Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani
Question: In many instances I have recited out loud in the Dhuhr and Asr prayer when praying alone. I recently read that it is wajib to recite silently in these prayers when praying alone. Do I have to make up these prayers? Also, is it necessary to make up missed witr prayers?
Answer: In the Name of Allah, the Merciful and Compassionate
I hope you’re doing well, insha’Allah.
Prayers are invalid if obligatory (fard) actions—whether conditions or integrals—are omitted.
However, if necessary (wajib) actions are omitted, then (1) it is necessary to repeat the prayer within the time—not because it is invalid, but to redress the deficiency; but (b) after the time, repentance is required, but it is merely recommended (not necessary) to repeat the prayer.
[ref: Tahtawi/Shurunbulali, Hashiyat Maraqi al-Falah; Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; our teachers, including Shaykh Adib Kallas]
This facilitates matters when repeated errors related to necessary actions took place in past prayers. These do not have to be repeated.
What if Witr prayer was not prayed?
If you have unperformed past Witr prayers, these are necessary (wajib) to make up. However, finish making up your obligatory (fard) prayers first, as these are more incumbent. [Shaykhzada, Majma` al-Anhur Sharh Multaqa al-Abhur]
Please find related answers in the SeekersGuidance Answers. Jazakum Allah khayr.
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[Shaykh] Faraz Rabbani
Shaykh Faraz Rabbani is a scholar and researcher of Islamic law and translator of several Arabic works to the English language. After ten years overseas, Shaykh Faraz returned to Canada in the Summer of 2007. In May 2008 he founded SeekersGuidance to deal with the urgent need to spread Islamic knowledge—both online and on the ground—in a reliable, relevant, inspiring, and accessible manner.