an. It is Allah’s book and among the rights due to it is to recite it as it was revealed, in a beautiful and sound manner.

Wassalam
Salman

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani

A Clarification Regarding the Pronunciation of the Letters “Taa” and “Kaaf” With Tajweed

Answered by Shaykh Hatim Youssef

Question: Salaams,

 

I have a question in tajweed and I hope that you can help me. Please can you clarify whether the letters ‘taa’ and ‘kaaf’ are said with hams only when saakin or also when vowelled. I have found different answers on the internet and from different teachers.

Answer: Wa Alaykum Assalaam, Wa rahmatullah,

Sam’an Wa Ta’atan,

Hams, Qalqala and other Sifat [features of letters] are never found in isolation of their sounds (الصفة لا تفارق الموصوف) whether these sounds are vowelled or Saakin. However, Qalqala and Hams in particular are pronounced most clearly when the letter has a sukoon. Practically, one should not “worry” about the Hams of the Kaaf or the Taa or any of the other 8 letters of (سكت فحثه شخص) unless they are Saakin.

Please also note that the Hams of the Kaaf and the Taa is different from that of other letters. This is because they belong to (حروف الشدة) or occlusives (sounds in which the air is obstructed and then released abruptly). As you well know, one will have to learn that orally from a Tajweed sheikh.

And Allah knows best.

Wa Salaam.

Hatim

Related Course:

Practical Tajwid

The Sunna Method of Reciting the Qur’an and the Legal Status of Reciting With Tajwid

Answered by Sidi Tabraze Azam

Question: I am just curious if the tajweed rules besides proper pronunciation such as Ghunna, Qalqala, Ikhfa etc. is wajib to follow when reciting the Qur’aan? Jazakmuallah Khair

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I hope you are in the best of health and spirits insha’Allah.

The Ruling of Recitation with Tajwid

According to the Hanafi school, reciting the Qur’an with proper tajwid would be considered a sunna.

Moreover, Imam Nawawi (Allah be pleased with him) notes scholarly consensus (ijma`) on the fact that it is recommended to recite the Qur’an in a steady recital (tartil). As confirmed by the authorities of the Hanafi school, amongst them, Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas, Imam al-Kamal Ibn al-Humam and others. May Allah be pleased with them all.

[Salah Abu’l Haj, al-Hukm al-Fiqhi li Ta`allum Ahkam al-Tajwid]

The Meaning of Tajwid

Tajwid has a linguistic meaning as well as a technical meaning. Linguistically, tajwid means beautification; the act of beautifying or perfecting something. In the specific, technical usage, it is the act of pronouncing each letter from its respective articulation point and giving each letter its dues and rights.

The Qur’anic Command to Recite in a Steady Recital (Tartil)

“And recite the Qur’an in slow, measured rhythmic tones (tartil)” [73:4]

The commentators on the Qur’an, amongst them Ibn Kathir and Qurtubi, have mentioned regarding this verse, that one should not rush in one’s recitation. Rather, one should recite in a slow, deliberate manner such that it aids one in contemplating the meanings of the verse one is reciting. Imam Razi mentioned that reciting quickly indicates that one is not paying attention to the meanings, though this does not negate its permissibility. For example, when one reaches verses of promises or threats, one has hope and fear, when one hears the mention of one’s Lord, one is awe of the majesty.  He ends the section stating that what is meant by the word “tartil”, or steady recitation, is that one’s heart is present whilst one is reciting such that one reflects on the meanings.

Sayyida `A’isha reported that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace said), “Someone who recites the Qur’an and is fluent in it, is with the noble pious angels. Someone who recites the Qur’an and stammers in it has two rewards as it is difficult for him.” [Agreed upon]

The Prophet’s Recital (Allah bless him and give him peace)

Sayyida Umm Salama (Allah be pleased with her) reports: “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) recited each verse separately. He recited ‘Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds’ and paused, then recited, ‘The Beneficent, the Merciful ‘ and paused, then paused after reciting, ‘Owner of the Day of Judgment’.”

Sayyiduna Qatada (Allah be pleased with him) reports: “I inquired from Anas (Allah be pleased with him): ‘How was the recital of The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace)?’ He replied: ‘He recited (the words of elongation (madd)) with an elongation (madd)”‘.

The Jurists (Fuqaha) and the Scholars of Tajwid

The Jurists of Islamic Law and the Scholars of Tajwid actually differ on this issue. Though it is said that each knowledge is taken from its people, and the opinion of the Jurists (fuqaha) is what counts as the question is: What is the ruling of Tajwid? Such questions are dealt with by the Jurists of each school of Islamic Law.

I asked Shaykh `Ali Hani who is a major authority in the sciences related to the Qur’an, being a master of the ten famous recitations, Qur’anic sciences (`Ulum al-Qur’an), specifically, Interpretation of the Qur’an (Tafsir), as well as being a scholar in the Shafi`i school, and he also confirmed that we take such rulings from the Jurists and the correct opinion is that one is not sinful even if one performs a mistake which would be considered major (al-lahn al-jali).

What would be considered sinful, as mentioned by Shaykh al-Islam Zakariyya al-Ansari and quoted by Mulla `Ali al-Qari in his own commentary of Imam Jazari’s (Allah be pleased with him) poem on tajwid, would be to recite in manner which fulfills the following two conditions:

[1] One completely changes the meaning (ma`na);

[2] And one does not recite with the correct declension (i`rab);

[Mulla `Ali al-Qari, al-Minah al-Fikriyya Sharh Muqaddimat al-Jazariyya; al-`Allama Zakariyya al-Ansari, al-Daqa’iq al-Muhakkima fi Sharh al-Muqaddima]

Studying Tajwid

Nevertheless, this is a legal ruling, like other rulings. It does not detract from the fact that studying such knowledge would be a communal obligation (fard kifaya), just like the other sciences. Taking on such a responsibility is something of huge reward and a means of becoming of the closest to Allah.

One strives to increase in one’s knowledge and practice in order to seek to recite the Qur’an in the way that it was revealed to the best of creation (Allah bless him and give him peace). One should take heed of the way one is affected by the recitation of an accomplished recitor (qari); another wisdom and miracle of the Qur’an.

To conclude, the one who recites with perfection and giving each letter its due, will raise in ranks in Paradise according to his memorization, as mentioned by the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace), and he will be amongst the Noble Emissaries (al-Safara al-Kiram al-Barara).

Sayyiduna `Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-`As reported that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “It will be said to those who know the Qur’an, ‘Recite and ascend. Recite slowly as you did in the world below. Your station will be at the last verse you recite.'” [Abu Dawud; al-Tirmidhi]

And Allah knows best and He alone gives success.

Wassalaam,

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani