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The Qur’an As The Uncreated Speech Of Allah

Answer by Ustadh Mohammed Tayssir Safi

Question: Assalamu alaykum, I read recently that the Ahl Al-Sunnah believe that the Quran is the ‘uncreated’ speech of God. Can you please elaborate on what exactly this means as I find it difficult to understand because the Quran is a physical thing we hold in our hands and recite on our tongues. So how is it uncreated?

Answer: Wa ‘alaykum as-salaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakaatuh,

May Allah reward you for your courage to ask when you don’t know. To answer your question, yes, the creed of Ahl al-Sunna is that the Qur’an is the “uncreated speech,” of Allah. Similarly, you are right in asserting that the Qur’an is a physical thing that we hold in our hands and recite on our tongues. In fact, in the celebrated creed written by Imam al-Nasafi he says, “The Qur’an is the uncreated Speech of Allah, and it is written in our Masaahif, memorized in our hearts, recited on our tongues, heard with our ears, and He does not dwell within it.” So to rephrase your question for you, how can both of those things be true?

The answer is: The word, “Qur’an,” is used sometimes to refer to God’s Attribute of Speech which is uncreated and other times the word, “Qur’an,” is used to refer to the physical texts we read from, the words we recite on our tongues etc. Therefore, when we use the word, “Qur’an,” to refer to God’s Attribute of Speech, it is uncreated. When we are using the word, “Qur’an,” to refer to the physical text, or what we memorize and recite, those things are all created and they are not the attribute of speech. Therefore, to remove any confusion all one needs to understand is that the physical text as well as the memorized or recited words are not the actual attribute even if we use one word, “Qur’an,” to refer to both. [Sharh al-Aqa’id – Taftazani]

I pray that clarified matters for you.

I leave you in Allah’s care,

[Ustadh] Mohammed Tayssir Safi

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Mohammed Tayssir Safi was born in Dubai and moved to the United States six months after he was born. In 1994, the Safi family settled in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He graduated from the University of Michigan–Ann Arbor in 2006 as a double major in Political Science and Middle Eastern and North African Studies. He spent the next 3 years of his life traveling the Middle East, completing the Arabic program, CASA, in Egypt and pursuing private studies in Arabic linguistics and introductory Islamic sciences. His brief introduction to Islamic studies continued for another year at the Dar al-Mustafa Institute in Tarim, Yemen. He is currently enrolled in an MA program at the University of Michigan titled, Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language. He will be finishing the MA in April of 2013, God willing. Mohammed also teaches Arabic at the University of Michigan. Apart from classes at the University of Michigan, Mohammed studies at the hands of Muslim scholars privately in multiple sciences including linguistics, law, and theology.

Modes Of Reciting The Holy Qur’an

Answered by Ustadh Farid Dingle

Question: Salams, How it is possible that some traditional scholars have criticized some mass-narrated modes of reciting the Qur’an [qiraat mutawatira]?

Answer: Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Dear questioner,

Not everything that is mass-narrated [mutawatir] was necessarily known to all scholars at all stages of the Islamic tradition. A hadith or mode of recital [qiraa] can be mass-narrated from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give peace), and yet take time to reach every member of Ummah.

This was the case with certain modes of the recital. After they became well known, everyone accepted them. Before that, some scholars of the Arabic language or of other disciplines criticized certain pronunciations that seemed wrong to them.

This is the case with Imam Ahmad and the mode of the recital of Hamza al Zayyat.

What is the Basis for the Ten Modes of Recitation of the Qur’an?

The Cementing of Ideas

Before Ibn Mujahid

Although the Quran was recited in all corners of the Muslim World from the very beginning of the spread of Islam, the codifying of the modes of recital did not happen immediately. Indeed, it was not until the work of Quran specialist Ibn Mujahid (d. 324 AH), and the further work of his student Ibn Khalawayhi and then Ibn al Jazari (d. 833 AH) that the various modes of recital were completely codified, recorded, and distinguished from other modes of recital.

