Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Assalam alaykum,
A vow was made thus “if I commit such and such a sin I will fast everyday”. I understand that if a person breaks such a vow they can either fufill the vow or do an expiation.My question is what intention does the person have when expiating? Also if one delays the expiation does the person have to fast everyday untill he fulfills the expiation?
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
I pray that you are in the best of health and faith, insha’Allah.
No, if you break the vow, what is subsequently due is either (a) the expiation for breaking an oath which is to feed or clothe ten poor persons, or to pay the monetary equivalent of that; or (b) the fulfilment of the vow itself. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; `Ala’ al-Din `Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-`Ala’iyya]
This is because the meaning in the statement uttered is one of preventing himself from something, a sin in this case, which is considered an oath, even though the outward purport of the wording was that of a vow.
The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Whoever makes a vow which he is unable to bear, then its expiation is the expiation for vitiating an oath. And if he makes a vow he is able to bear, then let him fulfil it.” [Abu Dawud]
Please also see: Fulfilling a Religious Vow (Nadhr) To Avoid a Sin
And Allah alone gives success.
في مراقي الفلاح: وأما إذا علق النذر مما لا يريد كونه كقوله إن كلمت زيدا فلله علي عتق رقبة ثم كلمه فإنه يتخير بين الوفاء بما نذره من العتق وبين كفارة يمين على الصحيح وهو المفتى به لقوله صلى الله عليه و سلم كفارة النذر كفارة اليمين
Checked & Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani