أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
As the blessed month of Ramaḍān coincides with the summer months, many Muslims are apprehensive of the long fasts which lie ahead and, admittedly, not looking forward to staying hungry and thirsty for such a lengthy period. The following extract from Imām Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī’s Laṭā’if al-Maʿārif will, inshā-Allāh, change our perspective and make us realise the great opportunity Allāh Most High has granted us to reap extra reward.
Among the acts of worship whose reward is multiplied during extreme heat is fasting, due to the thirst one experiences in the midday heat.
This is why Muʿādh ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه expressed remorse on his deathbed over the midday thirst he would no longer experience, and other predecessors expressed the same.
It is related that Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq رضي الله عنه would fast in the summer and not fast in the winter. At the time of his demise, ʿUmar رضي الله عنه advised his son ʿAbdullāh: “Acquire the characteristics of faith,” and the first one he mentioned was fasting in the intense summer heat.
Qāsim bin Muḥammad said that ʿĀ’isha رضي الله عنها would fast in the intense heat. He was asked, “What caused her to do this?” He replied, “She was taking advantage of the time before death.” Mujammiʿ al-Taymī would fast in the summer until he would faint. One of the righteous women would choose the hottest days and fast them. When she was asked regarding this, she would say, “When the price is cheap, everyone will buy,” indicating that she preferred those actions only a few were capable of, due to it being difficult for them. This is a sign of great determination.
Abū Mūsā al-Ashʿarī رضي الله عنه was on a boat when he heard someone calling: “O People aboard, stand up!” three times. Abū Mūsā رضي الله عنه replied: “How can we stand up? Do you not see where we are? How can we stand up?” The caller asked, “Shall I not inform you of a decree that Allāh has taken upon Himself?” He replied, “Indeed, why not? Inform us!” The caller replied, “Allāh has decreed upon Himself that whoever makes himself thirsty for Allāh’s sake on a hot day has a right upon Allāh that He quench his thirst on the Day of Standing.” Thus, Abū Mūsā رضي الله عنه would seek the extremely hot days where one would be close to passing out and fast those days.
Kaʿb said that Allāh Most High said to Mūsā عليه السلام, “I have made it incumbent upon Myself for whomever is thirsty for My sake that I will quench his thirst on the Day of Resurrection.” Others have said, “It is written in the Torah: ‘Glad tidings for whoever makes himself hungry in preparation for the Great Day where his hunger will be satisfied. Glad tidings for whoever makes himself thirsty in preparation for the Great Day where his thirst will be quenched.’”
Ḥasan said, “A maiden of Paradise will say to a friend of Allāh, while he is reclining with her on the shore of a river of wine in Paradise, as she hands him a cup whilst he is in the pinnacle of enjoyment, “Do you know on which day Allāh married me to you? He looked at you on a long summer day while you were extremely thirsty in the midday heat. He expressed His pride over you to the angels, saying, ‘Look at My slave. He has left his wife, pleasure, food and drink for My sake, desiring what is with me. Bear witness that I have forgiven him.’ He forgave you on that day and married you to me.”
When ʿĀmir ibn ʿAbd Qays went from Basra to Shām, Muʿāwiya رضي الله عنه would ask him to refer his needs to him. He refused to ask of him, eventually saying, “My need is for you to return the heat of Basra to me, in order to make the fast a bit harder, as it is too easy in your lands.”
Ḥajjāj camped by some water on a journey between Makka and Madina and called for his dinner. He saw a Bedouin whom he called to eat with him. The Bedouin replied, “One who is better than you invited me, so I accepted his invitation.” He asked, “And who is this?” The man replied, “Allāh. He invited me to fast and so I fasted.” Ḥajjāj asked, “In this intense heat?” The man replied: “Yes. I am fasting in preparation for a much hotter day.” Ḥajjāj said, “Break your fast today and fast tomorrow.” The man replied, “Only if you can guarantee that I will live until tomorrow.” Ḥajjāj said, “This is not in my hands.” He replied, “How then can you ask me to do something now in place of something in the future you have no control over?”
Ibn ʿUmar رضي الله عنهما was once on a journey with some of his companions and they had spread out their tablecloth. A shepherd passed by, so they invited him to eat with them. He said, “I am fasting.” Ibn ʿUmar رضي الله عنهما said, “You are fasting on a hot day like this, while you are between these valleys walking behind these sheep?” The shepherd replied, “I am taking advantage of these free days of mine.” Ibn ʿUmar رضي الله عنهما was impressed by this reply and said, “Can you sell one of your sheep to us? We will feed you from its meat with which you can break your fast and we will pay you for it.” The shepherd said, “They do not belong to me; they belong to my master.” Ibn ʿUmar رضي الله عنهما said, “What will your master say to you if you tell him it was eaten by a wolf?” The shepherd left with his finger raised towards the sky, saying, “What about Allāh?” Ibn ʿUmar رضي الله عنهما kept repeating this phrase of his. When he arrived in Madīna, he went to the shepherd’s master, and bought him and his sheep. He then freed the shepherd and gave him the sheep as a gift.
Rawḥ ibn Zinbāʿ had stopped at a place between Makka and Madina on a very hot day when a shepherd came down towards him from a mountain. He said to him, “O shepherd! Come eat with me.” The shepherd said, “I am fasting.” Rawḥ said, “You are fasting in this heat?” The shepherd replied, “Should I let my days pass by in vain?” Rawḥ said, “You have utilised your days properly, O shepherd, while Rawḥ ibn Zinbāʿ has wasted his.”
Ibn ʿUmar رضي الله عنهما used to fast the optional fasts until he would almost faint, but he would not break his fast. Imām Aḥmad would fast until he was close to fainting and he would wipe water over his face. He was asked about a person who fasts but finds it extremely hot. He said, “There is nothing wrong with wetting a cloth to cool oneself with and pouring water over oneself.” The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was at a place called ʿArj where he was pouring water over his head while fasting.
Abū ’l-Dardā’ رضي الله عنه would say, “Fast the extremely hot days, in preparation for the Day of Rising. Pray two rakʿats in the darkness of night, in preparation for the darkness of the grave.” It is narrated in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī and Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim on the authority of Abū ’l-Dardā’ رضي الله عنه, “We saw ourselves with Allāh’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم on one of his journeys on an extremely hot day. A man would put his hand on his head due to the intense heat. None of them would be fasting except Allāh’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم and ʿAbdullāh ibn Rawāḥa رضي الله عنه.” In one narration: “This was during the month of Ramaḍān.”
When those who fast for Allāh in the heat are patient against their intense thirst, He has set aside for them a specific door among the doors of Paradise; the door of Rayyān. Whoever enters it will drink, and whoever drinks after entering it will never be thirsty again. When they enter through it, it will be locked to those coming after them, thus none will enter through it except them.
May Allāh Most High give us the ability to appreciate the blessed month of Ramaḍān, accept all our acts of worship therein, and bless us with the extra reward of the long summer fasts. Āmīn.
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