Before this time, and indeed as part of the very process of excluding incorrect modes of recital, criticisms were launched against certain modes of recital. Modes of recital that were later identified as non-mass narrated, and therefore incorrect, were frequently quoted alongside those which were mass-narrated, without any mention of which ones were “valid” or not. This is very clear in books of tafsir from, say, before 700 AH.

For example, the great early grammarian Akhfash (d. 215 AH) cites the non-mass-narrated, invalid recital ‘malika yawmi al din’ alongside the mass-narrated, valid mode ‘maliki yawmi al din’ with which we are all familiar in Sura al Fatiha. [Maani al Qur’an, Akhfash] He does not distinguish the mass-narrated, valid mode from the non-mass-narrated, invalid mode. This just goes to show that before Ibn Mujahid, this clarity was just not there.

At the same time, in the same sura he only mentions two ways of pronouncing the word ‘sirat’: with Seen or with a Sad. [Maani al Qur’an, Akhfash] The fact that he doesn’t mention the third mass-narrated pronunciation, namely reciting with a heavy Zed [al Sad al mushamma Zayan], tells that he was simply not aware of it.

All of this reiterates the fact that not all scholars were aware of all of the various ways of reciting the Quran, even if they were genuine scholars, and even it such modes of recital were indeed mass-narrated.

After Ibn Mujahid

Sometimes even after the work of Ibn Mujahid, criticisms still made due to the lack a universal recognition of authority and finality of his work.

By way of example, the great Qur’an exegete Zamakhshari (d. 538 AH) criticized a mass-narrated mode of recital ascribed to Abu Jafar [Yazid bin Qa’qaa’], of the imams of Qur’anic recitation.

According to this mode, the words in verse 34 of Baqarah ‘And when We told the angels: Prostrate …’ is pronounced ‘lil malaikatus judu’ (with a damma on the ta marbuta).

Concerning this, Zamakhshari says, ‘Abu Jafar [Yazid bin Qa’qaa’] recited it lil malaikatus judu with a damma on the ta in keeping [with the damma in usjudu], but you cannot just displace the signs of inflection for the sake of keeping the same sound except in a very weak dialect of Arabic. It is like those who say Al hamdi lillahi.’ [al Kashaf, Zamakhshari]

Zamakhshari says that this is weak Arabic and not valid, even though the mode of recital ascribed to Abu Jafar mass-narrated.

Why did he do this? Because the authority of the work of Ibn Mujahid was still not yet fully accepted by all Muslim scholars, even two hundred years or so later. This kind of thinking would be expected by a fortiori from those well before Ibn Mujahid, such as Imam Ahmad.

Hamza al Zayyat’s mode of recital

So what was wrong with his Hamza al Zayyat’s mode of the recital?

If you have a careful listen to his mode of recital (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sngQiOXMaWs), you might notice some oddities. Certain vowels are recited in a very acute fashion, there are some pauses, and merging of certain similar, but not identical letters. All of these would seem odd to the average listener.

In reality, the student of Arabic and of the Quran knows very well that there many different ways of pronouncing Arabic words, or of certain words in series. Many of these phonological possibilities are spread out among the various canonical modes of reciting the Qur’an. Hence, there is nothing actually “odd” about any of these sounds that we hear.

Regarding scholarly criticism of Hamza al Zayyat’s mode of the recital, Ibn Mujahid mentions the reason why some scholars did not like his mode of the recital.

One of Hamza’s students once attended a lesson of Abdullah ibn Idris (a reciter of the Qur’an and hadith narrator, d. 192 AH) and recited some verses with extremely long vowels and various other somewhat artificial characteristics. At this, Abdullah ibn Idris expressed his dislike of the recital and criticized it. [Kitab al Saba fi al Qiraat, Ibn Mujahid]

Imam al Dhahabi narrates in his short biography of Abdullah Ibn Idris that he actually directly rebuked Hamza al Zayyat. He said to him, ‘Fear Allah! You are a man who is trying to play God! This recitation is neither the recitation of Abdullah [Ibn Masud] nor of anyone else!’ He added later, ‘I do not hold it permissible for anyone to say that Hamza is on the Sunna.’ [Siyar Alam al Nubala, Dhahabi]

So it is clear that Ibn Idris, and probably Imam Ahmad following suit, felt that his model of the recital was not based on learning [talaqqi] but rather based on his own made-up style, a style that seemed very artificial.

However, Ibn Mujahid mentions that the scholars said that such artificial elongation was actually also disliked by Hamza al Zayyat himself, and not recited thus by his skilled students. [Kitab al Saba fi al Qiraat, Ibn Mujahid]

Commenting on this event, Dhahabi says, ‘Thus did Ibn Idris’ denunciation [of Hamza] spread. May Allah forgive him [Ibn Idris]: Muslims have wholeheartedly accepted every letter [of his mode of recital], and today there is consensus on it.’ [Siyar Alam al Nubala, Dhahabi]

Here Dhahabi clarifies that these objections, although sincere, were actually out of place and that as a mass-narrated mode of the recital, we all accept it as Qur’an.

Imam Ahmad’s View of Hamza al Zayyat

Imam Ahmad disliked the modes of recital [qiraah] of Hamza al Zayyat and that of his student Kisai, and he also disliked the idgham kabir [merging of two similar letters even if the first is not silent] of the Quran reciter Abu Amr. [Sharh Muntaha al Iradat, Bahuti]

That said, it is actually valid in Hanbali school to recite even a non-mass narrated mode of recital [qiraa shadha] as long as the chain for it is sound and it conforms to the Uthmanic mushaf. [Sharh Muntaha al Iradat, Bahuti] This is most definitely found in these aforementioned modes of the recital.

This tells us that one can actually recite these modes of the recital in the Hanbali school, as we shall explain later.

The View of Others

One of the many illustrious students of Hamza al Zayyat was the famous Sufyan al Thawri. He was once sitting in his circle of students, and Hamza came and then left. He said of him, ‘Do you see this man? He never recited a single letter of the Qur’an save that it was based on precedent [athar].’ [Kitab al Saba fi al Qiraat, Ibn Mujahid]

Clearly, his student (Thawri) knew that there was nothing “creative” about his mode of recital but it was all taken from his teachers, and from them back to the Followers and Prophetic Companions.

Ibn Mujahid also quotes the position of Ibn Dawud [hadith narrator, d. 213] regarding Hamza al Zayyat. He said, ‘Have you heard what the scholars of Basra say? Who is there that has more knowledge than Hamza of how it [the Qur’an] is recited and the subtleties thereof?’ [Kitab al Saba fi al Qiraat, Ibn Mujahid]

It is evident that Ibn Dawud, and in fact the scholars of Basra, held Hamza and his mode of the recital in high esteem.

And it is sufficient enough that Kisai, the actual founder of the Kufan school of Arabic grammar, was his student and narrator of his mode of the recital. If there was anything odd or linguistically invalid about it, Kisai would definitely be the first one to point it out.

You can hear a sample of Kisai’s recension from Hamza here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7aAit-6i20

Conclusion

Imam Ahmad, exercising his brilliant and valid Islamic scholarship in a period before the Ten Modes of Recital were properly known and codified, like many other scholars, criticized Hamza al Zayyat because of what was ascribed to him of his apparent unorthodox way of reciting the Quran.

After it became clear to the whole Umma that his recital was perfectly fine, and that it was mass-narrated and based on the recitals of the Early Muslims, the objection leveled no longer bore any weight.

I pray this helps.

[Ustadh] Farid Dingle

Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Ustadh Farid Dingle has completed extensive years of study in the sciences of the Arabic language and the various Islamic Sciences. During his studies, he also earned a CIFE Certificate in Islamic Finance. Over the years he has developed a masterful ability to craft lessons that help non-Arabic speakers gain a deep understanding of the language. He currently teaches courses in the Arabic Language.

Qur’an and the Arabic Language – Shaykh Ali Hani

As part of our Helpers program, Ahmad Ariffin interviewed Shaykh Ali Hani on seeking knowledge, the sciences of the Qur’an and the Arabic language, and their importance in today’s world.

 

Shaykh Ali Hani is a leading scholar of Arabic and Tafsir from Jordan. He has dedicated his life to Quran from a young age. He has memorized the Holy Qur’an and studied the Ten Canonical Recitations and studied Tafsir .He is also one of the experts in the Arabic language of our time. He graduated from the University of Jordan specializing in Tafsir from the Faculty of Islamic Principles. Under his tutelage, many of his students became scholars of the language and are now teaching it around the globe.

His Teachers

He studied from many scholars but there are few of them have a lasting effect on him. He memorized the Qur’an under the guidance of Shaykh. Abu Ayman and completed the memorization in two years. One of the things that Shaykh Abu Ayman taught him is that knowledge is fear.It means the more knowledge you gained the more fearful of you towards Allah Most high.

He also completed the reading of the Qur’an by the way of Imam Hafs under the tutelage of Shaykh Abu Yasir and he mastered the Seven Canonical Recitations under the guidance of Shaykh Mahmood al-Uraydhi.

At the University of Jordan, Shaykh Ali studied with Shaykh Fadl Abbas. After he completed his degree he traveled to Yemen at the city of Sana. He studied the Arabic language and its brances with Shaykh Qasim Bahr. A story that Shaykh Ali shared on Shaykh Qasim was that Shaykh Qasim would reject when a student gave him money and instead the Shaykh would give the students money for their daily usage and that Shaykh Qasim was a very humble man.

Shaykh Ali then made his way to tarim and learned from the scholars in Rubat Tarim. He also receive guidance from other scholars such as Shaykh Abu Bakar Belfaqih, Shaykh Abdullah al-Mehdhor, Shaykh Muhammad Amin al-Shinqiti and many more.

The Importance of studying Qur’anic Tafsir and the Arabic language

In the modern world that we are living in, Tafsir and Arabic language are very important for Muslims to know. With the uprising of the orientalist movement and atheism, more people are joining them and supporting them. We, as Muslims, ought to seek refuge from the movements and the way to seek refuge is by learning. To learn the Islamic sciences we need to learn the Arabic language as it is the key to understanding the sciences and their texts. Language is the bridge between our mind and the author’s mind particularly when you are reading the classic texts. Without language you would not be able to fully derive what the authors want for you. The most important reason why you need to study Arabic is that the Qur’an is in Arabic. Without knowing Arabic, you would not be able to fully indulge in the beauty of the Qur’an and you would not comprehend the inimitabililty of the Holy Qur’an. Although we have the translated version of the Qur’an in different languages, the true beauty of the Quran is in its pure language which is the Arabic language.

As for studying Tafsir, its importance comes into play when you want to further understand the Quran and the context of why it was sent down and to whom and the deeper meaning of the Ayat. Tafsir is also important to rebut the claims of those who tries to demean the great status of the Holy Qur’an and Islam. By learning Tafsir we are also learning the Qur’an. Also, the Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, said in one of the narrations: “The best among you are those who learn the Qur‘an and teach it.”

Shaykh Ali’s Advice for  Seekers of Knowledge

  1. To follow the footsteps of the past scholars in seeking sacred knowledge which is to read the basics of that branch of Islamic science and and to be expert in it before reading more advanced books.
  2. To teach what you know as this will help your memory and will make it stronger.
  3. To buy books for references as buying books is considered half of the knowledge itself.
  4. To be humble always with your teachers and to accompany them as often as possible as this will invite blessing and divine openings.
  5. To read both classical and contemporary texts and never abandon one of them.
  6. To put great importance in seeking scholars who has chains of narrations in his path of seeking.

 


 

Confused about Christianity

Shaykh Jamir Meah clears up confusion about Christian articles of faith and the mistaken picture of Jesus found therein.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Recently I have been having waswasa or something about Christianity. I am a Muslim but I am confused about the following things:

1. Religious Christians describe finding Jesus as peaceful. They talk about how they find peace in hard times through him; how they have faith in difficult situations (like tawakkul but they direct it at Jesus) and so on. How can they feel such peace if they are misguided? And how can I know if the peace we get from the Islamic tawakkul is truly the truth when others feel the same thing without following Islamic tawhid and so on?

2. How can we understand the many near death experiences where people claim to have seen Jesus, hell, paradise, etc., and then wake up and become practicing Christians because what they saw convinced them to accept Jesus as their savior and to live a different life?

Please answer me, it doesn’t have to be published but still send me a reply as an email. I want to have yaqin in Islam but I am struggling with this.

 

Answer:

Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

Religions have many aspects to them and it is often quite easy to get stuck in one facet of the religion and forget about all the other parts of the ‘jigsaw’ which give a fuller, complete picture. This approach is akin to a person who only takes religious understanding from the Qur’an and ignores the sunna or life of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, or vice versa. Both of these are forms of extremism.

I have extracted the various issues embedded in your questions and answered them below. Following this, I have included some further points  to consider in regards Christianity, the person of Jesus Christ, peace and blessings be upon him, the importance of looking at a religion in it’s entirety, and how it compares to Islam.

Q1: Religious Christians describe finding Jesus as peaceful and Christians talk about how they find peace in hard times through him. How can they feel such peace if they are misguided?

Finding solace in something in times of difficulties is not exclusive to Christians, nor Muslims. There are many people who are Buddhist, Hindu, Taoist, Jewish, and even humanists, materialists, Scientologists, etc., who also speak of finding peace in and deriving strength from their deity or particular belief system. Therefore, finding peace and solace in a matter, even if experienced very deeply, is not a criterion for the validity of that belief, rather other things must be considered.

To understand why many people of all faiths may find peace and reliance in their belief, we look at the common factor that is shared between all types of “believers” that claim they find “peace.”  That shared factor is the belief in a Higher Being, Force, Intelligence, Architect, etc. Whatever one wants to call this Power, they all return to a basic belief that something exists that is more powerful than ourselves, whether it be God, gods, nature, love etc.

We do not negate other people’s sense of inner peace, nor deny that we all share this common factor at the very basic level of faith from which strength and comfort can be derived. This is because this common factor belongs to the primordial state (fitra) that is a part every being.

However, acknowledging this does not conclude that the entire belief system of each faith is agreeable or sound. In fact, some may be complete misguidance and perversion, others partially true, and, because absolute truth can only be one, one faith is absolutely true. Additionally, God is Peace  and the Giver of peace, thus He gives peace to whomever He pleases among his creation, and this giving of peace to an individual could be for many reasons.

Furthermore, for Muslims, this world is one of toil and struggle. It is not a place for peace and relaxation. This life is the land that we toil on, and its harvest and reward is in the next life. This is why God says in the Qur’an, “Indeed, We have created humanity in [constant] struggle.” [90:4], and the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said, “The world is a prison for the believer and a paradise for the unbeliever.” (Muslim)

Muslims toil on earth because it is a prison for them, for they are shackled by the burden of legal and moral responsibility. Tests come in waves in this life, and you may see Muslims struggle and sometimes even despair, and perhaps struggle with the practice of their faith, but this is the nature of humans, and not to be confused with the invalidity or validity of their faith.

Contrast this to person who is told that they are not bound by any binding law, no obligations, restrictions etc., and they are told that another person has suffered for their sins so they don’t have to. With such premises for belief and salvation, it is to be expected that this person would feel generally happier in life because they have freedom to do as they please, and worship God how and when they please. Though despite this, it would be a sweeping statement to say all Christians find peace in their “savior,” for the ills and struggles within Christian communities, including within the church, are no different to anyone else.

The strong believer realizes that difficult and dark times are part of the believer’s portion on this earth and part of an essential alchemical process of the soul, for these times are the smelting furnace from which a believer rises above the dregs of his mortal self to a being of pure eternality.

Thus, true peace and contentment is not seeing everything around you as successful and harmonious, but rather true peace is the contented state of one’s heart with God and His Decree, despite the chaos and darkness of life.

This would be agreed upon by people of almost all faiths, not just some Christians. Muslims who possess these states have been, and still are, are found in multitudes across the world. Their source of reliance and locus of peace and hope is Allah Most High and his Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him. May Allah make us among them.

Q2: How can we understand the many near death experiences where people claim to have seen Jesus, hell, paradise etc and then woken up and become practicing Christians because what they saw convinced them to accept Jesus as their savior and to live a different life?

Please refer to this previous answer that discusses this matter: Why We Shouldn’t Take Christian Miracles at Face Value.

Further Points to Consider

Jesus was a prophet of God, so is characterized by perfect attributes like all other prophets. Each prophet, just like every other person, has his own personality. We have five specific prophets known as the ‘Ul al-‘azm’, Those of high and firm resolve; Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon them all.

Noah and Moses are described as being more direct and hardy personalities, while Abraham and Jesus more gentle and compassionate in nature, each being perfect for the fulfillment of their mission. Sayyidna Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, is the apex and perfect balance between all the Prophets.

This is why he, peace and blessings be upon him, said to his two companions, may Allah be pleased with them both, “God has rendered the hearts of some men soft for him, until they are softer than milk. He has made the hearts of others hard, until they become harder than stone. Your likeness, Abu Bakr, is to Ibrahim, peace be upon him, who said, ‘Whoever follows me is of me, as for whoever disobeys, you are most forgiving, merciful’. Your likeness, Abu Bakr, is to ‘Isa, who said, ‘If you punish them, they are your servants; if you forgive them, you are most powerful, wise’. Your likeness, ‘Umar, is to Nuh, who said, ‘Lord, do not leave on the earth an abode of the disbelievers’. Your likeness, ‘Umar, is to Musa, who said, ‘Harden their hearts, such that they do not believe until they see a painful punishment” (Ahmad)

In regards the merciful personality of Jesus (peace and blessings be upon him), the following must be remembered:

a. Jesus was sent as a reviver and reformer, not as an abrogator with a new message or religion. Part of his reformation was to do away with the legal and ritual encumbrances, excesses, and additions that had crept into the Judaic tradition, as well as to admonish the corruption and transgression of the Judaic ministry. Thus, his mission was to restore balance to Judaism, which necessitated that he shows his people a path of compassion, mercy, and emphasis the spirit of the law to equilibrate the liturgical and ritual aspects of the faith.

It is this spiritual and peaceful aspect of the mission of Christ which many exclusively focus upon. However, Jesus also harshly rebuked the Pharisees and those who perverted the law, while at the same time, affirming the importance of adhering to sacred law and legal and moral responsibility.

b. Jesus actually preached on earth for a very limited space of time; one to three years. His followers were very few, and unlike other Prophets, his time on earth did not see him become established as a leader of a whole nation or of a state, which necessarily requires setting up state funds, legal institutions, welfare system, markets for commerce, a military, relations with other faith groups within one’s land, international relations with foreign countries and opposing empires, alongside the spiritual education. Jesus’ short time on earth is why there still remains a certain level of enigma for Christians around the facts of his personality, life, and the full import of his teachings.

