Can You Explain the Reason for Killing Black Dogs?
Answered by Mawlana Ilyas Patel
I read your article about killing dogs. But it is still not completely clear to me. Could you please give me the comments of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Battal on the hadith of Ibn Umar and Maymuna?
Concerning black dogs, is it true that this is an expression among Arabs to designate dangerous dogs? Is this attested to in the Arabic dictionaries?
I have heard that the hadiths ordering the killing of black dogs in Ibn Majah are weak. Could you please check the chains of transmission of these hadiths and see who are the weak reporters and why? What have the Muslim scholars said in textual criticism about them?
In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful and Compassionate
Based on all the overall evidence, the jurists have mentioned that the command to kill dogs is only permissible if it is predatory and harmful. However, a harmless dog, regardless of color, may not be killed. Scholars have stated that the command to kill dogs was abrogated and mentioned in many hadith. It was related that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) ordered the killing of dogs. Then, that was abrogated, except for pure black dogs. And after that, killing any harmless dog was prohibited. The summary is it is only permissible to kill a dog that may cause harm. [Mawsua al-Fiqhiyya al-Kuwaitiyya]
Allah Most High is our source for morality inspired by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) as our guide. It is through Him we know of greater insight into life, creation, and creatures of right and wrong. Our task is to acknowledge and submit. We recognize the God-given loyal nature of most dogs. However, it should not blur our thinking that every dog is loyal and can never be harmful. Read the links below for a broader and deeper understanding.
Hadith of Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him)
It was narrated that Ibn’ Umar (Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) commanded that dogs be killed.” [Ibn Maja]
This hadith has been graded, Sahih.
Hadith of Maymuna (Allah be pleased with her)
Maymuna reported that one morning Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) was silent with grief. Maymuna said, Allah’s Messenger, I find a change in your mood today. Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: Gabriel had promised me that he would meet me tonight, but he did not meet me. By Allah, he never broke his promises, and Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) spent the day in this sad (mood). Then it occurred to him that a puppy had been under their cot. He commanded, and it was turned out. He then took some water in his hand and sprinkled it at that place. When it was evening, Gabriel met him, and he said to him: you promised that you would meet me the previous night. He said: Yes, but we do not enter a house with a dog or a picture. Then on that very morning, he commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed, but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive fields (or big gardens). [Muslim]
Hadith of Killing Black Dogs in Ibn Maja and Grading
All the hadith mentioned are graded either sahih or Hasan; one is weak. (see a link to the Chapters on Hunting and gradings)
Chapters on Hunting – Sunnah.com – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)
سنن ابن ماجه | تراث (turath.io)
Expression of Black Dog in Arabic Dictionaries
The shaytan of the jinns comes in the form of black dogs, sometimes. They tend to be more unruly, rowdy, and wild compared to others. This is why it is mentioned as such in the hadith literature. [Mubarakpuri, Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi; Azimabadi, ‘Awn al-Mabud]
As for being part of a dictionary entry, this is not found in any dictionary. Maybe some cultures use it derogatorily.
Check these links:
dogs Archives – Page 2 of 2 – SeekersGuidance
Is Killing of Dogs an Islamic Command? – SeekersGuidance
Comments on the Recent ‘Dogs Are Not Impure’ Article – Mufti Musa Furber – SeekersGuidance
Are Muslims Allowed to Have Pet Dogs? – SeekersGuidance
What is the Islamic Stance on Having a Dog? – SeekersGuidance
Black dog (folklore) – Wikipedia
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I pray this helps with your question.
[Mawlana] Ilyas Patel
Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani
Mawlana Ilyas Patel is a traditionally-trained scholar who has studied within UK, India, Pakistan, Syria, Jordan and Turkey.
He started his early education in UK. He went onto complete hifz of Qur’an in India, then enrolled into an Islamic seminary in UK where he studied the secular and Alimiyyah sciences. He then travelled to Karachi, Pakistan.
He has been an Imam in Rep of Ireland for a number of years. He has taught hifz of the Qur’an, Tajwid, Fiqh and many other Islamic sciences to both children and adults onsite and online extensively in UK and Ireland. He was teaching at a local Islamic seminary for 12 years in the UK where he was a librarian and a teacher of Islamic sciences.
He currently resides in UK with his wife. His personal interest is love of books and gardening.