Answered by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam
Question : If a person has prayed his Taraweeh and then leads others as an Imam in Tarawih, is there anything wrong with this, since he has already prayed it?
As such, it is not correct to offer this prayer twice with the intention of Tarawih on both occasions, just as it is not permitted to offer an obligatory (fard) prayer twice with the same intention. However, it is permitted to offer this prayer twice with different intentions, i.e. with the intention of Tarawih on the first occasion and Nafl on the second occasion, just as it is permitted to join in a congregation of Fard with the intention of Nafl after having performed one’s own Fard prayer.
Due to this, the Hanafi jurists (fuqaha) assert that it is not permitted for the one who has already offered his Tarawih prayer (as an Imam or a follower) to lead others in Tarawih, given that, being an Imam, he will be required to make an intention of Sunna. However, he is allowed to follow another Imam with the intention of Nafl.
It is stated in Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya:
“It is not permitted for one to lead Tarawih prayers in two separate Mosques, in a complete manner [i.e. leading the full twenty Rak’ats in each Mosque. However, if one was to lead some Rak’ats in one Mosque and the remainder in another Mosque, then this is permitted].” (Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 1/116)
It is stated in Hashiya al-Tahtawi ala Maraqi al-Falah:
“It is [prohibitively] disliked (makruh) for one to lead the Tarawih prayer twice in one night, and the Fatwa is on this position. This is because a Sunna is not to be repeated in one time, hence the second prayer would be considered Nafl [and a person offering Nafl prayers can not lead those who are offering Sunna prayers]…” (Maraqi al-Falah with the Hashiya of Tahtawi, P: 412)
In conclusion, if a person has already performed his Tarawih prayer, then he is not allowed to lead others in Tarawih on the same night. However, it is permitted for him to follow another Imam in Tarawih, since his intention now will be that of Nafl prayers.
And Allah know best
Question: What should one do if he misses three jumu’ah prayers in a row due to lunch time meetings at work? Has he lost his shahadah? He is not chronically negligent of jumua”h but it just so happened that he did miss three in a row out this once.
Answer : Friday prayer is personally obligatory (Fard Ayn) upon every Muslim. It has been established from the Qur’an, Sunnah and the consensus of the Ummah. It is one of the most important features of Islam. The one who rejects it is a Kafir and the one who misses it without a valid excuse is a Fasiq.
Allah Almighty says:
“O, you who believe! When the call for Friday prayer is made, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah (Prayer and Khutba) and leave all transactions. This is best for you if you know.” (Surah al-Jumu’ah, V.9)
Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar and Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with them both) narrate that they heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say on the planks of his pulpit: “People must cease from abandoning the Friday prayers or Allah will seal their hearts and then they will be among the negligent.” (Sahih Muslim, no. 865)
Abu Ja’d al-Dhamri (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Whosoever misses three Jumu’ah prayers by taking the matter lightly, Allah will seal his heart.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Tirmidhi, Sunan Nasa’i, Sunan Ibn Majah and al-Darami)
The importance of the Friday prayer is evident from the abovementioned. A Muslim should, therefore, never attempt to miss it. To miss even one Jumu’ah prayer without a legally valid excuse is highly sinful, and to miss three is totally unacceptable, with Allah Most High sealing the heart of the transgressor due to which no good enters his heart.
However, missing the Jumu’ah prayer does not entail one leaving Islam, as is the case with all unlawful and sinful acts. According to the scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah, a sin does not take one out of the fold of Islam, rather one becomes sinful.
Thus, leaving three Jumu’ahs will not be considered disbelief (kufr), in that one will not have to repeat the Shahadah and renew one’s Iman. However, if one rejects the obligation of the Friday prayer (Mustaheel) or takes the matter lightly in a mocking way (istikhfaf), then one will come out of the fold of Islam. (See the major books on Islamic Creed and the commentaries of the major Hadith collections)
And Allah knows best
Muhammad ibn Adam
Leicester , UK