Compare this to the life of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, whose life encompassed all of the above, as well as his personal relationships. His entire private and public life was scrupulously recorded and checked and confirmed in painstaking details.

c. Jesus was sent only to the Israelites and no other people, while Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon them both, was sent to all of mankind.

d. While historians and scholars agree that Jesus existed historically, there is disagreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and how closely the character of Jesus Christ portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. There is no such disagreement in the studies on the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.

e. The Bible as we find it today is not the original revelation sent to man, but written over periods of time after Jesus by different people. Extensive critique has been done on the accuracy and reliability of the Gospels which cast much doubt on its content, which of course had a profound effect on how subsequent Christians understand the person of Jesus. Figures are often setup to fulfill a need of those who create them.

f. Bearing in mind that the Gospel’s authenticity is uncertain, we find many sayings of Jesus in it which seem to go against the typical image of Jesus put forward, such as, “Do not think that I came to bring peace on earth. I did not come to bring peace but a sword. For I have come to set a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law, and a man’s enemies will be those of his own household.” (Matthew 10:34-36) Bible exegesis explains this paragraph as referring to eschatological events, but this interpretation is also open to critique, just as any other religious text is.

g. To base the legitimacy of one’s faith based on the personality of a person, without understanding the theological, legal, rational, and even historical aspects of a religion is not only naive, but extremely dangerous and subject to manipulation and exploitation. Yes, faith is in the heart, but authentic textual basis and the rational intellect, even at a basic level, play a crucial role in the validity of that conviction. Islam satisfies and appeals in all the areas of faith we have described.

h. The doctrine of the Trinity, the general concept of God incarnating in a created being, and the doctrine of the original sin, are all highly problematic from a theological and rational point of view, and contrary to textual evidence.

i. Believing that the man Jesus is the son of God, or one aspect of God, necessities for him everything that is connected to God. The Bible, even as it is today, is replete with references not only to the immense love and mercy of God, but also the terrifying wrath and vengeance of God. It also speaks of the bliss of paradise and the damnation of hell.

This would mean that divine reward and divine punishment, whether on earth or in the hereafter, is the will and action of God alone, His son alone, or both. Therefore, if Jesus is believed to be God, or the son of God, or both God and son, then one must logically accept that this person or duo is characterized by the attributes of not only peace and mercy, but also of a terrible wrath and retribution. According to this understanding then, it is wrong to only view the person of Christ as purely characterized by the attribute of love and mercy, as this would entail denying the other necessary attributes that must be connected to an absolute deity.

Lastly, I advise you to study Islamic creed and the sirah with a qualified traditional scholar. In person is best, but if not possible, consider taking one of our Islamic belief courses here on SeekersGuidance.

Warmest salams,

Jamir

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.


 

The Qur’an and Scientific Findings Through Time

Ustadh Farid Dingle answers questions concerning Qur’anic verses comprising scientific findings that are uncannily similar to scientific findings, and whether verses have been changed over time.

Question:

Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh.

I am a Muslim. So one night a thought strikes my mind that “maybe, after the scientists have discovered some particular thing, the Arabs have added those discoveries in the Qur’an by replacing previous ayats.” Please try to understand that I am not saying that the Qur’an is written by humans. Rather my question is that maybe they have done some mixing by adding the scientific ayats and saying that it is already written in the Qur’an?

For example in Sura al-Anbiya 21:30 it says that “the heavens and the earths were joined together and we cleft it asunder.” My question is that maybe, after the Big Bang theory was discovered, the Arabs added this verse to the sura?

I really need evidence about it, so please help as this answer means a lot for me. This answer is like my life, so please don’t just say that there was no addition but please state evidence. It is really necessary to me and sorry because my question will make everyone angry, but this thought is killing me.

Answer:

Wa alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Dear questioner,

The Qur’an is too wide spread to allow a mass conspiracy to change its content even in manuscripts that date back over a thousand years.

The Qur’an has not been changed.

That said, we do notice that there is some level of over emphasis on “scientific” verses that don’t necessarily conform in any detailed way with the latest scientific discoveries. This however has nothing to do with changing the text.

I pray this helps.

Farid

 

Checked and approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani.