Do I Have to Repeat a Prayer in Which I Forgot to Perform the First Sitting and Then Returned to It? [Shafi’i]

Answered by Ustadh Sharif Rosen

Question: Assalam alaykum

When praying Isha I forgot to make first tashahuud. But I was closer to the sitting position so I returned to it and made the first tashahud. And then I performed the forgetfulness prostrations. Do I have to repeat the prayer?

Answer: BismilLahi Rahmanir Rahim

as-Salamu ‘alaykum.

Based on the situation you’ve described, your prayer was valid in the Shafi’i school, and you are not obligated to make it up.

In the Shafi’i madhab, the First Tashahhud is a recommended action [sunna]. And while it is also recommended to perform the Prostrations of Forgetfulness [Sujud al-Sahu] in the event one’s leaves the First Tasahhud, one is not required to do so.

Note, too, that Sujud al-Sahu is sunna in the Shafi’i school, yet only obligatory upon one following an Imam in their performance of Sujud al-Sahu.

[Rashid, Nur al-Mishka, 141; al-Zuhayli, al-Mu’tamid 1/336; al-‘Amoudi, ‘Umda al-Talibin, 105]

To help consolidate your knowledge around the rulings of ritual worship, please consider taking one of the free courses offered here on SeekersHub that detail these important issues.

And Allah knows best.

wa-Salamu ‘alaykum.

[Ustadh] Sharif Rosen

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Sharif Rosen is the Muslim Chaplain at Williams College (in the Northeastern United States) where he works to enhance campus life through spiritual and pastoral care; advocacy and coalition building; and deepening mutual understanding within and between communities.  His formative Islamic studies, past and ongoing, have been at the hands of scholars connected via unbroken transmission to the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.  Most of Sharif’s training occurred in Amman, Jordan from 2008 – 2013, with a focus on creed, ritual law, spirituality, Quranic recitation and exegesis and through which he has received permission to transmit his Islamic learning.  Sharif has a B.A. in History from Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, and is now completing his graduate studies.  He completed the Classical Arabic program at the Qasid Arabic Institute in Amman, where he was also the Director of Student Life.  He currently serves as the Vice President for Educational Chaplaincy with the U.S.-based Association of Muslim Chaplains.

Can We Recite Verses From the Quran During the Final Sitting of the Prayer?

Answered by Shaykh Salim Ahmad Mauladdawila

Question: Assalamu alaykum

Can we recite verses from the Quran like surah Kahf’s first ten verses during the final sitting of the prayer?

Answer: Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim

Reciting from the Quran is sunna in the standing position of the prayer in the first two rak’as (round of actions) after the recital of the ‘al-Fatiha’ chapter. Outside of this position, recital of Quran in prayer is makruh (disliked), though it does not invalidate one’s prayer. It is preferable to recite prayer narrated by the Prophet Muhammad SAW during all parts of the prayer, including the tashahhud.

One can find translated examples of Prophetic prayers to recite in Shaykh Nuh Ha Mim Keller’s Reliance of the Traveller, Imam al-Nawawi’s Al-Adhkar, and other books of jurisprudence and prophetic prayers.

[Shaykh] Salim Ahmad Mauladdawila

Should I Avoid Raising My Hands When Praying With Hanafis? [Shafi’i]

Answered by Shaykh Abdurragmaan Khan

Question: Assalam alaykum,

I am extremely grateful for this platform which gives me the option of asking questions regarding fiqh. May Allah reward you for the inconvenience I am causing you by asking several questions.

1. When I pray in my local mosque, who is Hanafi, in order to avoid any dispute, I avoid raising my hands during the prayer despite being Shafi’i. Am I right?

2. If I miss a raka’ah (cycle) with the Imam, do I raise my hands behind the Imam after his first tashahhud?

3. In my makeup prayer of Fajr should I perform the qunut?

Answer: Wa alaykum salam

May Allah reward you. Your question does not inconvenience any of the Seekershub instructors in anyway. Rather, it affords us the opportunity to learn – by consulting the classical texts – and causes many of the other seekers to benefit.

Question 1:

Raf’ al-yadayn or raising one’s hands is a strongly encouraged sunnah according to the Shafi’is, the omittance of which is considered reprehensible (makruh). [Nayl al-Raja]

Living in a Hanafi community should not be the cause that you leave out this important sunnah. We need to appreciate that ALL schools of law are based on the Quran and Sunnah. When the Hanafi school does not make raf’ al-yadayn, we respect there position which is based on the hadith of the great companion AbduLlah ibn Mas’ud; similarly Hanafis should respect the position of the Shafi’is which is based on many authentic Prophetic traditions.

If however, the raising of your hands in prayer, will definitely lead to debate and quarreling, and the members of the masjid will not be tolerant of you raising your hands, then it might be better not to do so. Avoiding fitnah in a community is considered a general welfare (maslahah ammah); while raising your hands in prayer would be considered a personal one. General welfare receives precedence over personal welfare. In this instance however, you should consider speaking to the Imam of the masjid about this intolerance, so that it could be addressed over a period of time.

Question 2:

The four areas where one raises his hands in the Shafi’i school are four. 1. When entering Salah, 2. When bowing, 3. When rising from bowing, and 4. When rising from the first tashahhud. Some Shafi’i scholars included a 5th. They considered it recommended to raise ones hands when rising from a sajdah (into his 2nd or 4th raka’ah), especially when rising from the sitting of rest (jalsah al-istirahah). In his Bushra al-Karim, Sa’id bin Muhammad Ba’Ishn, supported this position as it is established in an authentic hadith and also alluded to by Imam al-Shafi’i. Thus, when you missed a raka’ah, you may raise your hands when rising from the tashahhud of your Imam, not because it’s considered a first tashahhud for you, but because of the discussion above.

Question 3:

Qunut should be made in the fajr prayer, even when made-up later.

[Shaykh] Abdurragmaan Khan

Shaykh Abdurragmaan
received ijazah ’ammah from various luminaries, including but not restricted to: Habib Umar ibn Hafiz—a personality who affected him greatly and who has changed his relationship with Allah, Maulana Yusuf Karaan—the former Mufti of Cape Town; Habib ‘Ali al-Mashhur—the current Mufti of Tarim; Habib ‘Umar al-Jaylani—the Shafi‘i Mufti of Makkah; Sayyid Ahmad bin Abi Bakr al-Hibshi; Habib Kadhim as-Saqqaf; Shaykh Mahmud Sa’id Mamduh; Maulana Abdul Hafiz al-Makki; Shaykh Ala ad-Din al-Afghani; Maulana Fazlur Rahman al-Azami and Shaykh Yahya al-Gawthani amongst others.

How Should I Deal With People Practising Islam in a Different Way Than Mine?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaikum,

I am an Indian Muslim (Hanafi) who recently started living in Saudi Arabia. I am disturbed by some of their practices.

1) It is very common to see people wiping over normal cotton socks and leading the prayer. Should I repeat my prayer after praying behind them?

2) How can I advice people to not pray bare-headed?

3) When in tashahhud most people continuously move the index finger. What is the basis of this action?

4) One brother said that the prayer of glorification’s narration is extremely weak and none of the salafs have practiced it. He also said that voluntary prayers should only be prayed as 2 cycles. Is he right?

5) Is it permissible to join two prayers while traveling?

6) Most of the chicken where I am is exported from Brazil or America. Our scholars have always said it is doubtful to be permissible.

Which scholar can I contact to ask him about that?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah,

1. Assume that they are in a state of ritual purity (wudu) already, and that they are repeating their wudu just for the blessing and reward of doing so. The basis is that we interpret the actions of others in a sound manner. [see: Is It Valid to Pray Behind an Imam Who Is Holding a Microphone in His Hand?]

2. Please see: Praying Behind an Improperly Dressed, Beardless Imam

3. There is basis for moving the finger during the sitting (tashahhud) of the prayer. [see: Moving the Finger in the Tashahhud in the Maliki School and: Which Opinion is Correct in Pointing the Finger in the Tashahhud?]

4. No, many scholars have deemed it to be a sound narration. [see: The Prayer of Glorification (salat al-tasbih)] There is certainly basis in the sacred law for praying voluntary prayers as four cycles (rak`ats).

5. Please see: Can a Hanafi Follow the Shafi’i Opinion on Joining Prayers When Traveling? and: Joining Prayers While Traveling (Maliki)

6. Ask your local scholars.

Consider taking a free class: Living with Excellence: Essentials of Halal and Haram

And Allah Most High alone knows best.


Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Photo: Mohammed Tawsif Salam

Is My Prayer Still Valid If I Fail to Recite the Tashahud Correctly?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Is my prayer still valid if I recite the tashahud erroneously in one place, like saying the letter “alif” instead of the letter “ayn”?

Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

Yes, your prayer would be valid as the vast majority of pronunciation errors don’t affect the validity or soundness of the prayer. Work on your pronunciation (tajwid) outside of the prayer. As for during the prayer. just pray. You and I, thankfully, won’t be the judges of our prayers, so learn what is required of you and then do the best you can, relying on Allah Most High and hoping in His Mercy. Remember that there is no necessary correlation between validity and reward; thus, even if you recited with perfect tajwid, that does not guarantee for you an accepted prayer that is pleasing to Allah Most High.

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Seek what is balanced and correct and draw near. Know that none of you will enter the Garden on account of his deeds. The most beloved of actions to Allah are those which are the most constant, even if they are little.” [Bukhari]

Please also see: Do Grammatical and Pronunciation Mistakes While Reciting the Qur’an Invalidate Your Prayer? and: What Can I Do About Anxiety in Prayer and Waswas Regarding My Pronunciation?

Consider taking the following free class at SeekersHub: Absolute Essentials of Islam: Basic Hanafi Jurisprudence (STEP)

And Allah Most High alone knows best.


Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

The Tashahhud is Lofty – Don’t Rush It

The ‘tashahhud’ consists of the words we recite in every sitting of our prayers. These are the words with which the Beloved Messenger of Allah ﷺ greeted Allah on his ascent beyond the Heavens, in a place beyond place–a place not even the Angel Gabriel could go.

All greetings, blessings and good acts are from You, my Lord. Greetings to you, O Prophet, and the mercy and blessings of Allah. Peace be unto us, and unto the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.

At Tahiyyaatu lilaahi was Salawaatu wat tayibaatu As Salaamu ‘alaika ayyuhan nabiyyu wa rahmatul laahi wa barakaatuh As Salaamu ‘alainaa wa ‘alaa ‘ebaadillaahis saaliheen, (Hands on knees, raise right forefinger:) Ash hadu allaa ilaah ilallaah Wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhuu wa rasuuluh
tashahhud in Arabic

Our tashahhud relives that intimate meeting between Allah and His Most Beloved Prophet ﷺ. It is the Prophet’s greeting, the Divine Response; the Prophet’s acceptance of this response, and his seeking to spread that mercy, honour, and blessing to all those seeking righteousness; and then the statement of faith and commitment.
Shaykh Faraz Rabbani explains the importance and greatness of the tashahhud and reminds us of the need to say these precious words with purpose, presence, and yearning. Brief, but powerful. Reflect!

Resources on tashahhud for seekers:

Can I Send Blessings on the Prophet at the End of the Supplication (Qunut) of the Witr Prayer?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: As salam alaykum,

Is it permitted to send blessings on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) at the end of the qunut supplication in the Witr prayer, and to say “sayyidina” in the tashahhud?

What books can I use to teach my kids prayer?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that this message finds you well, insha’Allah.

Yes, both sending blessings (salawat) on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) at the end of the qunut supplication in the Witr prayer, and saying “our master” (sayyidina) in the final sitting (tashahhud) are permitted and virtuous actions. [Please see the answers below for further details.]

As for useful manuals to learn your fiqh, strive to get hold of: (1) The Absolute Essentials of Islam by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani, and (2) Ascent to Felicity by Shaykh Faraz Khan.

See also: Supplication During Qunut and: Is It Proper to Add “Sayyidina” Before the Names of Our Prophets Muhammad and Ibrahim During the Salawat After the Tashahhud In Prayer? and: What is the Preferred Method to Recite the Qunut Supplication?

Consider taking the following free class at SeekersHub: Absolute Essentials of Islam: Basic Hanafi Jurisprudence (STEP)

And Allah alone knows best.

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

How Should I Place My Feet in the Sitting (Tashahhud) Position?

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam

Question: Assalam alaykum,

Could you please describe how the feet should be positioned when sitting in prayer?

Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

I pray that this message finds you well, insha’Allah.

The sunna is to place the left foot on the ground and sit on it, and stand the right foot up, pointing its toes towards the qibla. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar]

During the sitting position, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to, “[horizontally] lay his left foot down, and [vertically] stand his right foot…” [Muslim]

Some of the scholars also mention that it is praiseworthy to point the toes of the left foot towards the qibla, if one is reasonably able to do so, yet there is no blame in leaving this– particularly as it can be difficult. [Lacknawi, Naf` al-Mufti wa al-Sa’il]

Please also see: How Should a Woman Sit and Prostrate in Prayer?

And Allah alone knows best.

في مراقي الفلاح: ( و ) يسن ( افتراش ) الرجل ( رجله اليسرى ونصبه اليمنى ) وتوجيه أصابعها نحو القبلة كما ورد عن ابن عمر رضي الله تعالى عنه

في رد المحتار: ( قَوْلُهُ فِي الْمَنْصُوبَةِ ) أَيْ الْأَصَابِعِ الْكَائِنَةِ فِي الرِّجْلِ الْمَنْصُوبَةِ . قَالَ فِي السِّرَاجِ : يَعْنِي رِجْلَهُ الْيُمْنَى لِأَنَّ مَا أَمْكَنَهُ أَنْ يُوَجِّهَهُ إلَى الْقِبْلَةِ فَهُوَ أَوْلَى . ا هـ . وَصَرَّحَ بِأَنَّ الْمُرَادَ الْيُمْنَى فِي الْمِفْتَاحِ وَالْخُلَاصَةِ وَالْخِزَانَةِ ، فَقَوْلُهُ فِي الدُّرَرِ رِجْلَيْهِ بِالتَّثْنِيَةِ فِيهِ إشْكَالٌ لِأَنَّ تَوْجِيهَ أَصَابِعِ الْيُسْرَى الْمُفْتَرَشَةِ نَحْوَ الْقِبْلَةِ تَكَلُّفٌ زَائِدٌ كَمَا فِي شَرْحِ الشَّيْخِ إسْمَاعِيلَ ، لَكِنْ نَقَلَ الْقُهُسْتَانِيُّ مِثْلَ مَا فِي الدُّرَرِ عَنْ الْكَافِي وَالتُّحْفَةِ ، ثُمَّ قَالَ فَيُوَجِّهُ رِجْلَهُ الْيُسْرَى إلَى الْيُمْنَى وَأَصَابِعَهَا نَحْوَ الْقِبْلَةِ بِقَدْرِ الِاسْتِطَاعَةِ . ا هـ . تَأَمَّلْ

في نفع المفتي والسائل: الاسْتِفْسَارُ: هل يلزمُ توجيهُ أصابعِ الرِّجلِ اليُسْرَى أيضاً حالةَ القُعودِ إلى القبلة؟ الاسْتِبْشَارُ: يُسْتَحَبُّ أن يَضَعَها متوجِّهاً إلى القبلة ، كالرِّجلِ اليمنى، وإن لم يمكن فلا. كذا في ردِّ المحتار

في حاشية الطحطاوي على المراقي: قوله : أي لم يرفع التفسير على سبيل النشر المرتب كما علمت وسن إبعاد مرفقيه عن جنبيه وإلصاق كعبيه فيه وإستقبال أصابعه القبلة أي أصابع رجليه كذا في القهستاني عن الزاهدي
وقوله : وتوجيه أصابعها أي باطن رجله اليمنى نحو القبلة بقدر الإستطاعة فإن توجيه الخنصر لا يخلو عن عسر قهستاني

Tabraze Azam

Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

How Should I Position My Hand During Tashahud? (Maliki School)

Answered by Shaykh Rami Nsour

Question: Asalaamu Alaykum,

I read that Ibn Abi Zayd (Risalah) and Al-Azhari (Thamr Ad-Dani) said that the position in the Madhab is that one should point with his index finger uppermost (such that his palm faces the left) while moving his index finger left to right (Mukhtasar Khalil). Al-Kharashi explained that this is to make it look like a butcher’s knife (against the Shaytan) as Al-Baji said Sufyan reported this from Muslim ibn Abi Maryam.

Is it confirmed that this is how Malik or Ibn Qasim pointed in the Salah or did it come later from the Imams of the School?

Answer: Wa alaykum as salam wa rahmatullah,

Between Ibn Abi Zayd and Malik are four teachers. Ibn Abi Zayd took from Ibn Al Lubab who took from Al-Balwi who took from Ibn Habib and Shanun who took from Ash-hab and Ibn Al-Qasim who took from Malik. The strongest chain in the Maliki school is Sahnun from Ibn Al Qasim from Malik.

The positions mentioned in the Mukhtasar are taken from the Mudawwanna, it’s commentaries and many of the early mujtahideen of the madhab.

You may choose to look at those other sources but it will be difficult for them to contradict the strength of the above two sources. As you mentioned, the opinion of the palm facing the left is in the Risala and the Mukhtasar.

And Allah knows best.


Repeating the Tashahud During Prayer‏

Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Assalamu Alaikum,
Please advise me on the best way to help someone that is suffering from misgivings during the prayer that cause them to repeat the tashahhud, sometimes several times. His fear is that the prayer is invalid if the recitation of the tashahhud is not correct. After the completion of the prayer, he is then overcome with feelings of frustration at the fact that he has repeated the tashahhud, and feel as though he should repeat the prayer. Please help.
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.
Recite the tashahud once. Ignore all misgivings.
Your prayer is not invalidated by mistakes in the tashahud. Learn to recite it soundly, ideally with a teacher, and then recite it once during the prayer. Ask Allah to remove the whisperings, and to fill your heart with true remembrance.
Please also see: Do Grammatical and Pronunciation Mistakes While Reciting the Qur’an Invalidate Your Prayer? and: A Reader on Waswasa (Baseless Misgivings)
And Allah alone gives success.
Tabraze Azam
Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani